Incorporating Form-Based Codes into the Design-Based Approach to Historic Building Conservation in Phuket, Thailand
1.1. Relevance of FBCs
1.2. Components and Process of FBCs
1.2.1. Building Placement
1.2.2. Allowed Frontage Types
1.2.3. Allowed Building Types
1.3. Problems in Thailand’s Urban Planning System
1.4. The Relationship between the Historic District and the Zoning District
2. The Study Area: Phuket’s Old Town
2.1. The Study Area
2.2. Existing Codes and Regulation Analysis
3. Research Methodology
3.1. Data Collection
- Vision, People—Communication Vision: in-depth interviews to ascertain a community vision from the three stakeholders, i.e., government, private companies, and people who own buildings in the study area. This provided a clear understanding of the intentions for the future of the community at the end of the study.
- Visualization, Prosperity, Vision of Growth, Assembling and Formatting, Progress—Plan Implementation: to transfer all processes into the final Form-Based Code document.
3.2. Data Analysis
- Proposed Cases—Cases that have successfully implemented FBCs. We will be studying three factors from both cases’ Building Standard, Building Use, Building Placement, and Building Materials, to write a proposal for the baseline case’s building façade alteration to fit the Sino-Portuguese architecture format shown in Figure 2.
- Residents’ satisfaction and the existing building suitability.
- The ease with which the building façade can be altered according to the laws and regulations.
- Public awareness of the importance of the collaboration between the government, private companies, and the residents in the establishment of a preservation plan.
- Restrictions and comments on the implementation of FBCs in Phuket’s Old Town.
4. Results and Discussion
- The design and determination of guidelines and codes for architectural preservation and restoration that include both building façades and building placement. These guidelines and codes should be presented as options to be chosen when designing and constructing both old and new buildings.
- Giving the proper rights to landowners that follow design guidelines. These rights include (1) tax incentives or subsiding patronage, (2) promoting the preservation and restoration of the city’s historical architecture and heritage, and (3) collecting funds to preserve, conserve, and manage building preservation projects that are related to different templates dependent on the degradation of the building, using both government and private funds. The stakeholders’ visions for both government and house owners should be developed, in order to increase the organization’s project and the staff’s potential and ability.
4.3. Visualizing, Assembling, and Formatting
5. Conclusions and Recommendations
5.1. Research Conclusion
5.2. Recommendation on Thai Urban Planning in Historic Districts
Conflicts of Interest
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|Topic||Local Historic District (LHD)||Zoning District|
|Focus Point||Local historic district is based on design review.||Zoning is based on land use.|
|What Reviewed||The Historic District Commission (HDC) reviews the proposed work. HDC members gain expertise in architectural styles, historical materials, and the use of appropriate modern materials.||It is reviewed by planning commission members who do not have specialized expertise in historic preservation practices. Places added burden on planning/zoning board members.|
|Focus||The design review focuses on the retention of significant details and features that make up the character of a building.||The review focuses on broad-brush issues such as height, bulk, area, density, use, and setback.|
|Who Reviewed||The review is based on the Secretary of the Interior’s Standards for Rehabilitation, a national set of standards in use for 45 years.||The planning commission/zoning board must develop standards and guidelines.|
|Related to Preservation Tax Incentive||The HDC review is based on the same standards developed for federal historic preservation tax credits, which can be used by commercial property owners to rehabilitate historic resources.||The interpretation of standards and guidelines by those unfamiliar with basic preservation principles may result in work that does not meet federal historic preservation tax credit requirements.|
|What is Public Act and What is Purpose||The Local Historic District Enabling Act gives local governments the legal authority to regulate work in designated historic districts to increase property values, foster civic beauty, strengthen the local economy, and promote and safeguard heritage.||The Zoning Enabling Act gives local government the legal authority to regulate development and land use to promote public health, safety, and general welfare.|
The uncertainty of the guidelines for design review adopted under a zoning ordinance meet that requirement and could be challenged in court.
|Observed Variables||Existing Thai Codes||Form-Based Codes||Compatibility of Codes|
|B1—Building Use||Comprehensive plan||Allowed building use||Good||Good|
|Allow residential, commercial, government building, art, and cultural building and recreation area|
|B2—Building Placement||Building codes /National Resources: for Sino–Portuguese and regular building||Building height, building height, parallel grid lines, repetitive elements||Good||Fair|
|B3—Building Materials||Building codes: control only fire components and no details of elements and materials||Building Façade: suggest for building elements, lighting, signage||Fair||Improve|
|Item||Observed Variables||Baseline Case (%)|
|DB (1)||DB (2)||TL (1)||TL (2)|
|Total buildings (units)||56||61||77||89|
|Numbers in the Baseline Cases (%)||Historic buildings||75.00||85.25||88.31||87.64|
|Type of Sino-Portuguese style in Phuket Old Town (%)||Localization Style I||30.77||7.14||0||0|
|Localization Style II||30.77||7.14||16.67||54.55|
|Eclectic Style I||28.08||71.43||0||45.45|
|Eclectic Style II||0||7.14||66.67||0|
|B1—Building Use (%)||B1a—Residential||30.78||71.44||25.00||0.00|
|B2—Building Placement||B2a—Color Scheme||Good||Good||Good||Fair|
|B3—Building Materials||B3a—Design inspiration:|
wall, door, windows, post
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Masuwan, K.; Lertwattanaruk, P. Incorporating Form-Based Codes into the Design-Based Approach to Historic Building Conservation in Phuket, Thailand. Sustainability 2020, 12, 3859. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12093859
Masuwan K, Lertwattanaruk P. Incorporating Form-Based Codes into the Design-Based Approach to Historic Building Conservation in Phuket, Thailand. Sustainability. 2020; 12(9):3859. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12093859Chicago/Turabian Style
Masuwan, Kanokwan, and Pusit Lertwattanaruk. 2020. "Incorporating Form-Based Codes into the Design-Based Approach to Historic Building Conservation in Phuket, Thailand" Sustainability 12, no. 9: 3859. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12093859