Introducing Sustainable Development Topics into Computer Science Education: Design and Evaluation of the Eco JSity Game
2. Related Work
2.1. General State of the Field
2.2. Examples of Games for Sustainable Development Education
3. The Eco JSity Game
3.1. Game Context
- Increasing motivation to protect the environment, helping to understand the nature of the interrelationships of economic and environmental processes, and instigating positive practices of personal and group behavior in relation to the environment, including responsible consumption.
3.2. Game Content
3.3. Game Form
4. Materials and Methods
4.1. Evaluation Method
4.2. Data Collection Instruments
- I believe that sustainable development is a key challenge for governments and researchers.
- I try to follow the principles of sustainable development in my everyday life (e.g., repair instead of throwing away, choose ecological means of transport, etc.).
- I am interested in sustainable development issues (I read articles, watch TV programs, etc.).
- I think that too much is being said about sustainable development nowadays.
- I think that it is a good idea to have sustainable development as the game topic.
- I believe that the sustainable development theme should be more prominent in the game.
- I believe that the game can raise awareness of sustainable development problems among some people.
- I believe that the sustainable development theme did not distract me from learning the algorithms.
- I think that adding the sustainable development theme (in the form of e.g. relevant examples and tasks) will make the programming course more interesting.
- I believe that adding the sustainable development theme will not affect the reception of the course, but will improve the awareness of sustainable development among students.
- I do not think that adding the theme of sustainable development to the programming course will have any positive or negative effect.
- I believe that adding the sustainable development theme to the programming course will unnecessarily distract students from its main topic.
4.3. Survey Administration and Participants
4.4. Data Analysis
- Agrees, indicating the percent of respondents who gave a positive response (i.e., 5, 6, or 7);
- Net top box, indicating the difference between the percent of respondents who gave an unambiguously positive response (i.e., 6 or 7) and those who gave an unambiguously negative response (i.e., 1 or 2) .
5. Evaluation Results
5.1. Perceived Usefulness and Perceived Ease-of-Use
5.2. Sustainable Development Aspects
- the features related to sustainable development did not go unnoticed (good for sustainable development education),
- the features related to sustainable development were a distraction from focusing upon algorithmic problem solving (bad for computer science education).
6. Discussion and Conclusions
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
- Huizinga, J. Homo Ludens: A Study of Play-Element in Culture; Routledge: London, UK, 1998. [Google Scholar]
- Caillois, R.; Barash, M. Man, Play, and Games; University of Illinois Press: Urbana, IL, USA, 2001. [Google Scholar]
- Chatfield, T.E.F. Fun Inc: Why Games Are the Twenty-First Century’s Most Serious Business; Virgin: London, UK, 2010. [Google Scholar]
- Mordor Intelligence. Gaming Market—Growth, Trends, Forecasts (2020–2025). 2020. Available online: https://www.researchandmarkets.com/reports/4845961/gaming-market-growth-trends-forecasts-2020 (accessed on 14 December 2020).
- Ašeriškis, D.; Damaševičius, R. Gamification of a project management system. In Proceedings of the ACHI 2014—7th International Conference on Advances in Computer-Human Interactions, Barcelona, Spain, 23–27 March 2014; pp. 200–207. [Google Scholar]
- Maskeliunas, R.; Damaševičius, R.; Lethin, C.; Paulauskas, A.; Esposito, A.; Catena, M.; Aschettino, V. Serious game iDO: Towards better education in dementia care. Information 2019, 10, 355. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Swacha, J.; Skrzyszewski, A.; Syslo, W.A. Computer Game Design Classes: The Students’ and Professionals’ Perspectives. Inform. Educ. 2010, 9, 249–260. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Cai, Y.; Goei, S.L.; Trooster, W. (Eds.) Simulation and Serious Games for Education; Gaming Media and Social Effects; Springer: Singapore, 2017. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Arnseth, H.; Hanghøj, T.; Henriksen, T.; Misfeldt, M.; Ramberg, R.; Selander, S. Games and Education: Designs in and for Learning; Gaming Ecologies and Pedagogies Series; Brill: Leiden, The Netherlands, 2018. [Google Scholar]
- Mayer, R.E. Computer Games in Education. Annu. Rev. Psychol. 2019, 70, 531–549. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Bayeck, R.Y. Examining Board Gameplay and Learning: A Multidisciplinary Review of Recent Research. Simul. Gaming 2020, 51, 411–431. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Kordaki, M.; Gousiou, A. Digital card games in education: A ten year systematic review. Comput. Educ. 2017, 109, 122–161. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Podjačevs, P.; Skorobogatova, O. Computer Role-Playing Games as One of the Most Efficient Methods of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education. Int. J. Inf. Technol. Secur. 2017, 9, 65–78. [Google Scholar]
- Kenwright, B. Brief review of video games in learning & education how far we have come. In Proceedings of the SIGGRAPH Asia 2017 Symposium on Education, Bangkok, Thailand, 27–30 November 2017; pp. 1–10. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Chang, C.Y.; Hwang, G.J. Trends in digital game-based learning in the mobile era: A systematic review of journal publications from 2007 to 2016. Int. J. Mob. Learn. Organ. 2019, 13, 68. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Kokkalia, G.; Drigas, A.; Economou, A.; Roussos, P.; Choli, S. The Use of Serious Games in Preschool Education. Int. J. Emerg. Technol. Learn. 2017, 12, 15–27. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Picka, K.; Stuchlikova, L. Digital Games in Primary and Lower Secondary Education Classes. In Proceedings of the 2019 17th International Conference on Emerging eLearning Technologies and Applications (ICETA), Stary Smokovec, Slovakia, 21–22 November 2019; pp. 618–625. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Huizenga, J.; ten Dam, G.; Voogt, J.; Admiraal, W. Teacher perceptions of the value of game-based learning in secondary education. Comput. Educ. 2017, 110, 105–115. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Juan, A.A.; Loch, B.; Daradoumis, T.; Ventura, S. Games and simulation in higher education. Int. J. Educ. Technol. High. Educ. 2017, 14, 37. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Wang, Y.L.; Hou, H.T.; Tsai, C.C. A systematic literature review of the impacts of digital games designed for older adults. Educ. Gerontol. 2020, 46, 1–17. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Dieleman, H.; Huisingh, D. Games by which to learn and teach about sustainable development: Exploring the relevance of games and experiential learning for sustainability. J. Clean. Prod. 2006, 14, 837–847. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Hallinger, P.; Wang, R.; Chatpinyakoop, C.; Nguyen, V.; Nguyen, U. A bibliometric review of research on simulations and serious games used in educating for sustainability, 1997–2019. J. Clean. Prod. 2020, 256. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Stanitsas, M.; Kirytopoulos, K.; Vareilles, E. Facilitating sustainability transition through serious games: A systematic literature review. J. Clean. Prod. 2019, 208, 924–936. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Emblen-Perry, K. Enhancing student engagement in business sustainability through games. Int. J. Sustain. High. Educ. 2018, 19, 858–876. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Jimenez Ramos, L.M.; Duarte Acosta, N.; Berrio Lopez, J.P.; Velez Uribe, J.P. To train software engineers with principles of sustainable development: A bibliometric study. In Proceedings of the IEEE 2020 Congreso Internacional de Innovación y Tendencias en Ingeniería (CONIITI), Bogotá, Colombia, 30 September–2 October 2020; pp. 1–4. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Láng, I. Sustainable Development—A New Challenge for the Countries in Central and Eastern Europe. In Proceedings of the World Summit on Sustainable Development: The Johannesburg Conference, Johannesburg, South Africa, 26 August–4 September 2002; pp. 211–222. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Fisher, D.H.; Bian, Z.; Chen, S. Incorporating Sustainability into Computing Education. IEEE Intell. Syst. 2016, 31, 93–96. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Karel Mulder, K.F. Is progress to Sustainability Committed Eengineers Stalking? J. Mod. Educ. Rev. 2019, 9, 23–28. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Kaunas Technical University and University of Szczecin. Eco JSity Web App. 2020. Available online: https://algo-js.usz.edu.pl/ (accessed on 14 December 2020).
- Kaunas Technical University and University of Szczecin. Eco JSity Android App. 2020. Available online: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=edu.ktu1.algorithms (accessed on 14 December 2020).
- Vlachopoulos, D.; Makri, A. The effect of games and simulations on higher education: A systematic literature review. Int. J. Educ. Technol. High. Educ. 2017, 14, 22. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Gatti, L.; Ulrich, M.; Seele, P. Education for sustainable development through business simulation games: An exploratory study of sustainability gamification and its effects on students’ learning outcomes. J. Clean. Prod. 2019, 207, 667–678. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Miguel, N.P.; Lage, J.C.; Galindez, A.M. Assessment of the development of professional skills in university students: Sustainability and serious games. Sustainability 2020, 12, 1014. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Dos Santos, A.D.; Strada, F.; Bottino, A. Approaching Sustainability Learning Via Digital Serious Games. IEEE Trans. Learn. Technol. 2019, 12, 303–320. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Capellán-Pérez, I.; Álvarez Antelo, D.; Miguel, L.J. Global sustainability crossroads: A participatory simulation game to educate in the energy and sustainability challenges of the 21st century. Sustainability 2019, 11, 3672. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Herrera, R.F.; Sanz, M.A.; Montalbán-Domingo, L.; García-Segura, T.; Pellicer, E. Impact of game-based learning on understanding lean construction principles. Sustainability 2019, 11, 5294. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Janakiraman, S.; Watson, S.L.; Watson, W.R.; Newby, T. Effectiveness of digital games in producing environmentally friendly attitudes and behaviors: A mixed methods study. Comput. Educ. 2021, 160, 104043. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Koenigstein, S.; Hentschel, L.; Heel, L.C.; Drinkorn, C. A game-based education approach for sustainable ocean development. ICES J. Mar. Sci. 2020, 77, 1629–1638. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Meinzen-Dick, R.; Janssen, M.A.; Kandikuppa, S.; Chaturvedi, R.; Rao, K.; Theis, S. Playing games to save water: Collective action games for groundwater management in Andhra Pradesh, India. World Dev. 2018, 107, 40–53. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Mellor, K.E.; Coish, P.; Brooks, B.W.; Gallagher, E.P.; Mills, M.; Kavanagh, T.J.; Simcox, N.; Lasker, G.A.; Botta, D.; Voutchkova-Kostal, A.; et al. The safer chemical design game. Gamification of green chemistry and safer chemical design concepts for high school and undergraduate students. Green Chem. Lett. Rev. 2018, 11, 103–110. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Miller, J.L.; Wentzel, M.T.; Clark, J.H.; Hurst, G.A. Green Machine: A Card Game Introducing Students to Systems Thinking in Green Chemistry by Strategizing the Creation of a Recycling Plant. J. Chem. Educ. 2019, 96, 3006–3013. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Orduña Alegría, M.E.; Schütze, N.; Zipper, S.C. A serious board game to analyze socio-ecological dynamics towards collaboration in agriculture. Sustainability 2020, 12, 5301. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Phongthanachote, C.; Rattanadecho, P.; Com-Arch, C.; Prommas, R. Animation and computer games design to build awareness of energy conservation. Sci. Technol. Asia 2019, 24, 21–29. [Google Scholar]
- Poole, R.; Spangler, S. ‘Eco this and recycle that’: An ecolinguistic analysis of a popular digital simulation game. Crit. Discourse Stud. 2020, 17, 344–357. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Saitua-Iribar, A.; Corral-Lage, J.; Peña-Miguel, N. Improving knowledge about the sustainable development goals through a collaborative learning methodology and serious game. Sustainability 2020, 12, 6169. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Su, C. Exploring sustainability environment educational design and learning effect evaluation through migration theory: An example of environment educational serious games. Sustainability 2018, 10, 3363. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Vatalis, K.I. Training sustainability through role playing in higher education. Prog. Ind. Ecol. Int. J. 2017, 11, 361. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Okewu, E.; Misra, S.; Sanz, L.F.; Maskeliūnas, R.; Damaševičius, R. An e-environment system for socio-economic sustainability and national security. Probl. Sustain. Dev. 2018, 13, 121–132. [Google Scholar]
- Okewu, E.; Misra, S.; Fernandez Sanz, L.; Ayeni, F.; Mbarika, V.; Damaševičius, R. Deep neural networks for curbing climate change-induced farmers-herdsmen clashes in a sustainable social inclusion initiative. Probl. Sustain. Dev. 2019, 14, 143–155. [Google Scholar]
- Adenugba, F.; Misra, S.; Maskeliūnas, R.; Damaševičius, R.; Kazanavičius, E. Smart irrigation system for environmental sustainability in Africa: An Internet of Everything (IoE) approach. Math. Biosci. Eng. 2019, 16, 5490–5503. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- UNESCO. The Belgrade Charter. A Global Framework for Environmental Education. In Connect: UNESCO/UNEP Environmental Education Newsletter; UNESCO: Paris, France, 1976; Volume 1, pp. 1–9. [Google Scholar]
- Rieckmann, M. Education for Sustainable Development Goals: Learning Objectives; UNESCO: Paris, France, 2017. [Google Scholar]
- Plass, J.L.; Homer, B.D.; Kinzer, C.K. Foundations of Game-Based Learning. Educ. Psychol. 2015, 50, 258–283. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Ogata, H.; Matsuka, Y.; Bishouty, M.M.E.; Yano, Y. LORAMS: Linking physical objects and videos for capturing and sharing learning experiences towards ubiquitous learning. Int. J. Mob. Learn. Organ. 2009, 3, 337. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Jahnke, I.; Lee, Y.M.; Pham, M.; He, H.; Austin, L. Unpacking the Inherent Design Principles of Mobile Microlearning. Technol. Knowl. Learn. 2020, 25, 585–619. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- The Joint Task Force on Computing Curricula Association for Computing Machinery (ACM). Computer Science Curricula 2013: Curriculum Guidelines for Undergraduate Degree Programs in Computer Science; Association for Computing Machinery: New York, NY, USA, 2013. [Google Scholar]
- Gee, J.P. Learning by Design: Good Video Games as Learning Machines. E-Learn. Digit. Media 2005, 2, 5–16. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Kirkpatrick, D.L.; Kirkpatrick, J.D. Evaluating Training Programs: The Four Levels; OCLC: 745352435; Berrett-Koehler Publishers: Sydney, Australia; San Francisco, CA, USA, 2010. [Google Scholar]
- Petri, G.; von Wangenheim, C.G. How games for computing education are evaluated? A systematic literature review. Comput. Educ. 2017, 107, 68–90. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Davis, F.D. Perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and user acceptance of information technology. MIS Q. 1989, 319–340. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Lah, U.; Lewis, J.R.; Šumak, B. Perceived Usability and the Modified Technology Acceptance Model. Int. J. Hum. Comput. Interact. 2020, 36, 1216–1230. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Giannakoulas, A.; Xinogalos, S. A pilot study on the effectiveness and acceptance of an educational game for teaching programming concepts to primary school students. Educ. Inf. Technol. 2018, 23, 2029–2052. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Onashoga, A.S.; Ojo, O.E.; Soyombo, O.O. Securix: A 3D game-based learning approach for phishing attack awareness. J. Cyber Secur. Technol. 2019, 3, 108–124. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Lewis, J.R. Comparison of Four TAM Item Formats: Effect of Response Option Labels and Order. J. Usability Stud. 2019, 14, 224–236. [Google Scholar]
- Dolnicar, S.; Grün, B.; Leisch, F. Quick, Simple and Reliable: Forced Binary Survey Questions. Int. J. Mark. Res. 2011, 53, 231–252. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Joshi, A.; Kale, S.; Chandel, S.; Pal, D. Likert Scale: Explored and Explained. Br. J. Appl. Sci. Technol. 2015, 7, 396–403. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Sauro, J. How to Interpret Survey Responses: 5 Techniques. MeasuringU. 2011. Available online: https://measuringu.com/interpret-responses/ (accessed on 23 March 2021).
- Zhang, T.; Ramakrishnan, R.; Livny, M. BIRCH: An Efficient Data Clustering Method for Very Large Databases. In Proceedings of the 1996 ACM SIGMOD International Conference on Management of Data (SIGMOD ’96), Montreal, QC, Canada, 4–6 June 1996; pp. 103–114. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
|Ašeriškis et al.||2014||Game for supporting sustainable business project management |
|Capellán-Pérez et al.||2019||Simulation game to educate on the energy and sustainability challenges |
|Herrera et al.||2019||Game for educating on lean construction principles |
|Janakiraman et al.||2021||Game-based learning platform to experience energy-related issues in the context of developing an eco-friendly city |
|Koenigstein et al.||2020||Role-playing game for marine sustainability education |
|Meinzen-Dick et al.||2018||Action game for groundwater management aimed at water saving |
|Mellor et al.||2019||Educational game motivating undergraduate and advanced high school students for environmentally-aware chemical design |
|Miller et al.||2019||Card game to support systems thinking in green chemistry that focuses on the creation of a recycling plant |
|Orduña Alegría et al.||2020||Educational game on the socio-ecological dynamics of collaboration in agriculture |
|Phongthanachote et al.||2019||Game to promote sustainable energy conservation |
|Poole et al.||2020||Digital simulation game for promoting activities and supporting identities and practices oriented toward ecological well-being and sustainability |
|Saitua-Iribar et al.||2020||Serious game to educate on the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) |
|Su||2018||Strategy game focusing on the effects of human migration on environmental sustainability issues |
|Vatalis et al.||2017||Role-playing game for teaching higher education students the concept of Sustainable Development Goals |
|Principle||Implementation in Eco JSity|
|Co-Design||Students write solution code on their own using their knowledge and creativity.|
|Customize||Solutions are evaluated on the basis of their effect, not the way they are implemented.|
|Identity||Students impersonate an advisor responsible for sustainable city development.|
|Manipulation||Students’ code execution is graphically presented in the city view.|
|Well-Ordered Problems||The problems are presented in order from the least to the most complex.|
|Pleasantly Frustrating||Difficulty is fine tuned by providing hints to make the harder problems easier or leaving some details unsaid to make the simple ones more difficult to solve.|
|Cycles of Expertise||Solving the further problems requires adapting and combining knowledge learned with solving the previous ones.|
|Information “On Demand” and “Just in Time”||Only minimum necessary information is given initially; students get instant feedback after trying to run their code.|
|Fish Tanks||Complex real-world problems are simplified to a single dimension and/or aspect so that they can be solved with simple solutions.|
|Sandboxes||Only a subset of the programming language is available to students so that their code cannot damage the learning environment.|
|Skills as Strategies||All problems to solve in the game mirror actual real-world problems.|
|System Thinking||There is a common context for all problems (city management).|
|Meaning as Action Image||Problems and solutions are visualized in a way emphasizing their key properties.|
|Variable||Question||Agrees||Net Top Box|
|PU1||Using the app would enable me to learn faster||69.57%||26.09%|
|PU2||Using the app would increase my learning outcomes||55.07%||18.84%|
|PU3||Using the app would enhance my learning effectiveness||60.87%||23.19%|
|PU4||Using the app would improve my learning outcomes||65.22%||23.19%|
|PU5||Using the app would make my learning easier||69.57%||27.54%|
|PU6||I would find the app useful in my education||73.91%||34.78%|
|PEU1||Learning to use the app would be easy for me||66.67%||31.88%|
|PEU2||I would find it easy to do what I want in app||50.72%||17.39%|
|PEU3||Learning with the app would be clear and understandable||55.07%||20.29%|
|PEU4||I would find the app to be flexible to interact with||53.62%||8.70%|
|PEU5||It would be easy for me to become skillful at using the app||60.87%||23.19%|
|PEU6||I would find the app easy to use||59.42%||20.29%|
Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Swacha, J.; Maskeliūnas, R.; Damaševičius, R.; Kulikajevas, A.; Blažauskas, T.; Muszyńska, K.; Miluniec, A.; Kowalska, M. Introducing Sustainable Development Topics into Computer Science Education: Design and Evaluation of the Eco JSity Game. Sustainability 2021, 13, 4244. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13084244
Swacha J, Maskeliūnas R, Damaševičius R, Kulikajevas A, Blažauskas T, Muszyńska K, Miluniec A, Kowalska M. Introducing Sustainable Development Topics into Computer Science Education: Design and Evaluation of the Eco JSity Game. Sustainability. 2021; 13(8):4244. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13084244Chicago/Turabian Style
Swacha, Jakub, Rytis Maskeliūnas, Robertas Damaševičius, Audrius Kulikajevas, Tomas Blažauskas, Karolina Muszyńska, Agnieszka Miluniec, and Magdalena Kowalska. 2021. "Introducing Sustainable Development Topics into Computer Science Education: Design and Evaluation of the Eco JSity Game" Sustainability 13, no. 8: 4244. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13084244