Sustainable Move towards Flexible, Robotic, Human-Involving Workplace
3. Theoretical Background
3.1. Flexible Workplace
3.2. Operator 4.0
3.3. Collaborative Robots
3.4. Augmented Reality
4. Case Study
4.1. AS-IS State
- correction of the surface of the plate holders,
- local manual inductive welding,
- loading of a machine with simple square workpieces,
- screwing in the assembly phase,
- 3D shape scanning,
- applying data to the surface of tool components,
- production and usage of measuring devices,
- inserting bolts on the press table,
- internal transport within the production hall.
4.2. Evaluation Model
- potential for a flexible, robotic, human-involving workplace (partially presented in Figure 5),
- analysis of the technical aspect,
- developmental analysis,
- analysis of the economic issue,
- analysis of the aspect of humanisation of work,
- final evaluation using weights.
- 0—not likely,
- 1—from 1% to 20 % of the task,
- 2—from 21% to 40 % of the task,
- 3—from 41% to 60 % of the task,
- 4—from 61% to 80 % of the task,
- 5—from 81% to 100 % of the task.
- Ability to achieve lower, equal or improved productivity over the existing procedure?
- Flexibility versus flexibility in the current procedure?
- Quality versus quality in the current procedure?
- Possible degree of automation reached?
- Possible level of collaboration reached?
- Are object masses suitable for a technological upgrade?
- Are object shapes suitable for a technological upgrade?
- Is the size of the available work area suitable for a technological upgrade?
- What is the estimated degree of complexity of solution development?
- What is the estimated actuality of the solution in 5 to 10 years?
- The following questions were used to evaluate the economic aspect:
- What is the estimated cost of development?
- What is the estimated cost of manufacturing?
- Is ROI acceptable?
- Will be workers relieved in terms of inappropriate posture?
- Will be workers relieved in terms of repetitive movements?
- Will the solution enhance workplace safety?
4.3. The Laboratory Development of Screwing Using a Collaborative Robot and Augmented Reality
- new problems arise during the production and assembly phase;
- inadequate products are produced by a particular tool;
- new ideas are required to achieve the prescribed tolerances;
- extremely demanding curves have to be produced, etc.
Conflicts of Interest
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Gajšek, B.; Stradovnik, S.; Hace, A. Sustainable Move towards Flexible, Robotic, Human-Involving Workplace. Sustainability 2020, 12, 6590. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12166590
Gajšek B, Stradovnik S, Hace A. Sustainable Move towards Flexible, Robotic, Human-Involving Workplace. Sustainability. 2020; 12(16):6590. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12166590Chicago/Turabian Style
Gajšek, Brigita, Saša Stradovnik, and Aleš Hace. 2020. "Sustainable Move towards Flexible, Robotic, Human-Involving Workplace" Sustainability 12, no. 16: 6590. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12166590