# Using Bayesian Networks to Provide Educational Implications: Mobile Learning and Ethnomathematics to Improve Sustainability in Mathematics Education

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## Abstract

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## 1. Introduction

#### 1.1. Sustainable Development in Education

#### 1.2. What Is Ethnomathematics?

#### 1.3. Ethnomathematics in School

#### 1.4. M-Learning

#### 1.5. Educational Uses

#### 1.6. Research Question

## 2. Method

#### 2.1. Pilot Study

#### 2.2. Participants

#### 2.3. Setting

#### 2.4. Data

## 3. Results and Discussion

#### 3.1. The Bayesian Network

#### 3.2. First Important Variable: Allow_Culture_Math

#### 3.3. Second Important Variable: Allow_Mobile_Device

#### 3.4. Both Important Variables: Allow_Mobile_Device and Allow_Culture_Math

#### 3.5. Gender Variables: Male or Female

## 4. Implications

## 5. Limitations and Future Research Extensions

## 6. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Institutional Review Board Statement

## Informed Consent Statement

## Data Availability Statement

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 5.**Marginal probability associated with each of the BN variables provided the information that Pr (Allow_Culture_Math = Yes) = 100%.

**Figure 6.**Marginal probability associated with each of the BN variables provided the information that Pr (Allow_Mobile_Device = yes) = 100%.

**Figure 7.**Marginal probability associated with each of the BN variables provided the information that Pr (Allow_Mobile_Device = Yes) = Pr (Allow_Culture_Math = Yes) = 100%.

**Figure 8.**Marginal probability associated with each of the BN variables provided the information that Pr (Allow_Mobile_Device = No) = 0 and Pr (Allow_Culture_Math = Yes) = 100%.

**Figure 9.**Marginal probability associated with each of the BN variables provided the information that Pr (Allow_Mobile_Device = Yes) = 100% and Pr (Allow_Culture_Math = No) = 0.

**Figure 10.**CPT associated with each of the BN variables provided the information that Gender = Female.

**Figure 11.**Marginal probability associated with each of the BN variables provided the information that Gender = Male.

Model | Result |
---|---|

R | 0.2763 |

R^{2} | 0.0764 |

RMSE | 0.2802 |

NRMSE | 28.0205% |

Overall Precision | 90.62% |

Mean Precision | 50.00% |

Overall Reliability | 82.13% |

Bayesian Network Software Coding | Survey Question |
---|---|

Gender | 1 *. Male or Female. |

Like_Math | 2. Do you like Math? |

Current_Mark | 3. What is your current mark in math? A, B, C, D, or F. |

Learn_Math_Today | 4. Did you learn mathematics today? |

Ipad_Used_Not_Today | 5. Have you used an iPad to learn Mathematics (not including today)? |

Allow_Culture_Math | 6. Should your school allow students to learn mathematics based on the UAE culture? |

Connect_To_Math | 7. Were you able to connect to some of the math problems? |

Confusing_To_Read | 8. Were the problems confusing to read? |

Allow_Mobile_Device | 9. Should your school allow students to learn math using a mobile device? |

Math_Culture_Before | 10. Before solving these math problems, have you solved problems that connect to the UAE culture? |

Like_Math_HW | 11. Do you like to do math homework? |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Johnson, J.D.; Smail, L.; Corey, D.; Jarrah, A.M.
Using Bayesian Networks to Provide Educational Implications: Mobile Learning and Ethnomathematics to Improve Sustainability in Mathematics Education. *Sustainability* **2022**, *14*, 5897.
https://doi.org/10.3390/su14105897

**AMA Style**

Johnson JD, Smail L, Corey D, Jarrah AM.
Using Bayesian Networks to Provide Educational Implications: Mobile Learning and Ethnomathematics to Improve Sustainability in Mathematics Education. *Sustainability*. 2022; 14(10):5897.
https://doi.org/10.3390/su14105897

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Johnson, Jason D., Linda Smail, Darryl Corey, and Adeeb M. Jarrah.
2022. "Using Bayesian Networks to Provide Educational Implications: Mobile Learning and Ethnomathematics to Improve Sustainability in Mathematics Education" *Sustainability* 14, no. 10: 5897.
https://doi.org/10.3390/su14105897