Decision Support Concept for Improvement of Sustainability-Related Competences
2. Circular Economy as a Sustainability Promoter
2.1. Circular Economy Model
2.2. Competences Ensuring Circular Economy and Sustainability
3. Literature Review on Competence Models for Sustainability
3.1. Hogan Competence Model (HCM)
3.2. Competence Models for Sustainability Implemented through Education
3.3. Competence Models for Sustainability Implemented through Education
3.4. Competences for Sustainability from the Competence Model for Advanced Technologies in Factories of the Future
3.5. Comparison of Competence Models for Sustainability as a Basis for Developing a Competence Models for Industry 5.0
4. Decision Support System Conceptual Design for Sustainability Competences Development
4.1. Employee Optimal Training Plan Creation Procedure
- selection of an appropriate list of competences, usually based on the selected competence model and the workplaces in the company,
- assessment of the required level of each competence for a selected workplace,
- measures to assess the level of achievement of each competence for employees,
- a series of trainings to gradually improve the levels of competences, and
- evaluation of the impact of the trainings on the employee’s competences.
- Competence type: the Hogan classification of the competence types is used, where competences are divided into intrapersonal, interpersonal, business, and leadership categories.
- Competence: the competences are taken from the list of 62 Hogan competences and 17 KOC-TOP competences, both of which are listed in the supplement.
- Workplace: this entity is open to companies’ human resource managers to make their own input, which consists of the company ID, name of the workplace and a short description of the workplace.
- Employee: for each employee, only name and email address are stored, while other information about the employees and their competences is stored in the Competence—Workplace—Employee entity.
- Competence—Workplace: this entity collects information about the required level and importance of each competence for any given workplace.
- Competence—Workplace—Employee: this is a very important entity, which stores information about the achieved level of each competence for a particular employee at his/her workplace.
- Training: this entity stores basic information about each training in the database, namely its name, date, duration, and location.
- Competence—Training: this is the entity that evaluates the effectiveness of each training in improving a specific competence.
4.2. Algorithm for Assessment of Competences
4.3. Simple Case Study at Industrial Partner
5. Conclusions and Future Work
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Sustainability Competence||Definition||Competence for Sustainable Leadership||References||Hogan|
|Results oriented||Focuses on the outcome rather than process, has a passion for learning, is confident, and action-biased.||X||||18||14|
|A Visionary Thinker||Is strategic in their vision with an ability to visualise the future and endure through difficulties, and also knows various disciplines.||X||||22||15|
|Ethically Oriented||Is honest and has strong moral principles, is ethical and builds trust-based connections.||X||||37||7|
|A Change Agent||Generates original ideas, takes advantage of opportunities and|
accepts the changes with enthusiasm.
|An inclusive operator||Understands the motivations of others, has a caring attitude and a collaborative approach that engenders trust in their leadership.||X||||54||8|
|Systems thinking||Has the abilities to recognise and understand relationships; to analyse complex systems; to understand how systems are embedded within different domains and different scales; and to deal with uncertainty.||X||||55|
|Anticipatory||The abilities to understand an evaluate multiple futures: possible, probable, and desirable; to create one’s own visions for the future; to apply the precautionary principle; to assess the consequences of actions; and to deal with risks and changes.||X||||1||14|
|Normative||The abilities to understand and reflect on the norms and values that underlie one’s actions; and to negotiate sustainability values, principles, goals, and targets, in a context of conflicts of interests and trade-offs, uncertain knowledge and contradictions||X||||59||15|
|Strategic action||The abilities to collectively develop and implement innovative actions to further sustainability at the local level and further afield.||X||||57||10|
|Emphatic collaboration||The abilities to learn from others to understand and respect the needs, perspectives, and actions of others (empathic leadership); to deal with conflicts in a group; and to facilitate collaborative and participatory problem solving.||X||||60||15|
|Critical thinking||The abilities to question norms practices and opinions; to reflect on one’s own values perceptions and actions; and to take a position in the sustainability discourse.||X||||14|
|Self-awareness||The abilities to reflect on one’s own role in the local community and global society; to continually evaluate and further motivate one’s actions; and to deal with one’s feelings and desires.||X||||15|
|Integrated problem solving||The overarching ability to apply different problem-solving frameworks to complex sustainability problems; and develop viable inclusive and equitable solution options that promote sustainable development.||X||||13||14|
|Science and technology||Has the knowledge to understand natural laws, sustainability issues (locally and globally) and relationships between human actions and the environment.||||5, 43||5|
|Business and economic||Understanding how sustainable development impacts economics.||||4||9|
|System Analysis||Ability to plan, analyze, model and design.||||55||8|
|Management and Planning||Ability to efficiently communicate with stakeholders to achieve sustainable goals, proper application of management systems models, and possess understanding of accounting.||X||||39||10|
|Environmental justice, community and equity||Incorporating perspectives on equity, poverty, environmental justice and consumption into professional practice.||[24,31]||28||7|
|Ideas and Innovation||Uses and understands different tools and methods that incorporate creativity and ideas in innovative design and management practices.||||2||14|
|Personal Effectiveness||Demonstrates leadership, ethical behavior and ability to express himself or herself through verbal and written communication.||X||||26, 37||10|
|Working Across Boundaries||Ability to integrate and work in intercultural organisational structures, as well as social and business practices.||||59||17|
|Traditional ecological knowledge||Knowledge bases built by local or traditional resource users, as opposed to “experts”.||||7|
|Community service-learning||Integrates service in the community with intentional learning activities.||||15|
|Participatory action research||Refer to involvement of participants in the research process, commitment to social change, and that include aspects of social learning||||17|
|Action learning||A form of experiential learning that enlists peers in helping learners question their assumptions and (optimally) experience a paradigm shift before applying their learning in new situations.||||14|
|Critical emancipatory||An ideology for learning facilitation that arises from an emancipatory tradition, focusing on equity amongst classes, races and genders||||7|
|Problem-based learning||Learning that is focused, experiential and organised around investigation of real-world problems. Authentic experiences foster active learning, support knowledge construction and integrate school learning and real life.||||14|
|Competence||Importance||Required Level||Measured Level||Absolute Deficiency||Weighted Absolute Deficiency||Relative Deficiency||Weighted Relative Deficiency|
|Automatisation and robotics||90||90||70||20||18||22||20|
|Leveraging Work Skills||80||80||90||0||0||0||0|
|Taking Smart Risks||80||90||70||20||16||22||18|
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Abina, A.; Batkovič, T.; Cestnik, B.; Kikaj, A.; Kovačič Lukman, R.; Kurbus, M.; Zidanšek, A. Decision Support Concept for Improvement of Sustainability-Related Competences. Sustainability 2022, 14, 8539. https://doi.org/10.3390/su14148539
Abina A, Batkovič T, Cestnik B, Kikaj A, Kovačič Lukman R, Kurbus M, Zidanšek A. Decision Support Concept for Improvement of Sustainability-Related Competences. Sustainability. 2022; 14(14):8539. https://doi.org/10.3390/su14148539Chicago/Turabian Style
Abina, Andreja, Tanja Batkovič, Bojan Cestnik, Adem Kikaj, Rebeka Kovačič Lukman, Maja Kurbus, and Aleksander Zidanšek. 2022. "Decision Support Concept for Improvement of Sustainability-Related Competences" Sustainability 14, no. 14: 8539. https://doi.org/10.3390/su14148539