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Article

Effect of Fine Aggregates and Mineral Fillers on the Permanent Deformation of Hot Mix Asphalt

1
Department of Civil Engineering, Sarhad University of Science and Information Technology, Peshawar 25000, Pakistan
2
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, College of Engineering and Architecture, University of Nizwa, Birkat-al-Mouz, Nizwa 616, Oman
3
Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of New Brunswick, Frederiction, NB E3B 5A3, Canada
4
Department of Road Transport, Faculty of Transport and Aviation Engineering, Silesian University of Technology, 40-019 Katowice, Poland
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2023, 15(13), 10646; https://doi.org/10.3390/su151310646
Submission received: 18 May 2023 / Revised: 26 June 2023 / Accepted: 28 June 2023 / Published: 6 July 2023

Abstract

:
Conventional asphalt pavement is the dominant mode of passenger and freight traffic in Pakistan. As a result, asphalt pavements suffer from various failures, where rutting, corrugation, and fatigue cracking are significant. Fine aggregates and mineral fillers play a pivotal role in providing structural integrity in asphalt pavements when subjected to traffic and the environment. The current study aims to examine the effects of various locally accessible fine aggregate and mineral filler materials on the interlocking properties of asphalt mixtures in relation to internal friction angle, rutting resistance, and controlling environmental pollution as an indirect benefit, thereby reducing wastes. Four distinct asphalt samples were prepared using cinders, stone dust, natural sand, and surkhi as fine aggregates and mineral fillers, as a full replacement, as per ASTM D1559, confirming the Asphalt Institute’s gradation for asphalt wearing course. Optimum binder contents (OBC) of 4.40%, 4.1%, 6.57%, and 6.63% by weight of Marshall specimen were concluded for asphalt samples containing stone dust, natural sand, cinder, and surkhi, respectively. The results revealed that surkhi, natural sand, stone dust, and cinder all showed a diminishing tendency in developing interlocking properties in asphalt mixtures at internal friction angles of 35°, 33.7°, 32°, and 28.4°, respectively. The wheel tracking test results revealed that the asphalt samples made with surkhi as fine aggregates and fillers have the highest rut resistance, whereas samples made with cinders as fine aggregates and fillers have the lowest rut resistance. The direct shear test showed that fine aggregates with a larger angle of internal friction are significantly more stable in terms of rut resistance than fine aggregates with a smaller angle of internal friction. The current research will help to prevent pavement rutting and corrugation by adding surkhi into asphalt pavements, with the reduction in brick kiln waste providing an indirect benefit.

1. Introduction

As per existing practice in Pakistan, traditional asphalt pavements, after serving their purpose, are destroyed and dumped at the side of the road or scattered throughout nearby fields. This practice not only wastes natural resources, but also harms the ecosystem. Saturates, aromatics, resins, and asphaltenes (SARA) are substances that are released when bitumen oxidizes as a result of exposure to the environment and traffic. The main goal of using cinder and surkhi, as a supplement of stone dust, is not only to create environmentally friendly pavements but also to lessen environmental pollution by reducing the emission of SARA components as a result of the inclusion of the aforementioned fillers in hot mix asphalt. In comparison to other traditional asphalt building materials, cinder and surkhi have considerable sustainability advantages. These advantages include strength, durability, tolerance to extreme weather, and risks like fire, thermal stress, recyclability, and local availability. The pavement industry has been searching for effective strategies to improve construction methods, enhance pavement performance, preserve depleting natural resources, and keep the environment safe [1]. Fine aggregate is one of the critical components in asphaltic concrete mixes, and modifying its proportion significantly alters the rheological properties of the resulting materials [2]. Over the decades, natural resources have been fulfilling construction needs throughout the world, but with the fast-paced development of construction, the scarcity of natural resources has become a matter of big concern [3,4]. The usage of natural resources at an alarming rate is also damaging the environment [5]. These factors have led the researchers to work on improving alternate building materials, keeping in mind the ever-increasing vehicle loads. Vehicle loads like superheavy loads (SHL) and overweight loads (OW) are increasing on a daily basis on the roads. Therefore, the pavement industry needs to adopt new methods to improve road performance without jeopardizing the pavement’s performance [6,7]. Asphalt is commonly used as a versatile organic mixture for constructing road and airport pavements because of its favorable viscoelastic properties [8]. Due to the numerous uses of asphalt, there are associated problems with asphalt like creep, slippage, and rutting, among others. Therefore, the hot mix asphalt (HMA) pavement needs to be resistant to these problems [9]. Rutting, a form of permanent deformation, is a prevalent and persistent issue in road pavements that cannot be fully prevented through standard maintenance practices [10]. Asphalt pavements are vulnerable to rutting as a result of the growing use of large vehicles, increased traffic, and overloading problems. Rutting reduces the serviceability of the roads, which reduces driving comfort and pavement quality [11]. Vehicles can slide on roads due to the presence of water that has accumulated in the ruts, which consequently increases the possibility of accidents [12]. The load-induced stresses generated at the top layer can be distributed to the underneath layer of the road through the application of HMA, and it also serves as a protective layer from water. Therefore, asphalt must be resistant against weather effects, cracking under loads, and permanent deformation. As the reconstruction of pavement defects is expensive, various prevention techniques that are sustainable and economically sound must be used [13].
Among several other factors, rutting is caused by shear flow and material densification at high temperatures under slow-moving, repeated traffic [14] out of nine identified causes that play a deciding role in rutting, starting in the pavements. The fundamental material that increases susceptibility to rutting is aggregate material [15]. The fundamental mechanism of rutting is due to the shear deformation at high temperatures that happens in all of the road structure’s contributing layers that show effects on the pavement’s top surface [16]. Research has demonstrated that repeated traffic loads lead to the accumulation of strain in asphalt binders, resulting in rutting. The analysis of rutting in asphalt pavements remains challenging due to the viscoelastic damage properties of asphalt, as well as the impact of external factors such as temperature and load [17]. In practice, the quality of asphaltic pavements is evaluated using the air–void ratio and the degree of compaction (DOC). That is, no satisfactory relation between the performance of asphalt pavements and the air–void ratio can be adequately established to measure road network performance. Some construction companies use the DOC as an indicator to reflect anti-rutting, but it cannot adequately predict the performance of asphaltic pavement during its inspection phase of design and construction methods [18]. In other words, there is an absence of a satisfactory laboratory procedure that could accurately define pavement performance [19]. Various laboratory methods are employed for the practical assessment of rutting in asphalt pavements, such as repeated load permanent deformation (RLPD), dynamic modulus (DM), flow number (FN), and Hamburg wheel tracking test (HWTT) [20]. In the past, there has been an increasing trend toward the need for modified asphalt binders, which has led all the transportation bodies in the United States to introduce test specifications for asphalt binders [21]. Optimizing the performance of hot mix asphalt (HMA) requires the modification of asphalt binder properties. Consequently, the evaluation of pavement performance through asphalt pavement studies becomes essential [22].
Numerous investigations have been carried out in previous studies to alter the mechanical and rheological attributes of asphalt binders, with the goal of mitigating the impact of rutting without compromising the pavement’s functionality. This can be accomplished by incorporating filler in the asphalt mixes. Filler is a type of fine aggregate that passes through the sieve at 0.075 mm and constitutes up to 12% by weight in asphalt mixes [23]. Presently, limestone ore is the most commonly used filler; however, many fillers can be used [24]. As a filler, fine aggregate plays a deciding role in the performance evaluation of asphalt mixes. Rut resistance is believed to improve in the presence of aggregate grading, which makes the performance of asphalt mixes highly dependent on fine aggregates [25]. In order to investigate the influence of incorporating mining sand and quarry sand into asphalt concrete mixtures, a comprehensive experimental program including a wheel tracking test and fatigue beam test was conducted. It was found that quarry sand had a higher fine aggregate angularity (FAA) index than mining sand, indicating that quarry sand proved to be more resistant to rutting and fatigue in pavements [26]. The performance analysis of the styrene-ethylene/propylene-styrene (SEPS) nanocomposite filler was conducted using the multiple stress creep and recovery (MSCR) test and dynamic shear rheometer (DSR) test. The rutting potential was tested using a dynamic creep test (DCT) at varying temperatures. It was concluded from MSCR that the introduction of SEPS increased the percentage of strain that could be recovered. Also, DCT indicated that the SEPS specimen of asphalt had fewer rutting phenomena; however, with the increase in temperature, the resistance to rutting was reduced [27]. Similarly, another study used 10%, 15%, and 20% rubber in asphalt mixes to study the effect of rubber (styrene-butadiene and crumb) in asphalt. The results indicated that 10% and 15% showed increased resistance toward fatigue and rutting, respectively [28]. The waste from the marble quarry was used to study the effects of asphalt mixes. Multiple aggregate tests were carried out to assess the filler properties of marble waste. It was concluded that these wastes positively affect the performance of asphalt and can be used as aggregates in light to medium traffic volume pavements [29]. The effects of incorporating granite sludge as a filler material in bituminous asphalt mixes were investigated using Marshall and indirect tensile tests. The study revealed that the addition of 7.3% granite sludge could enhance the properties of asphalt mixes. Consequently, the utilization of natural resources like aggregate in reduced amounts may be employed, thereby promoting eco-friendly asphalt production processes [30]. Recycled fine aggregate powder (RFAP) was used as filler in place of traditional limestone powder in asphalt mixes. Experimental results indicated that RFAP improves the fatigue resistance of asphalt pavement but reduces its performance at low temperatures, making it a better material for pavements in hot regions [31].
The study evaluated the use of palm oil clinker (POC) as a substitute for fine aggregates in mastic asphalt mixes. Results showed that incorporating POC at 40–60% improved resistance to rutting, stiffness, moisture damage, and tensile strength. The findings suggest that POC can be a suitable alternative to conventional fine aggregates, reducing environmental impact and enhancing pavement performance. There were no significant changes in the porosity of traditional fine aggregate asphalt samples, and POC replaced fine aggregate asphalt samples [32]. The study investigated the use of a combination of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and carbonized wood particles (CWP) as a replacement for fine aggregates in hot mix asphalt (HMA) at different weight percentages. The findings showed that CWP can be used as a substitute for fine aggregates in HMA up to a maximum of 18% with PET levels of 5% to 10% while adhering to the mix design protocols [33]. Some recycled construction waste materials, like red brick, marble, and ceramic, were used as filler in asphalt mixtures. The marble waste showed superior performance at low and high temperatures when added to 25% of asphaltic mixes compared to redbrick and ceramic wastes [34]. The effect of the fineness of hydrated lime addition in asphalt mixes was analyzed using # 400 mesh. The surface-free energy method was used to evaluate the results. It was found that asphalt stiffness, adhesiveness, and viscosity increase with fineness. The optimum hydrated lime content that should be added to achieve maximum performance was found to be 5% of the asphalt weight [35]. The known factors that affect anti-rut performance, like air void, wheel load, asphalt dosage, and temperature, were analyzed. The anti-rust property first increased and then decreased when there was an increase in wheel load, air void, and asphalt dosage. Similarly, it was also observed that asphalt dosage and temperature were prime reasons for lowering the rut strength. Air voids were classified as a second reason, while wheel loads had a small effect on anti-rut performance [36]. A paraffin waste product called amorphous carbon was used as a filler to improve fatigue and rutting resistance. For this purpose, the Hamburg wheel test, fatigue test, and dynamic creep tests were performed. The experimental data revealed that a 50% addition by weight of total AC powder would improve rut resistance in asphalt binders [37].
Table 1 shows the recent research work that has been carried out to improve pavement performance in terms of rutting resistance, stiffness, tensile strength, load bearing at high temperatures, waterproofing, and altering several other properties in asphalt mixes using fillers.
An experiment controlling the asphalt film thickness was designed in order to establish a relationship between asphalt film thickness and molding load. The shear test was carried out to study the behavior of the failure mechanism at the interface between aggregate and asphalt under different binder films. It was concluded that an inadequate asphalt binder film thickness at the interface is responsible for shear failure. It was also reported that the asphalt binder film on the aggregate surface in compacted asphalt mixture is the source of cohesion and adhesion, thereby affecting bonding performance in terms of durability of asphalt mixtures [58,59].
In Pakistan, asphalt pavements are produced using the Marshall mix design, and the bitumen is chosen using some conventionally established tests including penetration, flash and fire point, and softening point. In the summer, the air becomes as hot as 45 degrees Celsius. The pavement is 20 degrees Celsius hotter than the surrounding air. Therefore, the pavement temperature is close to 65 degrees Celsius, which is much higher than bitumen’s softening point. Therefore, bitumen bleeding, rutting, showing, and corrugation are the common problems seen in Pakistan.
Therefore, the current study was aimed at investigating the compatibility of bitumen and stone dust, sand, surkhi, and cinder, relating to rutting in the asphalt mixture. Rutting in a stone dust-modified asphalt mixture may be due to the low internal friction provided by the fine aggregate, as internal friction is much more significant than cohesion in coping with the permanent deformation in the early ages of pavement, as per the Asphalt Institute method.
Rutting is the most observed failure in conventional flexible pavements where stone dust is used as a fine and filler material in asphalt mix design, particularly in Pakistan. The scope of the current study is to investigate premature failures like rutting, corrugation, and fatigue cracking of asphalt pavements, and their analysis using materials employed for road construction in Pakistan. The reason for selecting Pakistan is due to the considerable rise in traffic volume day by day. This study is based on the performance of asphalt mixtures that have been altered with various types of locally available fine aggregates and mineral fillers like cinder, surkhi, and natural sand, and to find the optimum binder content (OBC) for asphalt mixtures that have been modified with natural sand, surkhi, and cinder, as well as looking at how these fine aggregates and mineral fillers affect rut resistance in terms of friction angle of the asphalt mixtures.

2. Materials

2.1. Bitumen

The Attock refinery in Pakistan provided 60–70 penetration grade bitumen, an extensively employed binder with positive outcomes. Table 2 provides a detailed description of the specified bitumen.

2.2. Aggregate

Limestone from the Margalla Hills is the area’s main aggregate source. For use in subbase, base, and surface courses, the Margalla is currently the best coarse aggregate source. Stone dust, a fine powder produced as a by-product of rock crushing, is also used in the construction of highways as a filler and binding substance. The specified aggregate is described in Table 3.

3. Research Methodology

The study’s methodology is presented in Figure 1, which outlines three phases. The first phase involved the characterization of coarse aggregate, fine aggregate, and filler, which included stone dust, surkhi, cinder, sand, and bitumen. The standard index qualities were identified for each of these materials. The second phase consisted of a Marshall mix design using various binder contents to determine the optimum binder content for each mineral grain. The conventional and modified asphalt mixtures were prepared using the Marshall process outlined in ASTM D1559 [71]. A total of 60 specimens were made and stored in water at 60 °C for an hour before testing. The flow and stability values were then determined using the Marshall Tester. The third phase involved the testing of 12 specimens for rut resistance using a wheel tracking machine. The Marshall specimens were created by compacting the mold with a 4-inch diameter and 2.5-inch thickness with 75 blows of the conventional Marshall hammer on each side of the sample at a time. The flow chart presented in Figure 1 provides a detailed overview of the process followed in this study, which was conducted at the Highway and Transportation Engineering Laboratory of the University of Taxila and Sarhad University in Pakistan.
Brick dust, known as surkhi, was obtained from a nearby brick kiln for an average cost that was far lower than the price of stone dust in Pakistan. The usage of surkhi helps prevent environmental damage by reducing pollutants and energy needed in the extraction of stone dust. The temperature of ordinary asphalt is 20 degrees Celsius greater than the normal air temperature when exposed to the environment. Surkhi-modified asphalt concrete, however, reduces thermal strains and, as a result, pavement failures by lowering pavement’s surface temperature. This is due to the fact that surkhi is less heat-sensitive when asphalt concrete is exposed to traffic and the environment.

Gradation

The aggregate blend was created according to the National Highway Authority (NHA), Pakistan’s (1998) gradation for Class-A asphalt wearing course with a grain size distribution curve, shown as follows in Figure 2.

4. Results and Discussion

4.1. Hydrometer Analysis

The particle size of materials passing through sieve # 200 has a significant impact on the interlocking properties of particles in the asphalt mix, and the following graphs (Figure 3) show the particle size distribution of mineral fillers, i.e., materials of the mix passing through sieve # 200, which was conducted through hydrometer analysis, following the ASTM D7928 standard procedure.
Hydrometer analysis was carried out to find the average size of mineral fillers (particles passing through sieve # 200) and also to study its effect on the stability and rutting performance of asphalt mixture. The findings revealed that more than 80% of the stone dust particles, passing through sieve # 200, are 0.038 mm and 0.028 mm in size, respectively. However, the average particle size of natural sand and surkhi are in the range of 0.039 mm and 0.029 mm, respectively, which is almost greater in size than conventionally used mineral fillers of stone dust, which consequently affect rut resistance of the asphalt mixture.
Surkhi, when used as a fine aggregate and mineral filler, showed 37% higher rut resistance with an average rut depth of 2.79 mm, compared to conventional asphalt mixtures, with an average rut depth of 4.45 mm. In comparison, cinders showed 56% less rut resistance compared to the conventional asphalt mixture with an average rut depth of 6.96 mm.

4.2. Marshall Stability and Flow Test

Table 4, Table 5, Table 6 and Table 7 and Figure 4 provide the volumetric characteristics of a typical mix design. For each of the following materials: stone dust (SD), natural sand (NS), cinder (CN), and surkhi (SR), an OBC of 4.40, 4.1, 6.57, and 6.63, respectively, was determined. The mixtures achieved the required flow under the design conditions and the lowest stability criteria of 8.0 KN. In that order, the VMA, VFA, and VTM all met the requirements of the 14% (minimum), 65% to 75%, and 3 to 5% standards.

4.3. Measuring Angle of Internal Friction

Due to greater temperatures and significant axle loads, rutting is the most frequent type of failure seen on flexible pavements in Pakistan. As per the Asphalt Institute methodology, the fine aggregates play a crucial role in providing internal friction and thereby resistance to permanent deformation in asphalt mixtures. According to the National Highway Authority (NHA), Pakistan’s Class-A specifications, the shear test for the fine portion of aggregates, or 2.36 mm down size, was conducted. The Direct shear test with a shear box diameter of 5 cm is sufficient for the fine particles, according to ASTM D3080/AASHTO T 236. AASHTO TP 114-17 describes specific experiments that can be used to determine the interface shear strength of asphalt, but have no access to those facilities. For this reason, the direct shear test was selected to determine how the fine component of the mix’s internal friction angle affected the asphalt concrete mixture’s ability to resist rutting. To determine the values of shear stresses at the point at which samples fail in shear, that is, at a threshold lateral displacement of 9 mm, a 50 mm diameter sample (minimum sample diameter) was used in a shear box along with four normal stresses of magnitude 50 KN/m2, 100 KN/m2, 150 KN/m2, and 200 KN/m2 respectively, as shown in Figure 5.
Figure 5a shows the graph between normal stress (x-axis) and shear stress (y-axis) at failure plane for stone dust at four different trails of loadings, i.e., normal stresses of 50 KPa, 100 KPa, 150 KPa, and 200 KPa, and shear stresses for the corresponding four trails noted from the direct shear apparatus. The slope of the line gives the angle of internal friction ø which is equal to 32° for stone dust. Similarly, Figure 5b–d show the graphs for calculating angle of internal frictions ø for natural sand, surkhi, and cinder, and their results come out as 33.7°, 35°, and 28.3°, respectively. The findings reveal that surkhi gives the highest value of angle of internal friction ø which has a great effect on the rut resistance of asphalt samples when surkhi is used as fine aggregates and mineral fillers in asphalt mixtures.

4.4. Rut Resistance

Four distinct types of asphalt mixtures containing stone dust, natural sand, surkhi, and coal cinders as fine aggregates and fillers were tested for rutting performance using a wheel tracker device. All samples underwent testing under controlled conditions at a temperature of 60 °C, 10,000 passes of a standard wheel, and recording of the rut depth after 10,000 passes. Three samples of each mix design for cinder, stone dust, sand, and surkhi were prepared for rut resistance. Thus, the total number of samples rose to 12. Table 8 and Figure 6 show the average results of rut depth versus 10,000 passes of the wheel tracking machine for four different samples. For several types of fine aggregate under standard conditions of a temperature at 60 °C, graphs depict the results of a wheel tracking test between rut depth (Y-axis with negative values showing depth) and several passes in the thousands (X-axis). To assess the performance of fine aggregates, four different types of samples were used, one with a conventional mixture of stone dust as fine aggregate, and the other three with modified samples in which the fine aggregates and fillers were replaced with natural sand, coal cinders, and surkhi (brick dust) (all portions passing sieve # 8), respectively.
According to Table 8 and Figure 6, utilizing surkhi as fine aggregates and fillers resulted in the lowest rut depth after 10,000 passes (4.87 mm), whereas using coal cinders resulted in the maximum rut depth after 10,000 passes (13.35 mm). After 10,000 passes, rut depths of 7.71 mm and 6.69 mm were revealed in conventional mixes with stone dust as fine aggregates and natural sand as fine aggregates, respectively.
The higher rut resistance afforded by surkhi and sand when asphalt pavement is subjected to traffic is due to the fact that surkhi and natural sand are more effective at developing superior interlocking properties in asphalt mixtures. However, the maximum rut depth created by coal cinder is 13.35 mm, which is the reason why asphalt has low rut resistance or poor interlocking properties when exposed to traffic. It can be seen that sand and surkhi perform better in producing structural integrity in asphalt mixtures than stone dust and cinder, thereby minimizing pavement failures including rutting, showing, and corrugation.

5. Conclusions

Investigation on the performance of fine aggregates and mineral fillers in hot mix asphalt was carried out using Marshall mix design and performance-based experiments. The following conclusions have been drawn:
The industrial wastes, when used as a fine aggregate and mineral filler, proved to be the best modifier in asphalt mixture in terms of rut resistance and Marshall stability compared to conventional asphalt mixtures.
  • The optimum binder contents for asphalt mixtures modified with surkhi, natural sand, stone dust, and cinders as fine aggregates and mineral fillers were concluded to be 6.6%, 4.1%, 4.4%, and 6.5%, respectively.
  • The angles of internal friction affected the structural integrity of asphalt samples to prevent rutting. Surkhi, sand, stone dust, and cinder all exhibited a declining tendency in their interlocking property at angles of internal frictions of 35°, 33.7°, 32°, and 28.4°, respectively.
  • More than 80% of the stone dust particles passing through sieve # 200 have average sizes of 0.038 mm and 0.028 mm, respectively, whereas natural sand and surkhi have average sizes of 0.039 mm and 0.029 mm, respectively.
  • Surkhi showed 37% higher rut resistance with an average rut depth of 2.79 mm when used as fine aggregate and mineral filler compared to conventional asphalt mixture with an average rut depth of 4.45 mm. In comparison, cinders showed 56% less rut resistance when compared to conventional asphalt mixtures with an average rut depth of 6.96 mm.

Author Contributions

Conceptualization and investigation, N.K. and F.K.; methodology, N.K. and F.K.; software, M.B.A.R.; validation, M.B.A.R. and Q.B.A.I.L.Q.; writing—original draft preparation, N.K., F.K. and D.K.; writing—review and editing and supervision, N.K. and F.K., D.K, S.A.M., M.B.A.R. and M.S.K.; funding acquisition, Q.B.A.I.L.Q. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.

Funding

The article processing charges (APC) of this project are funded by TRC research project BFP/RGP/EI/21/041 University of Nizwa, OMAN.

Institutional Review Board Statement

Not applicable.

Informed Consent Statement

Not applicable.

Data Availability Statement

All the relevant date is available with in the article.

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to acknowledge the joint support of Sarhad University of Science and Technology, Peshawar, KPK, Pakistan, University of Nizwa, OMAN, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, Canada, and Silesian University of Technology, Katowice, Poland.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

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Figure 1. Flowchart showing research methodology.
Figure 1. Flowchart showing research methodology.
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Figure 2. Grain size distribution curve of selected aggregate blends.
Figure 2. Grain size distribution curve of selected aggregate blends.
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Figure 3. Sieve and hydrometer analysis of fine aggregate and mineral filler, (a) stone dust, (b) natural sand, and (c) Surkhi.
Figure 3. Sieve and hydrometer analysis of fine aggregate and mineral filler, (a) stone dust, (b) natural sand, and (c) Surkhi.
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Figure 4. Avg. stability vs. type of fine aggregates.
Figure 4. Avg. stability vs. type of fine aggregates.
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Figure 5. Relation between the angle of internal friction, and fine aggregate and mineral filler, (a) stone dust, (b) natural sand, (c) cinder, (d) surkhi.
Figure 5. Relation between the angle of internal friction, and fine aggregate and mineral filler, (a) stone dust, (b) natural sand, (c) cinder, (d) surkhi.
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Figure 6. Relation between rut depth and number of passes.
Figure 6. Relation between rut depth and number of passes.
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Table 1. Materials used as mineral filler in hot mix asphalt.
Table 1. Materials used as mineral filler in hot mix asphalt.
ReferenceFiller TypeTechniques
(Choudhary et al., 2020); [38]Copper tailingIt displayed improved adhesion and superior resistance against moisture damage. Similarly, resistance against cracking, rutting, long-term aging, and higher performance of stability were observed.
(Sharaf et al., 2021); [39]Activated date seedHMA using 7%, 10%, and 15% of activated date seed had the highest stability, retained strength, and flow value, respectively.
(Fathi and Gabriel; 2021); [40]Natural desert sand (NDC)Using NDC does not change the quality of HMA. Also, B 60/70 asphalt with NDC results in permanent deformation.
(Saeed, 2021); [41]Pulp aramid fiber (PAF)Incorporating 0.3% of Polyacrylonitrile Fiber (PF) into asphalt mixes showed improvements in the low-temperature and fatigue performance of the asphalt mixes.
(Guilherme et al., 2021); [42]FiberglassThe fiberglass asphalt mixture exhibited better mechanical properties and fatigue life compared to conventional asphalt mixes. Therefore, it can be considered a potential alternative to conventional asphalt mixes in pavement construction.
(Demei Yu et al., 2021); [43]Green bamboo fibers (BFs)The insertion of BFs into asphalt mixes increased their stability and tensile properties. The asphalt mixture and the BFs formed an interfacial adhesion.
(Choudhary et al., 2021); [44]Brick dust (BD), concrete dust (CD), glass powder (GP), limestone dust (LD)The cracking and rut resistance increased. CD and LD in asphalt showed improved moisture resistance. LD and BD were found to be environmentally friendly and economically sound.
(Pinhui et al., 2021); [45]Imidazoline surfactant (IMDL)It does not alter the physical properties of the asphalt. However, it reduced the contact between the aggregate and asphalt and significantly reduced the mixing temperature of the asphalt. Also, there is the potential to improve mixes at high temperatures.
(Khaled et al., 2021); [46]Steel slag aggregateSteel slag aggregate improved Marshall stability more than fine slag aggregate. Slag aggregate improved the resistance of the asphalt mix in terms of deformation as compared to the controlled mix.
(Aljubory et al., 2021); [47]Cellulose fibers (CF)There was no volumetric difference in the results. However, the method of preparation was more sensitive, using CF-asphalt mixtures. The wet method improved the asphalt aggregate mixture of one aggregate sample, and the dry method improved other properties of the different aggregate samples.
(Albayati et al., 2020); [48]Natural sand content (NSC)The study revealed that asphalt mixes with a high nominal maximum size aggregate (NSC) are vulnerable to rutting and moisture damage and exhibit a lower resilient modulus, whereas fatigue resistance slightly improves.
(Mohammadreza et al., 2021); [49]Waste incinerated acidic sludge ash (IASA)IASA increased rutting resistance and improved moisture sensitivity resistance performance. IASA increased the resilient modulus of the mix.
(Du et al., 2021); [50]Steel fiberThe thermal conductivity of asphaltic materials was improved by 15.2%. It also improved the low-temperature and fatigue performance of asphalt.
(Mohsen and Mohebali., 2020); [51]CalciteIt creates high adhesion properties in asphalt. Covering hydrophilic aggregates prevents the penetration of water.
(Asif Nawaz et al., 2019); [52]Reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP)Marshall stability increases by up to 40% with the addition of RAP compared to conventional mixes; however, using more than 40% RAP will decrease flow and produce stress upon loading.
(Aizaz Ali et al., 2020); [53]Polymeric wasteA percentage of 5–20% polymeric waste improved rut resistance; however, a percentage greater than 20% decreased rut resistance.
(Sameer Mufti et al., 2020); [54]Rejuvenators like wasteengine oil (WEO), waste vegetable oil (WVO), waste brown grease (WBG)There is a decrease in softening, flash, and fire points as the percentage of rejuvenators added increases. These rejuvenators increase the ductility and penetration of asphalt as the percentage of rejuvenators grows.
(Aftab et al., 2020); [55]Reclaimed asphalt pavementMixing 60% of RAP aggregate with virgin aggregate will improve the Marshall stability, and the indirect tensile strength of 60% aged aggregate is high compared to 100% virgin aggregate.
(Dulaimi et al., 2020); [56]Calcium carbide residue (CCR)CCR improved the prevention and containment of the cracks produced in asphalt pavement. It also improved the stiffness and rut resistance of the asphalt binder.
(Min Ju et al., 2020); [56]Tire-derived fuel fly ashImproved the mechanical properties of HMA and reduced the volume of the environmental waste produced.
(Dalhat et al., 2020); [57]Chicken feather (CF)The use of unprocessed CF in asphalt mixtures improved the stiffness and stability of the mixtures. Addition of 0.3% unprocessed CF showed improvement in stiffness and Marshall stability. Similarly, a 0.15% addition of CF to asphalt concrete mixes improved rutting and moisture resistance.
Table 2. Characterization of 60–70 pen. grade Bitumen.
Table 2. Characterization of 60–70 pen. grade Bitumen.
Test DescriptionReferenceValue
Flashpoint (°C)ASTM D92 [60]288
Fire point (°C)ASTM D92 [60]303
Ductility (cm)ASTM D113 [61]114.5
Softening point (°C)ASTM D36 [62]49.5
Penetration (25 °C, 1/10th of mm) ASTM D5 [63]61
Viscosity (135 °C), (Pa·s)ASTM D-4402 [64]0.36
Viscosity at 165 °C, (Pa·s)ASTM D-4402 [64]0.16
Table 3. Characterization of Margalla aggregate.
Table 3. Characterization of Margalla aggregate.
Test Description and ReferenceResultsSpecification Limits
Elongation index EI (%), ASTM D4791 [65]3.290≤15%
Flakiness index FI (%), BS 933-3 [66]11.3≤15%
Water absorption of coarse aggregate (%), ASTM C127 [67]0.71≤3%
Water absorption of fine aggregate (%), ASTM C127 [67]2.51≤3%
Aggregates’ impact value (%), BS-812 [68]9.5≤30%
Los Angeles abrasion (%), ASTM C131 [69]18.5≤30%
Specific gravity of coarse aggregates, ASTM C127 [67]2.6322.5–3.0
Specific gravity of fine aggregates, ASTM C128 [70]
Stone dust
Natural sand
Surkhi
Cinder
2.6192.5–3.0
2.627
2.532
2.147
Table 4. Asphalt mixture’s design parameters using stone dust.
Table 4. Asphalt mixture’s design parameters using stone dust.
SpecimenSymbolType of Fine
Aggregate
Mix Design VolumetricsOBC (%)
Asphalt binder by total mix, %PbStone dust3.544.555.54.4
Bulk specific gravity of compacted mixtureGmb2.3412.3692.3742.3632.352
Theoretical specific gravity of loose mixtureGmm2.4532.4782.4762.4842.533
Air voids in total mixture, %VTM4.5423.7713.9645.1826.735
Voids in mineral aggregate, %VMA14.82614.2514.52215.35716.144
Voids filled with asphalt, %VFA69.44773.55472.66366.21258.345
Stability, KNS7.468.138.838.517.33
Flow, mmF3.62.92.43.24.4
Table 5. Asphalt mixture’s design parameters using surkhi.
Table 5. Asphalt mixture’s design parameters using surkhi.
SpecimenSymbolType of Fine
Aggregate
Mix Design VolumetricsOBC (%)
Asphalt binder by total mix, %PbSurkhi66.577.586.6
Bulk specific gravity of compacted mixtureGmb2.3622.3982.3462.3202.310
Theoretical specific gravity of loose mixtureGmm2.4792.5032.4262.3932.380
Air voids in total mixture, %VTM4.7254.1773.2923.0572.945
Voids in mineral aggregate, %VMA12.30411.44213.83515.23516.066
Voids filled with asphalt, %VFA61.5963.4976.2079.9381.67
Stability, KNS7.6814.7112.7711.3510.01
Flow, mmF4.712.803.643.793.81
Table 6. Asphalt mixture’s design parameters using natural sand.
Table 6. Asphalt mixture’s design parameters using natural sand.
SpecimenSymbolType of Fine
Aggregate
Mix Design VolumetricsOBC (%)
Asphalt binder by total mix, %PbNatural Sand3.544.555.54.1
Bulk specific gravity of compacted mixtureGmb2.2822.3982.4102.3802.320
Theoretical specific gravity of loose mixtureGmm2.3902.4902.4852.4522.388
Air voids in total mixture, %VTM4.5093.7013.1652.9262.834
Voids in mineral aggregate, %VMA16.16612.36212.53713.92216.543
Voids filled with asphalt, %VFA72.1170.0674.7678.9882.87
Stability, KNS9.6411.2611.878.587.16
Flow, mmF3.903.803.664.485.53
Table 7. Asphalt mixture’s design parameters using cinder.
Table 7. Asphalt mixture’s design parameters using cinder.
SpecimenSymbolType of Fine
Aggregate
Mix Design VolumetricsOBC (%)
Asphalt binder by total mix, %PbCinder66.577.586.5
Bulk specific gravity of compacted mixtureGmb1.9242.0702.0521.9811.912
Theoretical specific gravity of loose mixtureGmm2.0222.1592.1222.0431.969
Air voids in total mixture, %VTM4.8694.1453.3083.0392.917
Voids in mineral aggregate, %VMA15.7679.87511.11514.63718.073
Voids filled with asphalt, %VFA69.1258.0270.2479.2483.86
Stability, KNS9.6012.8011.607.146.54
Flow, mmF3.973.633.695.545.72
Table 8. Average rut depths for various types of aggregate used as fine and mineral fillers.
Table 8. Average rut depths for various types of aggregate used as fine and mineral fillers.
Fine Aggregates/Mineral FillersConventionalNatural SandCoal CindersSurkhi
Final rut depth (mm) after 10,000 passes7.716.6913.354.87
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Khan, N.; Karim, F.; Latif Qureshi, Q.B.A.I.; Mufti, S.A.; Rabbani, M.B.A.; Khan, M.S.; Khan, D. Effect of Fine Aggregates and Mineral Fillers on the Permanent Deformation of Hot Mix Asphalt. Sustainability 2023, 15, 10646. https://doi.org/10.3390/su151310646

AMA Style

Khan N, Karim F, Latif Qureshi QBAI, Mufti SA, Rabbani MBA, Khan MS, Khan D. Effect of Fine Aggregates and Mineral Fillers on the Permanent Deformation of Hot Mix Asphalt. Sustainability. 2023; 15(13):10646. https://doi.org/10.3390/su151310646

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Khan, Noman, Fazli Karim, Qadir Bux Alias Imran Latif Qureshi, Sameer Ahmad Mufti, Muhammad Babar Ali Rabbani, Muhammad Siyab Khan, and Diyar Khan. 2023. "Effect of Fine Aggregates and Mineral Fillers on the Permanent Deformation of Hot Mix Asphalt" Sustainability 15, no. 13: 10646. https://doi.org/10.3390/su151310646

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