Motor Coordination and Its Importance in Practicing Performance Movement
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. The research Context and Aim
2.2. Research Process: Sample, Data, Variable, and Hypothesis
- A group of 60 students from the Kinesiotherapy and Special Motricity study program (KSM), who did not practice sports at the performance level but only for pleasure, but who did not have any medical prohibitions for practicing sports, participating in physical education classes in school, and occasionally practicing different sports (clinically healthy).
- A group of 60 students from the Performing Arts (Acting) (PA) study program, who, although they have not practiced movement at a high level, use movement constantly in the activity they carry out and have in their training exercises aimed to develop their coordination.
- A group of 60 students from the Sports and Motor Performance study program (SMP), performance athletes legitimized within a sports club, who participated in at least one National Championship organized in the territory of Romania by the resort federation (practitioners with at least 10 years of experience in the field of sports performance).
- Changing the different parameters of movement determined by the workspace of each student (here, we include in addition to his own workspace the position of the beginning or end of the movements, the execution tempo, the direction of travel, the variations in dynamics of movements, etc.).
- Hindering the execution of the movement by introducing additional, more static movement sequences to replace the large movements in the workrooms.
- Hindering the movement itself (using elastic bands, balls, weights, or other objects) to more clearly feel the muscles involved in that movement.
- The combination of movements as varied as possible.
- Exercises for the development of kinesthetic differentiation capacity, called mirror series, puppet play, and body modeling , which represent transitions of the body and its segments from one form of movement to another on precisely established routes, shapes, and amplitudes; repetition of a movement with acceleration or deceleration of execution, without losing the precision of technical execution; alternation of movements conducted with sway movements; alternation of movements with high execution speed with the execution of static positions (controlled maintenance of positions); alternation of movement—relaxation; execution of jumping in succession with the scheduled change in the height of the flight phase; working with the simulator with or without viewing the screen from the monitor (showing the route and the correctness of the execution). Mirror series are exercises that are worked in pairs or in groups and consist of imitating the movement of the partner with promptness and fidelity, without coming into direct contact with him, the point of concentration being on the partner. Puppet play is an individual or group exercise which consists of the construction with one’s own body of a doll mechanism and the putting of this mechanism in different working situations, the point of concentration being the maintenance of the mechanism of movement invented throughout the duration of the actions. Body modeling is an exercise performed with the help of a partner and consists of obtaining a prompt and unscheduled response to the direct action of a working partner, which, using one or more body segments, gives impulses of movement. In the online system, the third phase of the exercise was resorted to, in which the partner remotely proposes the impulse maneuver, to which it is answered with a recoil movement. The point of concentration was the preservation of the direction of movement imprinted by the partner in the movement elaborated in response. The performance achieved through these specific exercises leads to the improvement of movement accuracy and agility (coordination in speed mode).
- Exercises for developing the ability of spatial orientation known generically as dynamic games, and from these we chose the invisible substance, warming by motionless, and choose a part . These included movement games based on small movements, on different routes, accompanied by turns around the axis, with changes of planes and stops at fixed points; movements executed with the eyes closed; successions of turns with a stop at the signal and/or at a fixed point; and appreciation of the articular angles, distances, height of flight, of the trajectories of movement from one’s own execution (watched during the filming made), or in the execution of the colleagues (analyzing their videos). Invisible substance is a series of exercises that are worked on individually, in pairs, or in groups. The invisible substance consists of making movements using as varied dynamics as possible (fast movements, slow movements, stopped movements, jerky movements, etc.) and different shapes (round movements, sharp movements, swaying movements, falls and imbalances, etc.) imagining the space that would allow it to move and that has a different consistency. The moves were made on a soundtrack in accordance with the required dynamics. The point of concentration was the realization of dynamics, with the clear transition from one dynamic to another, at the teacher’s indication.
- Warming by motionless (individual exercise) consists of mobilizing a body segment or muscle without involving the movement of the body in space. This tension is achieved at the indication received from the teacher. The point of concentration was the maintenance of a constant tension in the indicated segment. Choose a part consists of dividing the students into subgroups, each subgroup moving with different dynamics, for which it must have a justification (for example, subgroup 1 goes through sand on the beach, subgroup 2 swims in the sea, and subgroup 3 flies). The important thing is that each subgroup reacts as if it were interacting (although the interaction is only visual through the computer) and that everyone keeps their dynamics and does not let themselves be influenced by what they see in their partners. The point of concentration was the preservation of movement dynamics. The performance achieved through these exercises was reflected in the development of reaction speed and active mobility.
- Exercises for the development of the capacity of temporal orientation generically titled rhythmic games, based on synchronizing the sequences of movements and repeating them at the same pace, increasing the rhythm or decreasing it and integrating successions of motion structures into the music. Rhythmic games are exercises that are worked individually, in pairs, or in groups and consist of the realization of motor skills (walking, running, jumping, pulling, hitting, or pushing), optionally accompanied by noises, at the instructions of the teacher or a group leader who imprints the rhythm of execution of the movements. One of the working variants used is the following: on a sound background, the rhythm of the song is taken, and the movement is transmitted from one body segment to another, without losing the imposed rhythm. The point of concentration was maintaining the imposed pace or entering with complementary rhythms above the basic rhythm.
- Exercises for the development of the equilibrium capacity, which, in the area of theatrical pedagogy, are called part of a whole, three changes, juggling with large objects, physicality of an object, and exercises of category application routes . These include various displacements, with the use of motor skills and the maintenance of some positions permanently modifying the conditions of execution (decreasing or increasing the support surface, increasing the mobility of the support surface, and changing the height of the center of gravity relative to the support surface); maintaining equilibrium positions; moving from one equilibrium position to another equilibrium position without intermediaries steps; execution of turns or acrobatic movements (rolls, upheavals, boards in different directions, etc.) completed by steady movements with support on one leg or another body part; executing movements or maintaining steady positions without visual cues (with your eyes closed). Part of a whole consists of constructing from the students’ bodies a mechanism that must be set in motion. It can start from anything: machines, abstract mechanisms, constellations in the universe, statuary groups, a flower, an animal, or the cells of the human body. The difficulty was remote collaboration and synchronization without physical interaction. The point of concentration was to keep the mechanism in balance and its functioning through synchronization with colleagues. Three changes are an individual exercise that consists of using an empty container (a bottle, glass, bucket, etc.) filled with water (or sand) and working with the object in its absence. Different actions are done that are repeated three times in the three variants listed above. The point of focus was establishing the weight of the object and how the existence of this object influences the movement.
- Presentation of the sample
- Actual execution of the sample
- All subjects of the three groups have developed basic motor skills. Moreover, the training program includes them, and these are essential for motor coordination and control of the body.
- All the subjects from PA practice dance, and of those from SMP, there are 14 subjects who practice martial arts, 9 subjects who practice expressive sports of dance and gymnastics, and another 27 who practice ball sports games; practicing these activities involves complex and detailed movements that require precision and fine control and lead to improved fine motor control.
- All the sports activities practiced by the subjects from SMP, but also the activities specific to the interpretive art practiced by the subjects from PA, increase the cognitive capacity, including attention, concentration, and working memory, which can improve the ability to coordinate movements.
- Physical and sports activities (for example, gymnastics) practiced by the subjects of the three groups require a good balance and correct positioning, and these improve the ability to coordinate movements.
- Athletes who do not have strong automatisms because of the practiced sport can be more open to the development of new coordination skills, without interfering with the previous patterns created on account of the sports activity practiced. They are not based on previous motor experiences, and the most conclusive example we find is when testing footballers, where the cordoning test is successful, as athletes do not use their hands constantly in the game of football, the movement predominantly used being that of the foot.
- Athletes with strong automatisms have difficulty learning and performing the new skills they are trying to develop. Because of the high-level automatism, the athlete’s brain can perform the same movements for coordination exercises, which will lead to errors and difficulties in learning new skills.
6. Strengths and Limitations
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Study Program and Year||Total of Successful Tests||Successes 1 out of 3 Tests||Successes 2 out of 3 Tests||Successes 3 out of 3 Tests|
|Difference between year I and year III||5%||0%||1.67%||3.34%|
|Difference between year I and year III||25.00%||3.33%||11.67%||10.00%|
|Difference between year I and year III||8.33%||6.67%||1.66%||0%|
|Sports and Motor Performance—SMP||Kinesiotherapy and Special Motricity—KSM||Performing Arts (Acting)—PA|
|First year of study||Third year of study||First year of study||Third year of study||First year of study||Third year of study|
|180 students||128 students||180 students||153 students||98 students||60 students|
|The percentages achieved on thethree groups tested|
|Percentages achieved on the entire test|
|Confidence Level (95.0%)||0.13||0.13||0.13||0.13||0.13||0.11||0.12||0.13||0.13|
|Hypothesized Mean Difference||0|
|P(T ≤ t) one-tail||0.009256|
|t Critical one-tail||1.65787|
|P(T ≤ t) two-tail||0.018513|
|t Critical two-tail||1.980272|
|Hypothesized Mean Difference||0|
|P(T≤ t) one-tail||0.084338|
|t Critical one-tail||1.65787|
|P(T≤ t) two-tail||0.168677|
|t Critical two-tail||1.980272|
|Reflexive Construct||Composite Reliability||Cronbach’s Alpha||AVE||Rho_A||R Square|
|Mean||St. dev.||T Stat||p Values||Path Coefficient|
|Motric → Performance||0.426||0.490||2.752||0.006||0.426|
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Iorga, A.; Jianu, A.; Gheorghiu, M.; Crețu, B.D.; Eremia, I.-A. Motor Coordination and Its Importance in Practicing Performance Movement. Sustainability 2023, 15, 5812. https://doi.org/10.3390/su15075812
Iorga A, Jianu A, Gheorghiu M, Crețu BD, Eremia I-A. Motor Coordination and Its Importance in Practicing Performance Movement. Sustainability. 2023; 15(7):5812. https://doi.org/10.3390/su15075812Chicago/Turabian Style
Iorga, Anca, Anca Jianu, Mircea Gheorghiu, Bogdana Darie Crețu, and Irina-Anca Eremia. 2023. "Motor Coordination and Its Importance in Practicing Performance Movement" Sustainability 15, no. 7: 5812. https://doi.org/10.3390/su15075812