Next Issue
Volume 15, July-2
Previous Issue
Volume 15, June-2
 
 
sustainability-logo

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Sustainability, Volume 15, Issue 13 (July-1 2023) – 895 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Agriculture is a major contributor to global greenhouse gas emissions and other environmental impacts. Current policies often worsen the situation by subsidizing unsustainable production systems and products. We investigated the transfers to agriculture and food that are associated with different dietary styles. We used data from Switzerland to quantify both direct and indirect transfers through government subsidies and toleration of environmental impacts and costs. Our findings show that current policies favor environmentally harmful diets and contradict official environmental and public health strategies and targets. Gross transfers from government to agriculture range from about CHF 500 to CHF 2000 annually per taxpayer, depending on dietary styles. Net transfers per taxpayer range from CHF −1000 to CHF 1000, depending on dietary style and income. View this paper
  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Reader to open them.
Order results
Result details
Section
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
21 pages, 1074 KiB  
Article
A Fuzzy–Rough MCDM Approach for Selecting Green Suppliers in the Furniture Manufacturing Industry: A Case Study of Eco-Friendly Material Production
by Xuemei Chen, Bin Zhou, Anđelka Štilić, Željko Stević and Adis Puška
Sustainability 2023, 15(13), 10745; https://doi.org/10.3390/su151310745 - 7 Jul 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1830
Abstract
Green supplier selection is always one of the most important challenges in all of supply chain management, especially for production companies. The purpose is to have reliable suppliers which can fulfill all requests and be flexible in any supply chain stage. The aim [...] Read more.
Green supplier selection is always one of the most important challenges in all of supply chain management, especially for production companies. The purpose is to have reliable suppliers which can fulfill all requests and be flexible in any supply chain stage. The aim of this paper is to create an adequate and strong MCDM (multicriteria decision making) model for the evaluation and selection of suppliers in a real environment. The main contribution of this study is proposing a novel fuzzy–rough MCDM model containing extension stepwise weight assessment ratio analysis (SWARA) and additive ratio assessment (ARAS) methods with fuzzy–rough numbers (FRN). The integrated FRN SWARA–FRN ARAS model was implemented in a case study of eco-friendly material production. The FRN SWARA method was used to calculate the weights of 10 green criteria, while using FRN ARAS, 6 suppliers were evaluated. The results of the applied model show that supplier S3 received the highest ranking, followed by supplier S2, while supplier S5 performed the poorest. In order to verify the strengths of the developed fuzzy–rough approach, we created a comparative analysis, sensitivity analysis, and dynamic matrix, which confirm the robustness of our model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Production & Operations Management)
Show Figures

Figure 1

26 pages, 1766 KiB  
Article
Stochastic Coordinated Management of Electrical–Gas–Thermal Networks in Flexible Energy Hubs Considering Day-Ahead Energy and Ancillary Markets
by Sina Parhoudeh, Pablo Eguía López and Abdollah Kavousi Fard
Sustainability 2023, 15(13), 10744; https://doi.org/10.3390/su151310744 - 7 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1135
Abstract
This paper presents an optimal operation framework for electrical, gas, and thermal networks in the presence of energy hubs (EHs), so that EHs can benefit from day-ahead ancillary and energy markets. Therefore, to consider the goals of network operators (optimal operation of networks) [...] Read more.
This paper presents an optimal operation framework for electrical, gas, and thermal networks in the presence of energy hubs (EHs), so that EHs can benefit from day-ahead ancillary and energy markets. Therefore, to consider the goals of network operators (optimal operation of networks) and EHs (optimal operation in markets), the proposed model is developed in the form of a bi-level optimization. Its upper-level formulation minimizes the expected energy loss in the proposed networks based on the optimal power flow constraints and technical limits. At the lower-level problem, maximizing the expected profit of EHs in day-ahead energy and ancillary markets (including reactive and reserve regulation) is formulated based on the operational model of resources, storage devices, and responsive load in the EH framework, and the flexible constraints of EHs. This scheme includes the uncertainties of load, market price, renewable energy resources, and mobile storage energy demand, which uses the point estimation method to model them. Karush–Kuhn–Tucker is then used to extract the single-level model. Finally, by implementing the proposed scheme on a standard system, the obtained numerical results confirm the capability of the proposed model in improving the network’s operation and economic status of EHs. As a result, the proposed scheme is able to decrease operation indices such as energy losses, voltage drop, and temperature drop by approximately 28.5%, 39%, and 27.8%, respectively, compared to load flow analysis. This scheme can improve the flexibility of EHs, including non-controllable sources such as renewable resources, by nearly 100% and it obtains considerable profits for hubs. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 1554 KiB  
Article
Sustainable Livelihood Evaluation and Influencing Factors of Rural Households: A Case Study of Beijing Ecological Conservation Areas
by Mengqi Guo, Mingyi Xie and Guangcai Xu
Sustainability 2023, 15(13), 10743; https://doi.org/10.3390/su151310743 - 7 Jul 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3746
Abstract
Rural households’ livelihood sustainability is the core issue that affects their production and life standards, and it is a necessary evaluation index for rural sustainable development. As a sensitive area of urban–rural integration development in Beijing, the environmental protection measures and industrial structure [...] Read more.
Rural households’ livelihood sustainability is the core issue that affects their production and life standards, and it is a necessary evaluation index for rural sustainable development. As a sensitive area of urban–rural integration development in Beijing, the environmental protection measures and industrial structure adjustments in ecological conservation areas (ECAs) have influenced the sustainability and stability of local rural households’ livelihood. First, based on livelihood capital quantification data, this study established an evaluation model of rural households’ livelihood sustainability, which employed the combined weighting approach and the technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS). Second, this study investigated the influencing factors of rural households’ livelihood using the methodologies of regression analysis and the mediating effect. The results showed the following: (1) the overall livelihood sustainability of rural households was at a medium level, scoring 0.4436; (2) the sanitation conditions of the community were rated as the critical factor with a positive impact on rural households’ livelihood, which was followed by the frequency of online shopping, family expenditure, and management capability of village cadres; (3) improving one’s rural household income can enhance rural livelihood sustainability indirectly. Finally, effective livelihood strategies were explored and put forward for ECA development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Urban and Rural Development)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 480 KiB  
Article
Sustainability, Natural Gas Consumption, and Environmental Pollution in the Period of Industry 4.0 in Turkey: MS-Granger Causality and Fourier Granger Causality Analysis
by Melike E. Bildirici, Sema Yılmaz Genç and Salih Boztuna
Sustainability 2023, 15(13), 10742; https://doi.org/10.3390/su151310742 - 7 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1107
Abstract
The effects of environmental pollution and Industry 4.0 on a sustainable environment are the main topic of this study, which may be regarded as a complement to the literature on energy and the environment. The paper aims to investigate the relation between Industry [...] Read more.
The effects of environmental pollution and Industry 4.0 on a sustainable environment are the main topic of this study, which may be regarded as a complement to the literature on energy and the environment. The paper aims to investigate the relation between Industry 4.0 (I4.0) and environmental sustainability, which is very important for policymakers, practitioners, and company executives in the period of Industry 4.0 in Turkey. To this end, natural gas consumption and technology patents as control variables of Industry 4.0, in addition to the variables of environmental pollution and economic growth, were selected during the period of 1988 to 2022 using Markov switching VAR (MS-VAR), Markov switching Granger causality (MS-GC), Fourier VAR (FVAR), and Granger causality (FGC) techniques. The reason for covering the period starting in 1988 is its recognition as the beginning of the Industry 4.0 era with AutoIDLab in 1988. According to the causality results, there was unidirectional causality running from technology patents to environmental pollution in the results of both MS-GC and FGC. However, the directions of causality between natural gas consumption and environmental pollution, and between economic growth and environmental pollution differed between regimes in the MS-GC model. Bidirectional causality was determined between economic growth and environmental pollution in the first MS-GC regime. However, in the second regime, unidirectional causality from economic growth to environmental pollution was determined. The causality direction determined by Fourier causality gave the same result with the second regime. A similar finding was observed in the direction of causality between natural gas consumption and CO2 emissions. While MS-GC determined unidirectional causality from natural gas consumption to environmental pollution in the first regime, a bidirectional causality result between GC and environmental pollution was determined in the second regime. The FGC result was similar to the second regime result. And lastly, the MS-GC and FGC methods determined unidirectional causality from Industry 4.0 to environmental pollution. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 327 KiB  
Article
Influences of Recent Crises in the European Space on the Exercise of Certain Rights and Citizen Duties in Romania: A Sustainable Perspective Approach
by Cătălin Peptan, Alina Georgiana Holt and Flavius Cristian Mărcău
Sustainability 2023, 15(13), 10741; https://doi.org/10.3390/su151310741 - 7 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 975
Abstract
Purpose: The highlighting of how current security issues (the economic crisis at the European/global level and the military crisis in Ukraine)—seen as factors of negative influence on sustainable development at the societal level—influence the level of willingness of young citizens (aged 18–35) in [...] Read more.
Purpose: The highlighting of how current security issues (the economic crisis at the European/global level and the military crisis in Ukraine)—seen as factors of negative influence on sustainable development at the societal level—influence the level of willingness of young citizens (aged 18–35) in Romania, regarding the acceptance of restrictions/limitations on certain fundamental rights and freedoms, as well as the fulfillment of certain constitutional obligations in exceptional situations. It was considered opportune to conduct this study, given the fact that since the end of World War II, the European continent has not experienced such major security issues that combine specific aspects of military security with those specific to human security, and that generate negative effects on the community’s efforts to promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development. Methods: The study was based on an online questionnaire administered to a total of 826 individuals permanently residing in Romania, aged between 18 and 35. The data were collected from 1 October to 15 October 2022, at a reasonable interval following the onset of the mentioned crises, assuming that the opinions of the interviewed individuals regarding their negative impact on sustainable development from the perspective of internal societal life are well-formed. The methods used include statistical analysis and focused on identifying and assessing the degree of acceptability of restrictions/limitations on certain fundamental rights and freedoms, as well as the willingness to fulfill certain constitutional obligations. Additionally, empirical research on the issue was conducted in accordance with the available bibliography. Results: The study reveals the respondents’ level of perception regarding the impact on sustainable development of society, from an economic perspective, social well-being (41.33%), and citizen safety (53.26%), as a result of the global/European economic crisis. The consequences of this are strongly felt among the interviewed population (61.09%), leading to a decrease in their trust in the state authorities’ ability to manage the situation. The cause of the global/European economic crisis is complex, a large part of the respondents (41.21%) believing that it is the result of a globally orchestrated conspiracy to reset the international order and reconfigure the poles of power, and more than 50% of the respondents considering the conflict in Ukraine as the main source. A percentage of 29.28% of the respondents consider that social solidarity at the level of the European Union (EU) is feasible to overcome the negative influences of multiple crises on domestic societal life, and 49.51% of the respondents believe that Romania’s EU membership is likely to contribute substantially to limiting the negative effects of the crisis in Ukraine. The restriction/limitation of certain fundamental rights and freedoms of citizens, as possible extreme measures for managing the effects of the mentioned crises at the national level, is accepted by a small percentage of respondents (15–20%), while the willingness to fulfill certain constitutional obligations of citizens is present in approximately one-third of the interviewed population. Conclusions: In the context of the new global/European economic crisis and the military crisis in Ukraine, which impact the sustainable development of society and the community’s efforts to promote peaceful societies, young citizens in Romania (aged 18–35) are deeply concerned about the preservation of fundamental rights and freedoms as stipulated in the Constitution of Romania. They demonstrate a low level of acceptance for the restriction/limitation of these rights and freedoms, even in exceptional situations of an economic or military nature. The same low degree of readiness is also found in the fulfillment of some fundamental constitutional duties of the citizens (loyalty to the country, defense of the country, etc.), in the case of adopting exceptional measures in the event of extending the military conflict in Ukraine. Full article
15 pages, 1956 KiB  
Article
Box–Behnken Design-Based Optimization of the Saccharification of Primary Paper-Mill Sludge as a Renewable Raw Material for Bioethanol Production
by Vasudeo Zambare, Samuel Jacob, Mohd Fadhil Md. Din and Mohanadoss Ponraj
Sustainability 2023, 15(13), 10740; https://doi.org/10.3390/su151310740 - 7 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1295
Abstract
In this study, the primary paper-mill sludge characterized as containing 51% glucan was used to optimize the enzymatic saccharification process for the production of bioethanol using a Box–Behnken design (BBD). Polyethylene glycol 4000 (PEG-4000) surfactant-assisted enzymatic saccharification of dried primary sludge (DPS) showed [...] Read more.
In this study, the primary paper-mill sludge characterized as containing 51% glucan was used to optimize the enzymatic saccharification process for the production of bioethanol using a Box–Behnken design (BBD). Polyethylene glycol 4000 (PEG-4000) surfactant-assisted enzymatic saccharification of dried primary sludge (DPS) showed a 12.8% improvement in saccharification efficiency. There was a statistically significant effect of solid enzyme loading and saccharification time on the enzymatic saccharification of DPS at a 95% confidence level (p < 0.05). The optimum levels of 10.4% w/w DPS solid loading, 2.03% enzyme loading (10 FPU g/DPS), and 1% (w/w DPS) PEG-4000 loading for a saccharification efficiency of 57.66% were validated experimentally and found to be non-significant with regard to the lack of fit with the predicted saccharification efficiency of 56.76%. Furthermore, Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermented the saccharified sugars into ethanol (9.35 g/L) with a sugar-to-ethanol conversion yield of 91.6% compared with the theoretical maximum. Therefore, DPS is a more suitable renewable biomass for determining the presence of fermentable sugar and for the production of ethanol. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 557 KiB  
Article
Motivations, Relationships, Health and Quality of Life of Older Volunteers in Times of COVID-19 Pandemic
by Marco Socci, Andrea Principi, Mirko Di Rosa, Sabrina Quattrini and Davide Lucantoni
Sustainability 2023, 15(13), 10739; https://doi.org/10.3390/su151310739 - 7 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 904
Abstract
Within the active ageing framework, this study was carried out during the COVID-19 pandemic on older volunteers, in order to explore the possible relation between, on the one hand, changes in their health, social relationships and quality of life due to the pandemic [...] Read more.
Within the active ageing framework, this study was carried out during the COVID-19 pandemic on older volunteers, in order to explore the possible relation between, on the one hand, changes in their health, social relationships and quality of life due to the pandemic and, on the other hand, volunteers’ motivations and (direct or indirect) experience of the COVID-19 contagion. Although various active-ageing-related issues have been studied during the pandemic, the studies did not cover the topic of the present study. Therefore, the results of this study advance the knowledge on the matter. A sample of 240 older volunteers was surveyed in Italy in July–August 2021. Bivariate analyses and multivariable logistic regression models were performed. The results highlighted that during the COVID-19 pandemic, for older people, volunteering in order to avoid thinking about personal problems was related to worsened health, while volunteering for social reasons was inversely related to a worsening quality of life. Having indirectly (by acquaintances) experienced the COVID-19 contagion was protective against the worsening physical health of older volunteers. The discussion includes the policy implications of the results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Long-Term Effects of COVID-19 on Well-Being)
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 697 KiB  
Article
Urban Shrinkage and Labor Investment Efficiency: Evidence from China
by Hongru Fang, Ran Li and Wenxing Li
Sustainability 2023, 15(13), 10738; https://doi.org/10.3390/su151310738 - 7 Jul 2023
Viewed by 853
Abstract
In the context of unsustainable urban growth patterns and employment difficulties, we examine the impact of urban shrinkage on labor investment efficiency by drawing on the idea of the difference-in-difference model. Using a sample of Chinese firms from 2010 to 2019, our findings [...] Read more.
In the context of unsustainable urban growth patterns and employment difficulties, we examine the impact of urban shrinkage on labor investment efficiency by drawing on the idea of the difference-in-difference model. Using a sample of Chinese firms from 2010 to 2019, our findings suggest that the widespread occurrence of urban shrinkage in China was responsible for a significant portion of the excessive labor investment in most listed companies. These results are robust to alternative specifications. In addition, we further found heterogeneity in the impact of urban shrinkage on labor investment efficiency. For state-owned or mature listed companies, this impact is manifested as the promotion of employment redundancy, while for non-state-owned or young companies, the impact is reflected in alleviating insufficient employment. Thus, we creatively identify a potential channel through which imbalanced development between cities affects corporate and economic sustainability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Economic and Business Aspects of Sustainability)
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 1924 KiB  
Article
Life Insurance Prediction and Its Sustainability Using Machine Learning Approach
by Siti Nurasyikin Shamsuddin, Noriszura Ismail and R. Nur-Firyal
Sustainability 2023, 15(13), 10737; https://doi.org/10.3390/su151310737 - 7 Jul 2023
Viewed by 2032
Abstract
Owning life insurance coverage that is not enough to pay for the expenses is called underinsurance, and it has been found to have a significant influence on the sustainability and financial health of families. However, insurance companies need to have a good profile [...] Read more.
Owning life insurance coverage that is not enough to pay for the expenses is called underinsurance, and it has been found to have a significant influence on the sustainability and financial health of families. However, insurance companies need to have a good profile of potential policyholders. Customer profiling has become one of the essential marketing strategies for any sustainable business, such as the insurance market, to identify potential life insurance purchasers. One well-known method of carrying out customer profiling and segmenting is machine learning. Hence, this study aims to provide a helpful framework for predicting potential life insurance policyholders using a data mining approach with different sampling methods and to lead to a transition to sustainable life insurance industry development. Various samplings, such as the Synthetic Minority Over-sampling Technique, Randomly Under-Sampling, and ensemble (bagging and boosting) techniques, are proposed to handle the imbalanced dataset. The result reveals that the decision tree is the best performer according to ROC and, according to balanced accuracy, F1 score, and GM comparison, Naïve Bayes seems to be the best performer. It is also found that ensemble models do not guarantee high performance in this imbalanced dataset. However, the ensembled and sampling method plays a significant role in overcoming the imbalanced problem. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

30 pages, 5476 KiB  
Article
Integration of Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage for Fast-Response Storage in a Hybrid Solar PV-Biogas with Pumped-Hydro Energy Storage Power Plant
by Takele Ferede Agajie, Armand Fopah-Lele, Ahmed Ali, Isaac Amoussou, Baseem Khan, Mahmoud Elsisi, Wirnkar Basil Nsanyuy, Om Prakash Mahela, Roberto Marcelo Álvarez and Emmanuel Tanyi
Sustainability 2023, 15(13), 10736; https://doi.org/10.3390/su151310736 - 7 Jul 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1629
Abstract
Electric distribution systems face many issues, such as power outages, high power losses, voltage sags, and low voltage stability, which are caused by the intermittent nature of renewable power generation and the large changes in load demand. To deal with these issues, a [...] Read more.
Electric distribution systems face many issues, such as power outages, high power losses, voltage sags, and low voltage stability, which are caused by the intermittent nature of renewable power generation and the large changes in load demand. To deal with these issues, a distribution system has been designed using both short- and long-term energy storage systems such as superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) and pumped-hydro energy storage (PHES). The aim of this paper is to propose a metaheuristic-based optimization method to find the optimal size of a hybrid solar PV-biogas generator with SMES-PHES in the distribution system and conduct a financial analysis. This method is based on an efficient algorithm called the “enhanced whale optimization” algorithm (EWOA), along with the proposed objective functions and constraints of the system. The EWOA is employed to reduce the hybrid system’s life cycle cost (LCC) and improve its reliability, both of which serve as performance indicators for the distribution system. The proposed method for sizing a grid-connected hybrid solar PV-biogas generator with SMES-PHES is compared with other metaheuristic optimization techniques, including the African vulture optimization algorithm (AVOA), grey wolf optimization algorithm (GWO), and water cycle algorithm (WCA). The numerical results of the EWOA show that the combination of a hybrid solar PV-biogas generator with SMES-PHES can successfully reduce the LCC and increase reliability, making the distribution system work better. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 6362 KiB  
Article
Emulsion Mixtures of Fractionated Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement and Quarry By-Products: A Laboratory Evaluation
by Syed Faizan Husain, Issam I. A. Qamhia, Abhilash Vyas, Renan Santos Maia, Erol Tutumluer and Ramez Hajj
Sustainability 2023, 15(13), 10735; https://doi.org/10.3390/su151310735 - 7 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1611
Abstract
Emulsion aggregate mixtures (EAMs) are aggregate blends stabilized with an asphalt emulsion for pavement base layer applications. These are typically prepared using crushed aggregates and designed primarily using a tensile strength-based criteria. Advances in granular material testing technologies have led to the development [...] Read more.
Emulsion aggregate mixtures (EAMs) are aggregate blends stabilized with an asphalt emulsion for pavement base layer applications. These are typically prepared using crushed aggregates and designed primarily using a tensile strength-based criteria. Advances in granular material testing technologies have led to the development of advanced resilient response characterization devices such as the University of Illinois FastCell (UI-FastCell). Simultaneously, fractionated reclaimed asphalt pavement (FRAP) and Quarry by-product (QB) materials are becoming increasingly common in pavement construction. This paper evaluates the inclusion of QB and FRAP in EAMs. First, the design of selected EAMs was performed using a combined Asphalt Academy TG2 and Anderson and Thompson mixture design approach. The selected mixtures were first assessed for Indirect Tensile Strength (ITS) and Tensile Strength Ratio (TSR) to track changes in both strength and moisture damage resistance with the inclusion of FRAP and QB. In addition, advanced anisotropic resilient characterization was performed using the UI-FastCell to assess the changes in resilient modulus and permanent deformation characteristics. Our results show significant enhancements in tensile strength, increased moisture damage resistance, and reduced permanent deformation with the inclusion of FRAP and QB materials in EAMs. The combined inclusion of 30% FRAP and 70% QB negatively affected the resilient response of the EAM; however, the inclusion of FRAP content to 50% with no QB materials improved its suitability for pavement base layer application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability and Innovation in Transport Infrastructure Geotechnics)
Show Figures

Figure 1

26 pages, 354 KiB  
Article
Are the Barriers to Private Solar/Wind Investment in Vietnam Mainly Those That Limit Network Capacity Expansion?
by Akiko Urakami
Sustainability 2023, 15(13), 10734; https://doi.org/10.3390/su151310734 - 7 Jul 2023
Viewed by 2376
Abstract
This study addresses whether the main barrier to private solar/wind investment is the network side instead of the generation side, as a hypothesis, and how the network-related barrier could be reduced to encourage a more extensive range of private investment. It mainly employs [...] Read more.
This study addresses whether the main barrier to private solar/wind investment is the network side instead of the generation side, as a hypothesis, and how the network-related barrier could be reduced to encourage a more extensive range of private investment. It mainly employs a review of the literature and semi-structured interviews with relevant stakeholders. The result showed weak grid capacity is a critical barrier in solar power projects’ congested areas. Another critical barrier is policy uncertainty in that the government has not issued any alternative mechanisms for developers who failed to meet the Commercial Operation Date for approximately two years after the FITs ended. This is likely due to the fact that the Power Development Plan 8 (PDP8) for 2021-30 had been slow to be approved by the Prime Minister. In the absence of policies, the government committed to net-zero emission toward 2050 at COP26 and concluded the Just Energy Transition Partnership agreement in December 2022. These might lead the government to set its ambitious RE targets in the power mix of PDP8 approved in May 2023. In addition, amendments of the Law on Electricity which allows private firms to invest in the grid may contribute to improving quality and capacity of the grid. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Integration of Renewable Energy)
16 pages, 470 KiB  
Article
The Effect of FDI on Environmental Degradation in Romania: Testing the Pollution Haven Hypothesis
by Alexandru Chiriluș and Adrian Costea
Sustainability 2023, 15(13), 10733; https://doi.org/10.3390/su151310733 - 7 Jul 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1503
Abstract
The study examines the relationship between CO2 emissions, trade openness, GDP growth and foreign direct investment (FDI) in Romania. The research aims to provide empirical evidence for either the pollution haven hypothesis (PHH) or the pollution halo effect (PHE). The pollution haven [...] Read more.
The study examines the relationship between CO2 emissions, trade openness, GDP growth and foreign direct investment (FDI) in Romania. The research aims to provide empirical evidence for either the pollution haven hypothesis (PHH) or the pollution halo effect (PHE). The pollution haven hypothesis suggests that countries with weaker environmental regulations and lower environmental quality are more attractive to FDI, while the pollution halo effect posits that countries with high levels of environmental protection and quality can generate positive spillover effects for FDI. The findings suggest a significant relationship between CO2 emissions, GDP growth and FDI inflows, with GDP growth having a greater effect on FDI than CO2 emissions. GDP growth has a causal effect on CO2 emissions, while CO2 emissions have a causal effect on FDI. These findings have important policy implications, as they highlight the interplay between economic growth, environmental degradation, and foreign investment. Policies aimed at reducing emissions must be comprehensive and coordinated in order to achieve significant emissions reductions and strike a balance between economic growth and environmental protection. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 4913 KiB  
Article
Voltage Zoning Regulation Method of Distribution Network with High Proportion of Photovoltaic Considering Energy Storage Configuration
by Fangfang Zheng, Xiaofang Meng, Tiefeng Xu, Yongchang Sun and Nannan Zhang
Sustainability 2023, 15(13), 10732; https://doi.org/10.3390/su151310732 - 7 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 797
Abstract
Photovoltaics have uncertain characteristics. If a high proportion of photovoltaics are connected to the distribution network, the voltage will exceed the limit. In order to solve this problem, a voltage regulation method of a distribution network considering energy storage partition configuration is proposed. [...] Read more.
Photovoltaics have uncertain characteristics. If a high proportion of photovoltaics are connected to the distribution network, the voltage will exceed the limit. In order to solve this problem, a voltage regulation method of a distribution network considering energy storage partition configuration is proposed. Taking the minimum total voltage deviation, the minimum total cost, the minimum total power loss, and the minimum energy storage device installation ratio as the objective function, and considering various conditions, such as voltage deviation constraint and energy storage constraint, a mathematical model of voltage regulation is established. Firstly, a high proportion of photovoltaics are connected to the distribution network, and the voltage deviation curve is obtained. The optimal k value is determined by the elbow rule. The voltage deviation curve of each node is clustered by the k-means algorithm so as to determine the energy storage device partition. The energy storage device is connected to various clustering centers, and then the weighting factor of each objective function is determined by the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method. For comparison and analysis, (k + 1) schemes are determined through the partition configuration of (k + 1) energy storage devices. Then, the model is solved by particle swarm optimization, and the unit output result and the minimum objective function value are obtained. Finally, an example of IEEE33 is used to verify the effectiveness of the proposed model. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 3275 KiB  
Article
Sod Culture with Vicia villosa Alters the Diversity of Fungal Communities in Walnut Orchards for Sustainability Development
by Wan-Xia He, Qiao-Feng Sun, Abeer Hashem, Elsayed Fathi Abd_Allah, Qiang-Sheng Wu and Yong-Jie Xu
Sustainability 2023, 15(13), 10731; https://doi.org/10.3390/su151310731 - 7 Jul 2023
Viewed by 949
Abstract
Monoculture frequently causes loss of soil nutrients and the emergence of soil-borne diseases in walnut orchards, whereas it is unknown whether sod culture with Vicia villosa (a popular agroforestry system) in walnut orchards impacts the structural composition and diversity of soil fungal communities. [...] Read more.
Monoculture frequently causes loss of soil nutrients and the emergence of soil-borne diseases in walnut orchards, whereas it is unknown whether sod culture with Vicia villosa (a popular agroforestry system) in walnut orchards impacts the structural composition and diversity of soil fungal communities. Fungal communities in walnut orchards with the cover plant V. villosa were investigated in this work utilizing high-throughput sequencing of ITS, as well as examination of root arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization and hyphal length of soil fungi. The monoculture and interplanted walnut models generated 33,511 and 34,620 effective tags with sequence similarity of 97%, respectively annotating 245 and 236 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Among these, a total of 158 OTUs were found to be shared across monoculture and interplanted orchards. Walnuts grown in monoculture had a total of 245 species, belonging to 245 genera and 36 phyla, while walnuts with V. villosa as cover crops had 236 species, belonging to 236 genera and 19 phyla. The application of V. villosa as a cover plant significantly increased 1-Simpson and Shannon indices of soil fungi, indicating that interplanting V. villosa promoted soil fungal community diversity. Three dominant fungal phyla were detected in the soil, with Glosseromycota being the most dominant phylum. V. villosa as a cover plant significantly reduced the abundance of Funneliformis and Densospora in the soil, while it significantly increased the colonization of native arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in roots by 94%, along with a 39% significant decrease in mycorrhizal hyphal length, as compared with the monoculture. Overall, V. villosa as a cover plant alters the composition and diversity of the soil fungal community, with reduced Funneliformis (F. geosporum) and Densospora abundance, and increased mycorrhizal colonization rate in roots, contributing to the sustainable and high-quality development of walnuts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontier Research: Waste Management for Sustainable Development)
Show Figures

Figure 1

28 pages, 6061 KiB  
Article
Accident Rate Prediction Model for Urban Expressway Underwater Tunnel
by Ruru Xing, Zimu Li, Xiaoyu Cai, Zepeng Yang, Ningning Zhang and Tao Yang
Sustainability 2023, 15(13), 10730; https://doi.org/10.3390/su151310730 - 7 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1008
Abstract
Urban tunnels often easily become traffic bottlenecks. Once traffic accidents occur, traffic congestion, environmental pollution, personnel and property damage and other problems restrict the sustainable development of tunnels. In order to reveal the factors affecting the incidence of tunnel traffic accidents, this paper [...] Read more.
Urban tunnels often easily become traffic bottlenecks. Once traffic accidents occur, traffic congestion, environmental pollution, personnel and property damage and other problems restrict the sustainable development of tunnels. In order to reveal the factors affecting the incidence of tunnel traffic accidents, this paper quantitatively analyzes the influence of the single factors of tunnel geometric conditions and control measures on traffic accidents in Jiaozhou Bay underwater tunnel. The study examines the distribution patterns of tunnel traffic accidents under three dual-factor combinations: road gradient and curve radius, road gradient and slope length, and road gradient and the proportion of distance to the bottom of the slope. Based on this, a comprehensive index model is constructed using a negative binomial regression model to calculate the accident occurrence rate in Jiaozhou Bay underwater tunnel under road geometric conditions and control measures. The accident data after the second lining of Jiaozhou Bay underwater tunnel are selected as the validation object. The actual accident occurrence rate is compared with the model’s calculated value to verify the feasibility of the model constructed in this study. The results indicate that high gradient, long slope length, proximity to the bottom of the slope, and straight downhill sections have a significant impact on the occurrence of traffic accidents. Lane change signs can effectively reduce the accident rate by 30–40%. The percentage errors of the left- and right-lane traffic accident prediction models are within (−30%, 30%) and (−20%, 30%), respectively, which can assist in the design and control of underwater tunnels, offering valuable guidance and contributions to the construction of safer, more efficient, and more sustainable urban transportation systems. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 891 KiB  
Article
Innovations and the CO2 Emissions Nexus in the MENA Region: A Spatial Analysis
by Haider Mahmood, Maham Furqan, Najia Saqib, Anass Hamadelneel Adow and Muzaffar Abbas
Sustainability 2023, 15(13), 10729; https://doi.org/10.3390/su151310729 - 7 Jul 2023
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 1726
Abstract
Patents support technological innovations in any economy and would also support a clean environment. We investigate the effects of economic growth, patents, industrialization, and urbanization on CO2 emissions in 17 Middle East and North Africa (MENA) economies by applying spatial econometrics. We [...] Read more.
Patents support technological innovations in any economy and would also support a clean environment. We investigate the effects of economic growth, patents, industrialization, and urbanization on CO2 emissions in 17 Middle East and North Africa (MENA) economies by applying spatial econometrics. We substantiate the Environment Kuznets Curve (EKC) in the domestic economies and the whole MENA region as per direct and total estimates. Moreover, urbanization increases CO2 emissions in local economies and reduces neighboring nations’ emissions. The total effect of urbanization is found to be insignificant. Industrial value added increases CO2 emissions in domestic and neighboring countries, as well as in the whole MENA region. Patents increase CO2 emissions in domestic economies. However, patents reduce CO2 emissions in neighboring countries and the MENA region. Thus, patents have a pleasant effect on the environment in the whole MENA region. It is suggested that the MENA economies focus more on patents to reduce CO2 emissions. Moreover, urbanization and the industrial sector should be checked to protect the environment. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 2173 KiB  
Article
Daytime and Overnight Joint Charging Scheduling for Battery Electric Buses Considering Time-Varying Charging Power
by Feifeng Zheng, Zhixin Wang, Zhaojie Wang and Ming Liu
Sustainability 2023, 15(13), 10728; https://doi.org/10.3390/su151310728 - 7 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1098
Abstract
This work investigates the joint daytime and overnight charging scheduling problem associated with battery electric buses (BEBs) at a single charging station. The objective is to minimize the total charging costs of all BEBs. Two important factors, i.e., peak–valley price and time-varying charging [...] Read more.
This work investigates the joint daytime and overnight charging scheduling problem associated with battery electric buses (BEBs) at a single charging station. The objective is to minimize the total charging costs of all BEBs. Two important factors, i.e., peak–valley price and time-varying charging power, are considered to depict real-world charging situations. We establish a mixed-integer programming model for the considered problem, and then conduct a case study together with sensitivity analysis. Numerical results show that compared with the existing first come, first serve rule-based charging solution, the charging schedule obtained by solving the established model via the CPLEX solver can save 7–8% of BEB charging costs. Hence, our model could be applied to improve the BEB charging schedule in practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Research in Intelligent New Energy Vehicles)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 758 KiB  
Article
The Mediating Effect of Emotional Intelligence on the Relationship between Talent Management Practices and Leadership Skills in Malaysian GLCs
by Nur Lyana Baharin, Beni Widarman Yus Kelana, Lim Sanny, Poh-Chuin Teo, Theresa C. F. Ho and Mohd Khairuddin Ramliy
Sustainability 2023, 15(13), 10727; https://doi.org/10.3390/su151310727 - 7 Jul 2023
Viewed by 2041
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relation between talent management practices and leadership skills, as well as the potential mediating role of emotional intelligence. This study accomplished its aim through a conceptual analysis by utilizing the lenses of talent management [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relation between talent management practices and leadership skills, as well as the potential mediating role of emotional intelligence. This study accomplished its aim through a conceptual analysis by utilizing the lenses of talent management for leadership outcomes, talent-based theory, social cognitive theory, and extant literature. The study indicated that good talent management practice implementation was not adequate to develop and produce talented leadership skills in Malaysian Government-linked Companies (GLCs). The hypothesized partial mediating models were supported by talent-based theory and social cognitive theory, signifying that talent management practices with emotional intelligence will develop leadership skills. This study enhanced the use of mediatory roles of emotional intelligence to better understand the mechanism of talent management practices within the framework. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Business, Innovation, and Economics Sustainability)
Show Figures

Figure 1

21 pages, 11531 KiB  
Article
Point Cloud-Based Historical Building Information Modeling (H-BIM) in Urban Heritage Documentation Studies
by Lutfiye Karasaka and Neslisah Ulutas
Sustainability 2023, 15(13), 10726; https://doi.org/10.3390/su151310726 - 7 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1911
Abstract
Integrating building information modeling (BIM) technology into historical and cultural heritage structures has resulted in historic building information modeling (H-BIM), an effective method for managing and documenting invaluable historical artifacts. H-BIM has the potential to aid with the design, restoration, and maintenance activities [...] Read more.
Integrating building information modeling (BIM) technology into historical and cultural heritage structures has resulted in historic building information modeling (H-BIM), an effective method for managing and documenting invaluable historical artifacts. H-BIM has the potential to aid with the design, restoration, and maintenance activities of historical buildings by properly integrating parametric data and deliberately assessing semantic information, thus progressing the 3D model’s performance. H-BIM also aims to conduct cultural heritage (CH) studies in a systematic manner by combining 3D modeling techniques and information management. The first step in this process is to conduct a suitable geomatic survey to build accurate 3D models. The most efficient modeling method is to employ 3D point cloud data that are acquired using the terrestrial laser scanning method. This study proposes a manual modeling strategy for urban historical buildings that falls within the scope of the H-BIM methodology. The proposed modeling strategy follows a workflow that inserts point cloud data into the BIM environment in order to create a 3D urban cultural heritage model using ontologies applied with the H-BIM methodology. With this objective in mind, the H-BIM model development platform Revit was used to model the object elements of the inheritance structure in 3D and save them in the BIM library. It is very important to model building elements separately in 3D modeling studies. The resulting BIM product sheds light on fundamental data for the future planning, design, operation, and maintenance processes of the building. Users can obtain data suitable for H-BIM by adding graphical and non-graphical data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Conservation of Urban and Cultural Heritage)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 1689 KiB  
Article
The Definition of Play: A Measurement Scale for Well-Being Based on Human Physiological Mechanisms
by Yoshihiro Shimomura
Sustainability 2023, 15(13), 10725; https://doi.org/10.3390/su151310725 - 7 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1427
Abstract
Play is an activity common to all cultures and is thought to be a useful way to improve well-being since it brings about enjoyment. This study aimed to comprehensively define play and develop a method to evaluate what types of play lead to [...] Read more.
Play is an activity common to all cultures and is thought to be a useful way to improve well-being since it brings about enjoyment. This study aimed to comprehensively define play and develop a method to evaluate what types of play lead to well-being. It defined play as “the activation of one’s reward system through intrinsically motivated decisions and actions of the self, not for the direct purpose of survival”, based on human physiology, including brain science relating to motivation and behaviour. It checked this definition by conducting an online survey and applying a measurement scale to quantify the degree of play. The results revealed that the favourite play activity involved a significantly higher degree of play than the highest-effort habits (defined as the activities that participants most disliked but continued to take part in). There was also a significant difference in intrinsic motivation, reward system activation, and decision-making but no difference in action of the self. This method made it possible to evaluate the intensity of each element of the brain mechanism making up play, and it can, therefore, be used to examine the well-being of groups, organisations, and individuals across domains. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 1410 KiB  
Article
Influence of Seasonal Water Level Fluctuations on Food Web Structure of a Large Floodplain Lake in China
by Huan Zhang, Yuyu Wang and Jun Xu
Sustainability 2023, 15(13), 10724; https://doi.org/10.3390/su151310724 - 7 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1014
Abstract
Seasonal shifts in hydrology are known to alter the abundance and diversity of basal production resources and habitats and hence strongly influence the structure and function of river ecosystems. However, equivalent knowledge of natural lake ecosystems in floodplain regions is lacking. Here, we [...] Read more.
Seasonal shifts in hydrology are known to alter the abundance and diversity of basal production resources and habitats and hence strongly influence the structure and function of river ecosystems. However, equivalent knowledge of natural lake ecosystems in floodplain regions is lacking. Here, we used stable isotope ratios of carbon and nitrogen to assess available primary production sources and consumer taxa during the dry and wet seasons in a large floodplain lake connected to the Yangtze River. Fish species showed distinct δ13C values between two hydrological periods but only small changes in δ15N values. Most of the fish species had higher estimated trophic levels in the dry season, likely indicating greater carnivory. Results of Bayesian mixing models revealed that benthic algae and benthic organic matter (BOM), combined with C3 vegetation, were the principal food sources supporting the biomass of most fish species during the low-water period, whereas benthic algae and seston were the most important carbon sources during the flood period. Overall, these findings demonstrate that seasonal hydrological changes, such as water-level fluctuations, can affect the trophic structure and ecosystem functioning of floodplain lake food webs in the subtropical zone. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 2878 KiB  
Review
Prospers and Obstacles in Using Artificial Intelligence in Saudi Arabia Higher Education Institutions—The Potential of AI-Based Learning Outcomes
by Nayef Shaie Alotaibi and Awad Hajran Alshehri
Sustainability 2023, 15(13), 10723; https://doi.org/10.3390/su151310723 - 7 Jul 2023
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 6472
Abstract
Within the framework of the ongoing implementation of the 2030 Vision for Comprehensive Development of Higher Education in Saudi Arabia, the integration of artificial intelligence (AI) has emerged as a pivotal objective for the country’s numerous higher education institutions. This study aims to [...] Read more.
Within the framework of the ongoing implementation of the 2030 Vision for Comprehensive Development of Higher Education in Saudi Arabia, the integration of artificial intelligence (AI) has emerged as a pivotal objective for the country’s numerous higher education institutions. This study aims to examine the opportunities and challenges that arise from the adoption of AI-based learning outcomes in Saudi Arabia’s higher education institutes. Moreover, the research also investigates the contribution of major higher education institutes in Saudi Arabia to the field of AI-based learning outcomes. To gather relevant literature, the Scopus and Web of Science databases were utilised, resulting in the selection of fifty-five studies for final analysis. The study employed the PRISMA statement 2020 for records filtration and utilised VOS viewer software to classify the literature on AI-based learning outcomes in Saudi Arabian universities. Through detailed analysis, three significant data streams were identified and examined. The findings indicate that AI is in a nascent stage within the realm of learning, and it has become an undeniable reality for higher education institutions. Embracing this transformative technology is crucial for meeting future learning challenges, and it is imperative that all students acquire the necessary technical skills to interact with and create artificial intelligence in the future. According to the findings, AI has the potential to address significant educational challenges, revolutionise teaching and learning methodologies, and accelerate progress toward the Saudi 2030 objectives. However, the study also highlights certain challenges associated with the implementation of AI-based learning in the higher education context of Saudi Arabia, emphasising the need for teachers to acquire new technological skills to effectively utilise AI pedagogically. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Educational Intelligence and Emerging Educational Technology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 353 KiB  
Review
Definition of Corporate Social Responsibility as a Management Philosophy Oriented towards the Management of Externalities: Proposal and Argumentation
by Oscar Licandro, José Luis Vázquez-Burguete, Luis Ortigueira and Patricia Correa
Sustainability 2023, 15(13), 10722; https://doi.org/10.3390/su151310722 - 7 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 4622
Abstract
The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the theoretical discussion on the best way to define Corporate Social Responsibility. The methodology used is a bibliographic review through a search for articles in different catalogues (Redalyc, Ebsco, JStor, SAGE, Science Direct, and [...] Read more.
The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the theoretical discussion on the best way to define Corporate Social Responsibility. The methodology used is a bibliographic review through a search for articles in different catalogues (Redalyc, Ebsco, JStor, SAGE, Science Direct, and Springer), focusing on articles that addressed the study of definitions of this concept. The different ways of defining it are identified and analysed in order to find a definition can encompass all the others. The paper also proposes that locating this concept at the level of management philosophy (and not simply as a desirable or expected behaviour) facilitates the construction of agreements around a consensual definition, unlike under the predominant behavioural approach of its conceptualisation as corporate behaviour. The paper concludes by proposing to define Corporate Social Responsibility as a management philosophy based on the responsible management of the company’s operational externalities on stakeholders, society, and the environment. It is concluded that this definition contributes to the theoretical discussion, strengthens empirical research, and improves the application of Corporate Social Responsibility in the corporate world. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Economic and Business Aspects of Sustainability)
25 pages, 8268 KiB  
Article
Numerical Simulation and Application of an Oxygen-Enriched Side-Blown Smelting Furnace for the Treatment of Electroplating Sludge
by Biwei Yang, Wei Liu, Fen Jiao, Lin Zhang, Wenqing Qin and Shanqin Jiang
Sustainability 2023, 15(13), 10721; https://doi.org/10.3390/su151310721 - 7 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 943
Abstract
In the oxygen-enriched side-blown smelting furnace for the treatment of electroplating sludge, fluent was used to simulate the gas–liquid two-phase flow process. The relationship between the lance diameter, lance inclination, bath depth, and the bath evaluation indicators were studied, and the oxygen lance [...] Read more.
In the oxygen-enriched side-blown smelting furnace for the treatment of electroplating sludge, fluent was used to simulate the gas–liquid two-phase flow process. The relationship between the lance diameter, lance inclination, bath depth, and the bath evaluation indicators were studied, and the oxygen lance spacing was optimized. The results show that the high velocity and high gas rate areas were near the oxygen lance, while the stirring dead zones with low velocity appeared in the central and bottom areas of the molten pool. The key parameters were optimized using single-factor analysis and multifactor comprehensive optimization. The results showed that the bath evaluation indicators were all at good levels under the optimal parameter conditions. These were comprehensively obtained as the following: the lance diameter was 25 mm, the lance inclination was 15°, the lance spacing was 1050 mm, and the bath depth was 1500 mm. The industrial test carried out in an environmental protection enterprise in Guangdong achieved satisfactory results. The test shows that the electroplating sludge containing 7.24% Cu can be melted at 1300~1400 °C to obtain matte. Compared with industrial copper slag, the smelting slag has a higher CaO and a lower Fe content. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

27 pages, 6151 KiB  
Article
Study on the Spatial Structure and Drivers of Agricultural Carbon Emission Efficiency in Belt and Road Initiative Countries
by Qin Shu, Yang Su, Hong Li, Feng Li, Yunjie Zhao and Chen Du
Sustainability 2023, 15(13), 10720; https://doi.org/10.3390/su151310720 - 7 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1100
Abstract
Agricultural carbon emissions are one of the major causes of global climate change. As some of the world’s largest agricultural producers and consumers, countries along the route of the Belt and Road initiative produce significant agricultural carbon emissions. An in-depth study on the [...] Read more.
Agricultural carbon emissions are one of the major causes of global climate change. As some of the world’s largest agricultural producers and consumers, countries along the route of the Belt and Road initiative produce significant agricultural carbon emissions. An in-depth study on the efficiency of agricultural carbon emissions in countries along the route can help countries reduce environmental load while improving agricultural production, optimizing resource use, improving agricultural production efficiency, and achieving sustainable development goals, which is significant for global climate change mitigation. Based on the relational data and network perspective, this paper takes the agricultural carbon emission efficiency of 34 countries along the route of the Belt and Road Initiative from 1995 to 2020 as the research object. It integrates the social network analysis method and other methods to realize the expansion of agricultural carbon emission efficiency in the research method. The study shows that (1) agricultural carbon emission efficiency has more room for improvement and presents complex spatially linked network characteristics; (2) the spatial correlation network of agricultural carbon emission efficiency is relatively well connected, and there is a general spatial correlation and spatial spillover effect among countries; and (3) similar differences in the proportion of primary industries and differences in informatization levels help establish spatial correlations between regions and produce spatial spillover effects. It is imperative to change global economic growth, social development, and lifestyles through green development. This study is conducive to the international community’s formulation of differentiated agricultural carbon emission reduction support mechanisms for different countries to help the countries realize the transformation of agriculture and even overall economic development as soon as possible. At the same time, accelerating the pace of emission reduction and reducing the negative impact of agricultural carbon emissions are conducive to better responding to the challenges posed by global climate change. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 629 KiB  
Article
Development-Induced Impacts on the Livelihoods of Displaced Communities: The Case of Bole Lemi Industry Park, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
by Fituma Lemessa, Belay Simane, Aseffa Seyoum and Girma Gebresenbet
Sustainability 2023, 15(13), 10719; https://doi.org/10.3390/su151310719 - 7 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1936
Abstract
Livelihood encompasses the resources and capabilities that individuals and households utilize to ensure their survival and to enhance their well-being. This study examined the impact of the Bole Lemi Industry Park on livelihood systems in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. It focused on how the [...] Read more.
Livelihood encompasses the resources and capabilities that individuals and households utilize to ensure their survival and to enhance their well-being. This study examined the impact of the Bole Lemi Industry Park on livelihood systems in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. It focused on how the establishment of the industrial park affected the livelihoods of displaced communities. A survey was conducted on 379 household heads who were displaced by the industrial park, ensuring representation across various factors such as gender, marital status, education level, ethnic group, and religion. Descriptive statistics, including frequency counts, mean values, standard deviations, and percentages, were used to analyze the data. Multiple linear regression models were employed to investigate how socioeconomic variables predicted the household heads’ annual income before and after the establishment of the park. The findings revealed that 84% of the household heads said that the BLIP has hurt their livelihoods. The majority of respondents (69%) became jobless as a result of the BLIP. Another 16% transitioned to urban lifestyles, while 7.3% shifted to semi-agrarian and 5.6% to trade and services. This study identified the balance gap between industrial development and the interests of local farming communities, and how it failed to ensure sustainable livelihoods. It is recommended that development projects in Addis Ababa prioritize the affected communities by offering compensation, support for resettlement, and opportunities for livelihood diversification. Taking a comprehensive and participatory approach to industrial park development is crucial for achieving sustainable and equitable economic growth while safeguarding the well-being of local communities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Land Resource Management and Urban and Rural Development)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 1094 KiB  
Article
Societal Impacts of Higher Education Research: From ‘Publish or Perish’ to ‘Publish and Prosper’ in Business School Scholarship
by David Steingard and Kathleen Rodenburg
Sustainability 2023, 15(13), 10718; https://doi.org/10.3390/su151310718 - 7 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1787
Abstract
This paper introduces a transformative systems-level framework for understanding the interplay of institutional, cultural, and systemic dynamics influencing the societal impacts of academic research. We introduce and apply the Societal Impacts of Research Institutional Ecosystem (SIRIE) framework to business school scholarship and academic [...] Read more.
This paper introduces a transformative systems-level framework for understanding the interplay of institutional, cultural, and systemic dynamics influencing the societal impacts of academic research. We introduce and apply the Societal Impacts of Research Institutional Ecosystem (SIRIE) framework to business school scholarship and academic research in higher education. The United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) serve as SIRIE’s normative ethical framework to benchmark: institutional mission; accreditation bodies’ compliance requirements; faculty tenure and promotion research expectations; the influence of rankings and ratings; and journal quality metrics. Our framework acknowledges the role the Anthropocene Epoch plays in contributing to contemporary social and environmental problems. We argue that recalcitrant institutional forces in academia neutralize the promise of academic scholarship to galvanize meaningful societal impacts. We assert that the contemporary state of higher education research is unfortunately dominated by a “publish or perish” mentality. This narrative produces academic research that is decontextualized from today’s exigent “grand challenges” related to poverty, climate, equity, health, peace, environment, etc., as well as transformative solutions for a sustainable future. By exploring an alternative paradigm for academic research through SIRIE and the SDGs—“publish and prosper”—we detail how academic research can meaningfully contribute to change the world for the better. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Platforms and Digital Transformation for Sustainability)
Show Figures

Figure 1

24 pages, 10151 KiB  
Article
Stability of Unsaturated Soil Slope Considering Stratigraphic Uncertainty
by Wei Cao, Zheng Wan and Wenjing Li
Sustainability 2023, 15(13), 10717; https://doi.org/10.3390/su151310717 - 7 Jul 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 999
Abstract
Stratigraphic uncertainty is widely present in nature, but it has not been well considered in the stability analysis of unsaturated soil slopes in the past. In this study, the stability of the unsaturated soil slope is evaluated based on borehole data considering stratigraphic [...] Read more.
Stratigraphic uncertainty is widely present in nature, but it has not been well considered in the stability analysis of unsaturated soil slopes in the past. In this study, the stability of the unsaturated soil slope is evaluated based on borehole data considering stratigraphic uncertainty. Firstly, an enhanced coupled Markov chain model is used to simulate stratigraphic uncertainty. Then, a finite element algorithm for automatically calculating the safety factor (FS) and the average groundwater table (AGT) of the unsaturated soil slope is developed. At last, a hypothetical slope located in the stratum from Perth, West Australia is analyzed using the proposed algorithm under different borehole schemes. The results show that with the increase in the borehole number, the statistics of FS and AGT will not monotonically increase or decrease. But the trend is that the mean values of FS and AGT gradually approach and eventually converge to the real values, and the standard deviations of FS and AGT decrease. There is a linear relationship between the standard deviation of FS (or AGT) and the average information entropy. The FS and AGT are negatively correlated considering stratigraphic uncertainty. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 6482 KiB  
Article
Thickness and Strength Analysis of Prestressed Anchor (Cable) Compression Arch Based on Safe Co-Mining of Deep Coal and Gas
by Deyi Wu, Nanyu Li and Shuang Zhou
Sustainability 2023, 15(13), 10716; https://doi.org/10.3390/su151310716 - 7 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 697
Abstract
The stability of the gas extraction roadway is very important for the safe mining of coal and gas. The compression arch formed by the combined action of the prestressed bolt (cable) support and surrounding rock has been widely used in the engineering practice [...] Read more.
The stability of the gas extraction roadway is very important for the safe mining of coal and gas. The compression arch formed by the combined action of the prestressed bolt (cable) support and surrounding rock has been widely used in the engineering practice of the gas extraction roadway. It is of great engineering application value to analyze the influence of prestressed bolt (cable) parameters on the compression arch. In this paper, combined with the engineering practice of the deep roadway in Huainan and Huaibei mining area of Anhui Province, the mechanical parameters of surrounding rock are measured via field coring and the laboratory. The numerical simulation software FLAC3D is used to analyze the typical position of fractured mudstone, mudstone, sandy mudstone and muddy sandstone under the bolt pre-tightening force of F = 50 kN, 70 kN and 100 kN; the bolt spacing of a × b = 400 mm × 400 mm, 500 mm × 500 mm and 600 mm × 600 mm; the bolt length of L = 1500 mm, 2000 mm, 2600 mm and 3000 mm; and the distribution characteristics of additional compressive stress on the surface of the side. The influence of the different lithology and bolt parameters on the thickness and strength of the compression arch was analyzed, and on this basis, prestressed anchor cables with a pre-tightening force of F = 80 kN, 100 kN and 120 kN and length of L = 3000 mm, 4000 mm and 6000 mm were applied, and their influence on the thickness and strength of the compression arch was analyzed. The results show that the bolt pre-tightening force (F) and the bolt length (L) have a significant effect on the thickness of the compression arch, while the surrounding rock lithology, the bolt spacing (a × b), the anchor cable pre-tightening force (F) and the anchor cable length (L) have no obvious effect on the thickness of the compression arch. The surrounding rock lithology, the bolt pre-tightening force (F), the bolt length (L), the bolt spacing (a × b), the anchor cable pre-tightening force (F) and the anchor cable length (L) have a significant effect on the strength of the compression arch. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop