Map and Track the Performance in Education for Sustainable Development across the European Union
- F: Formal education: referring to the sides of formal education systems: early leavers from education and tertiary education.
- N: Non-formal education: referring to life-long learning/adult learning and skills.
- E: Essential education: referring to the basic knowledge of youngsters on PISA scale, meant to help them understand the importance of SDG.
- EPM: underachievement in mathematics (descriptor: the share of 15-year-old students failing to reach basic skills level on the PISA scale for mathematics) ;
- EPR: underachievement in reading (descriptor: the share of 15-year-old students failing to reach basic skills level on the PISA scale for reading) .
- Expand the compulsory education for both ends of the education system. Half of EU27 countries start the compulsory education at the age of 6 and finalize it at the age of 16 ;
- Consider a completely free education system, from primary to tertiary education, including also a free/subsidised hot meal during school time. This already happens in Finland and Sweden, as previously mentioned ;
- Promote policies for the inclusive education for all learners, including those with special needs;
- Introduce training obligations at the end of the compulsory education until the age of 18 (unless the pupil does not continue the studies: tertiary education, vocational training). For instance, in France, this has been introduced starting with 2020 ;
- Provide ICT education for all ages for digital skills development;
- Measure learning earlier to identify gaps in essential education and act on them sooner (PISA testing is aimed at 15-year-olds);
- Involve higher education institutions in the active evaluation of competencies of graduates through a national/European professional licence/professional exam which must include responsibilities for sustainable development;
- Allow a holistic skill development by flexible curricula focused on student learning.
- Foster responsibility of learners by promoting teaching based on sustainable development core issues;
- Provide more funding for education and restrain from budget cuts, as they are still happening for the countries belonging to Cluster 4.
- Introducing FNE conceptual framework involving the selection of the most appro-priate KPIs for ESD—inclusive and equitable quality education;
- Calculating a composite index meant to reflect the ranking of each country: SEI;
- Application of the FNE framework to EU27;
- Identification of clusters of countries depending on SEI and recommendations, especially for low performers.
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|KPI||FEL (%)||FTS (%)||NFE (%)||NBD (%)||EPM (%)||EPR (%)|
|Rank.||Country||Sustainable Education Index (SEI)||Value||Clusters||SEI Values (0–1)|
|1||Finland||0.802||0.7 < SEI < 0.9||Cluster I:|
|7||Luxembourg||0.648||0.5 < SEI < 0.7||Cluster II:|
|20||Greece||0.454||0.3 < SEI < 0.5||Cluster III:|
|26||Bulgaria||0.096||0 < SEI < 0.3||Cluster IV:|
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Momete, D.C.; Momete, M.M. Map and Track the Performance in Education for Sustainable Development across the European Union. Sustainability 2021, 13, 13185. https://doi.org/10.3390/su132313185
Momete DC, Momete MM. Map and Track the Performance in Education for Sustainable Development across the European Union. Sustainability. 2021; 13(23):13185. https://doi.org/10.3390/su132313185Chicago/Turabian Style
Momete, Daniela Cristina, and Manuel Mihail Momete. 2021. "Map and Track the Performance in Education for Sustainable Development across the European Union" Sustainability 13, no. 23: 13185. https://doi.org/10.3390/su132313185