Next Issue
Volume 14, March
Previous Issue
Volume 13, September
 
 

Int. J. Plant Biol., Volume 13, Issue 4 (December 2022) – 21 articles

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Reader to open them.
Order results
Result details
Section
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
19 pages, 2059 KiB  
Article
Assessment of Novel Genetic Diversity Induced by Mutagenesis and Estimation of Genetic Parameters in Sesame M4 Mutant Lines
by Mohamed Kouighat, Hafida Hanine, Oumaima Chetto, Samir Fakhour, Mohamed El Fechtali and Abdelghani Nabloussi
Int. J. Plant Biol. 2022, 13(4), 644-662; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijpb13040052 - 18 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1498
Abstract
Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) is an ancient oilseed, aromatic, and medicinal crop widely used for its high-quality oil and seeds. The available genetic diversity in Morocco is too limited; thus, a mutagenesis breeding program was adopted. This study was carried out to [...] Read more.
Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) is an ancient oilseed, aromatic, and medicinal crop widely used for its high-quality oil and seeds. The available genetic diversity in Morocco is too limited; thus, a mutagenesis breeding program was adopted. This study was carried out to evaluate the novel variability induced and observed in 11 M4 mutant lines and to estimate some valuable genetic parameters. The experiment was conducted in two different environments using a randomized complete block design with three replications. Phenological, morphological, and agronomic traits were recorded. To estimate the effect of genotype, environment, and their interaction, ANOVA and planned contrast analyses were performed. To examine relatedness among genotypes, cluster analysis was performed. Significant differences among mutants and between parent cultivars and their respective mutant lines were observed. Genetic parameters such as genotypic (GCV) and phenotypic (PCV) coefficients of variation, broad-sense heritability (H2 b.s), genetic advance (GA), and genetic advance over the mean (GAM) were high in most traits. Highly productive mutants, ‘US2-1’ and ‘US1-2’, were observed, exhibiting the highest number of capsules per plant and seed yield ever reported. Additionally, there are other promising mutants with early flowering, early maturity, and a reduced height of the first capsule. This suggests that mutagenesis can be successfully applied to develop high-yielding sesame varieties along with other improved phenological and agromorphological traits. All these mutant lines can be used as promising germplasm to develop competitive sesame cultivars to meet the increasing demand for sesame oil and seeds in the actual context of climate change. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

10 pages, 1526 KiB  
Article
Population Structure of Pyrola chlorantha (Family Ericaceae) at the Southern Range Margin (Samara Region, Russia)
by Valentina Ilyina, Stepan Senator, Anna Mitroshenkova, Olga Kozlovskaya and Ivan Kazantsev
Int. J. Plant Biol. 2022, 13(4), 634-643; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijpb13040051 - 15 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1195
Abstract
The population structure of endangered species is one of the main criteria for assessing their state in their habitats. Representatives of the Ericaceae family are sensitive to environmental changes, including anthropogenic pressure; thus, they are considered the indicator species in assessing phytocenose stability. [...] Read more.
The population structure of endangered species is one of the main criteria for assessing their state in their habitats. Representatives of the Ericaceae family are sensitive to environmental changes, including anthropogenic pressure; thus, they are considered the indicator species in assessing phytocenose stability. The population structure and density of the threatened species green-flowered wintergreen, Pyrola chlorantha Sw., have been described at the southern range margin (south-east of the European part of Russia, Samara Region). The observations were performed here in 2006–2021, and the main parameters of the age and spatial structure of P. chlorantha populations were revealed for the first time. Green-flowered wintergreen populations were studied at monitoring study sites and at temporarily established study plots. A bush part (ramet) was set as a counting unit. In total, 27 sub-populations were surveyed, with 1520 individuals registered. The age structure of populations was characterized using common demographic indicators: the recovery index and the population age index. The age structure of the population was associated with the efficiency of both vegetative and seed reproduction. Generally, the share of pre-generative individuals was 32.3%, generative, 66.9%, and senile, 1.8%. The studied populations were stable due to low anthropogenic impact at the growth sites. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

9 pages, 2959 KiB  
Brief Report
A Coupled Transport-Adhesion Mechanism Responsible for the Attachment of Adventitious Root Hairs of Climbing Plants to the Surrounding Surface
by Yan Liu and Morgan Gao
Int. J. Plant Biol. 2022, 13(4), 625-633; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijpb13040050 - 13 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1061
Abstract
Biological adhesive systems in both geckoes and climbing plants share similar hierarchical structures, such as the toe-seta-spatula structure in geckoes and the root-rootlet-hair structure in English ivy (Hedera helix). The former operates at a spectrum of length scales that are much [...] Read more.
Biological adhesive systems in both geckoes and climbing plants share similar hierarchical structures, such as the toe-seta-spatula structure in geckoes and the root-rootlet-hair structure in English ivy (Hedera helix). The former operates at a spectrum of length scales that are much smaller than the latter. Consequently, the spatula adhesion in geckoes exhibits a flaw-insensitive behavior, or in other words, the large-scale-bridging characteristics shield the stress singularities at the adhesive contact front. In contrast, adventitious root hairs from commonly seen household climbing plants are of several tens to hundreds of micrometers long, so that the adhesive contact appears to resemble a linear elastic crack and thus would have a very low pulling force for de-adhesion. This apparent contradiction between modeling and observations is resolved in this work by a coupled transport–adhesion mechanism, in which an adhesive layer that carries gluing nanoparticles flows towards the adhesive contact front. This provides an effective way to shield the stress singularity, resulting in a scenario that completely differs from gecko adhesion. Finite element simulations have been conducted to illustrate this proposed mechanism and then compared to available experimental observations in the literature. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 306 KiB  
Article
Proximate, Minerals, and Vitamin C Contents of Selected Wild Edible Plants in Lasta District, Northeastern Ethiopia
by Endale Adamu, Zemede Asfaw, Sebsebe Demissew and Kaleab Baye
Int. J. Plant Biol. 2022, 13(4), 613-624; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijpb13040049 - 12 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1838
Abstract
Wild edible plants (WEPs) are the natural food source that can help to mitigate food insecurity and improve starvation in low income countries including Ethiopia. Despite the widespread use of WEPs in Ethiopia, studies on the nutritional contents of Ethiopian WEPs are limited. [...] Read more.
Wild edible plants (WEPs) are the natural food source that can help to mitigate food insecurity and improve starvation in low income countries including Ethiopia. Despite the widespread use of WEPs in Ethiopia, studies on the nutritional contents of Ethiopian WEPs are limited. The objective of the current study is to evaluate the nutritional value (proximate, mineral, and vitamin C contents) of the most consumed seven wild edible plants collected from Lasta District, Northeastern Ethiopia. The nutritional parameters including proximate, macro and micronutrients, and also vitamin C contents of the selected seven wild edible plants were evaluated using standard food analysis methods (moisture by dry-oven method, ash by high-temperature incineration in an electric muffle furnace, fat by Soxhlet extraction procedure, protein by Kjeldahl process, minerals by Atomic absorption spectrometer and atomic emission spectrometry and vitamin C by using a spectrophotometer). One-way ANOVA was used to analyze the nutritional content variations of selected WEPs. The proximate composition of the 7 WEPs came in the respective ranges of moisture (6.50–9.77 g/100 g); ash (6.99–26.35 g/100 g); crude protein (13.1–33.63 g/100 g); crude fat (1.08–9.83 g/100 g); crude fiber (6.21–43.77 g/100 g); utilizable carbohydrate (30.11–66.25 g/100 g) and gross energy (213.05–414.80 Kcal/100 g). The mineral composition of WEPs (mg/100 g dry weight) for macronutrients ranged from 25.53–37.99 Na, 56.65–72.79 Mg, 14.40–43.57 K, 44.35–60.14 Ca, and for micronutrients it ranged from 10.51–27.96 Fe, 8.35–23.87 Zn, 14.08–23.20 Cu, and 7.99–19.08 Mn. The vitamin C contents of WEPs (mg/100 g dry weight) ranged from 2.16–70.42 except in Haplocarpha rueppelii leaves in which its vitamin C content is below the detection limit. The outcome of the investigation indicates that the proximate, mineral and vitamin C contents of the WEPs included in the analysis were higher than those of some common crops (sorghum, rice, wheat, barley and maize), indicating their nutritional contribution to the human diet in the studied area. These wild food sources make up a good part of the traditional subsistence system of the people of Lasta District alongside their common food crops and other food sources. Full article
0 pages, 747 KiB  
Article
Rhizophagus irregularis and Azotobacter chroococcum Uphold Eggplant Production and Quality under Low Fertilization
by Meenakshi Sharma, Anil Kumar Delta, Navjot Singh Brar, Alpa Yadav, Parmdeep Singh Dhanda, Marouane Baslam and Prashant Kaushik
Int. J. Plant Biol. 2022, 13(4), 601-612; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijpb13040048 - 9 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1564 | Correction
Abstract
Microorganisms are essential parts of soil and play an important role in mediating many processes and influencing plant health. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and nitrogen-fixing bacteria (NFB), the most common of such microorganisms, can benefit plants by enhancing the nutrient-absorbing ability of roots [...] Read more.
Microorganisms are essential parts of soil and play an important role in mediating many processes and influencing plant health. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and nitrogen-fixing bacteria (NFB), the most common of such microorganisms, can benefit plants by enhancing the nutrient-absorbing ability of roots through bio-inoculation, also called biofertilization. Different methods have been tested and proven to be effective in the enhancement of soil nutrient availability. However, the effects of increased application of biological methods with minimal chemical fertilizers are still inconsistent. In this 2-year of fixed-point greenhouse test, we aimed to evaluate the impact of AMF (Rhizophagus irregularis) and/or NFB (Azotobacter) on growth, quality, and yield of eggplants under different N levels. Data showed that biofertilizer application with reduced chemical fertilizer had the highest impact on eggplant performance and yield. Indeed, low chemical fertilizers combined with adequate amounts of biofertilizers produced a higher plant height, length and width of leaves, dry matter, number of fruits per plant with better morphology, total yield per plant, and total soluble solids (TSS), suggesting that the use of Azotobacter and R. irregularis as biofertilizers could substantially reduce the use of chemical fertilizers without impairing the quality and yield of eggplant. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

3 pages, 548 KiB  
Commentary
Frontline Warrior microRNA167: A Battle of Survival
by Gurparsad Singh Suri and Manish Tiwari
Int. J. Plant Biol. 2022, 13(4), 598-600; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijpb13040047 - 5 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1610
Abstract
Plant pathogens such as viruses are detrimental to the survivorship of plant species. Coinfection of maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) and the sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) causes a deadly disease in maize. An investigation by Liu et al. (2022) showed the role of [...] Read more.
Plant pathogens such as viruses are detrimental to the survivorship of plant species. Coinfection of maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) and the sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) causes a deadly disease in maize. An investigation by Liu et al. (2022) showed the role of Zma-miR167 in positively imparting resistance against the MCMV and SCMV. The authors identified ZmARF3 and ZmARF30 as the targets of Zma-miR167. ZmARF3 and ZmARF30 were identified as transcription factors that bind the cis-element in ZmPAO1 promoters to activate its expression. The authors showed how the Zma-miR167-ZmARF3/30-ZmPAO1 module functions differently in resistant and susceptible lines with high expression of Zma-miR167 in resistant lines correlated with the resistant phenotype. Finally, the authors concluded that MCMV-encoded p31 protein enhances ZmPAO1 enzyme activity for its survival in the host. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 394 KiB  
Review
Shoot Phenology in Bambusoideae: A Review
by Khin Nyein Chan, Zhiwei Liang, Szilvia Kisvarga, Anikó Veres, Dóra Hamar-Farkas, László Orlóci and András Neményi
Int. J. Plant Biol. 2022, 13(4), 579-597; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijpb13040046 - 5 Dec 2022
Viewed by 2054
Abstract
The study of plant phenology is important nowadays since global climate-changing phenomena are impacting the growing patterns and growing periods of plants. Bamboo is of great importance to the agriculture and forestry of temperate, subtropical to tropical regions, especially of Asia. Although some [...] Read more.
The study of plant phenology is important nowadays since global climate-changing phenomena are impacting the growing patterns and growing periods of plants. Bamboo is of great importance to the agriculture and forestry of temperate, subtropical to tropical regions, especially of Asia. Although some temperate genera can thrive under different climatic conditions, from the Korean Peninsula to South China, it is not known how bamboo will be affected by climate change, so the collection of data related to bamboo phenology could be of interest to research related to climate change. In this review, we describe available data on the phenology of 8 temperate genera, including 79 species, varieties and forms and 4 subtropical–tropical bamboo genera, including 19 species. Primarily, culm shoot physiology is discussed with some reference to leaf phenology data, where available, as well as their interaction. Since the data available in Western literature is often limited to the definition of season rather than exact dates and periods of given months, there is still a great need to explore more about the exact phenology of individual bamboo species to be able to determine the impact of periodic changes in weather patterns or climate change on bamboo phenology in the future. Full article
18 pages, 7489 KiB  
Article
Phytochemical Profile, Antioxidant Potential, Proximate and Trace Elements Composition of Leaves, Stems and Ashes from 12 Combretum spp. Used as Food Additives
by Morongwa Mary Mathipa, Maboko Samuel Mphosi and Peter Masoko
Int. J. Plant Biol. 2022, 13(4), 561-578; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijpb13040045 - 28 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1335
Abstract
In this study, twelve Combretum spp. were investigated for their phytochemical content, antioxidant potential, and their proximate and trace elements/minerals composition. The qualitative phytochemical composition of the leaves, stems, and ashes of Combretum plants analysed revealed the presence of saponins, tannins, terpenoids, steroids, [...] Read more.
In this study, twelve Combretum spp. were investigated for their phytochemical content, antioxidant potential, and their proximate and trace elements/minerals composition. The qualitative phytochemical composition of the leaves, stems, and ashes of Combretum plants analysed revealed the presence of saponins, tannins, terpenoids, steroids, cardiac glycosides, and flavonoids. The following phytoconstituents were lost in the ashes; tannins apart from C. mkuzense and C. padoides; cardiac glycosides; and flavonoids. The quantitative phytochemical analyses revealed that both the leaves, stems, and some ashes such as C. apiculatum and C. vendae contained levels of phenolic compounds, tannins, and flavonoids. DPPH screening method indicated great scavenging activity with the 70% acetone leaf extracts of C. kraussii, C. zeyheriim, and C. mkuzense. There was a significant decrease in the antioxidant activity in the ashes compared to the leaves and the stems. AOAC and ICPE protocols performed the proximate and nutritional analysis of the 70% acetone extracts. The extracts had substantial amounts of ash, moisture, protein, and energy. The leaves and ashes of C. adenogonium and C. apiculatum could provide a good source of calcium in the diet. This study presents valuable information on the phytochemical composition, nutritional composition, and antioxidant properties of some Combretum species. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 1190 KiB  
Article
Quality Control, Phytochemical Profile, and Antibacterial Effect of Origanum compactum Benth. Essential Oil from Morocco
by Mouhcine Hayani, Noureddine Bencheikh, Atika Ailli, Mohamed Bouhrim, Amine Elbouzidi, Hayat Ouassou, Loubna Kharchoufa, Abdellah Baraich, Aziza Atbir, Fatima Zahra Ayyad, Aziz Drioiche, Mohamed Addi, Christophe Hano and Touriya Zair
Int. J. Plant Biol. 2022, 13(4), 546-560; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijpb13040044 - 24 Nov 2022
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 2134
Abstract
Origanum compactum Benth (O. compactum) is widely used traditionally in Morocco to treat a broad range of illnesses, including infectious diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the phytochemical composition, quality control, and antibacterial activity of O. compactum leaf [...] Read more.
Origanum compactum Benth (O. compactum) is widely used traditionally in Morocco to treat a broad range of illnesses, including infectious diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the phytochemical composition, quality control, and antibacterial activity of O. compactum leaf and flower essential oil. First, a quality control study on soil and irrigation water was performed to determine whether there was any risk of heavy metals endangering human health or causing stress to the plants studied. Laboratory examination of the environmental quality of the researched species revealed an almost absolute absence of metals that could endanger human health or any abiotic stressor. The essential oil was extracted by hydrodistillation. Chemical characterization was performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The yield of essential oil (EO) obtained by hydrodistillation of O. compactum leaves and flowers and moisture content were 4.27% and 12.20%, respectively. GC/MS identified 35 volatile compounds in the studied EO majorly composed of thymol (38.59%) followed by carvacrol (26.65%), o-cymene (14.33), and γ-terpinene (11.22%). The antibacterial activity of O. compactum leaf and flower essential oil was evaluated using the solid-state diffusion method against five Gram-negative bacterial strains and a Gram-positive strain. The results show that the essential oil of O. compactum leaves and flowers has a considerable inhibitory effect against E. coli with an MIC = 0.35 µg/mL, E. pseudocoloides (MIC = 0.35 µg/mL), E. vekanda (MIC = 0.35 µg/mL), K. pneumoniae (MIC = 0.7 µg/mL), P. aeruginosa (MIC = 0.35 µg/mL), and S. aureus (MIC = 0.35 µg/mL). Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 953 KiB  
Article
Influence of Microbial Preparations on Triticum aestivum L. Grain Quality
by Lyudmila Chaikovskaya, Nina Iakusheva, Olga Ovsienko, Lyudmila Radchenko, Vladimir Pashtetskiy and Marina Baranskaya
Int. J. Plant Biol. 2022, 13(4), 535-545; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijpb13040043 - 14 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1318
Abstract
Gluten, protein and amino acid composition play an important role in grain quality assessment. Areas of interest of our research include essential amino acids, which are not synthesized in the human body. It is a commonly known fact that large doses of mineral [...] Read more.
Gluten, protein and amino acid composition play an important role in grain quality assessment. Areas of interest of our research include essential amino acids, which are not synthesized in the human body. It is a commonly known fact that large doses of mineral fertilizers increase grain crops’ yield and quality. However, fertilization leads to undesirable effects—in particular, environmental pollution. This creates a need to replace mineral fertilizers, at least partially, with alternative methods. One such method is the use of microbial preparations in modern technologies for growing cereals. This research, therefore, aimed to study the effect of presowing seed inoculation with a microbial preparation (based on phosphate-mobilizing bacterium Lelliottia nimipressuralis CCM* 32-3) on T. aestivum grain quality, namely the content of gluten, protein and amino acids. The analysis of three-year field experiments showed that the highest values were obtained when using the microbial preparation against the background of mineral fertilizers at the rate of P30. Presowing seed inoculation contributed to a significant increase in grain productivity (by 31.5% compared to control). The content of protein and gluten in the grain also increased up to 12.5 % and 28.0%, while in the control, these figures were 10.8% and 21.2%, respectively. Moreover, the total content of amino acids in wheat grain in the variant inoculation + fertilizers (P30) was the highest compared to those without inoculation. The following excess was noted: by 52% compared to control (without fertilizers); and by 29%, 17% and 10% in variants with mineral fertilizers at the rate of P30, P60, and P90, respectively. The obtained research results indicate that the combined application of mineral fertilizer Ammophos (at the rate of P30) and microbial preparation based on the phosphate-mobilizing bacterium L. nimipressuralis CCM 32-3 for presowing seed inoculation is an effective technique that improves the yield and quality indicators of winter wheat grain under the conditions of southern regions with insufficient moisture supply. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Regulation of Plant Immunity)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 2884 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of the Allelopathic Activity of Albizia procera (Roxb.) Benth. as a Potential Source of Bioherbicide to Control Weeds
by Kawsar Hossen and Hisashi Kato-Noguchi
Int. J. Plant Biol. 2022, 13(4), 523-534; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijpb13040042 - 8 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2125
Abstract
Agricultural production depends heavily on the application of synthetic herbicides. Using these herbicides results in the development of herbicide-resistant weeds, poses hazards to human and animal health, and pollutes the environment. To solve these problems, developing and using bioherbicides must be increased. Although [...] Read more.
Agricultural production depends heavily on the application of synthetic herbicides. Using these herbicides results in the development of herbicide-resistant weeds, poses hazards to human and animal health, and pollutes the environment. To solve these problems, developing and using bioherbicides must be increased. Although different uses of Albizia procera have been well reported, its allelopathic activity against weeds and crop species has not. Hence, we evaluated the allelopathic activity of the A. procera plant and isolated its allelopathic compounds. Extracts of A. procera significantly suppressed the seedling growth of the tested species (cabbage, alfalfa, lettuce, barnyard grass, timothy, and Italian ryegrass). The seedling growth decreased with increasing extract concentrations. The concentrations required for 50% growth inhibition (I50 value) of the tested plants were 0.0225–0.4935 mg/mL. The A. procera extracts were separated using different column chromatography, and two active fractions (AP-5 and AP-7) were isolated. Cress seedling growth was completely restricted by fraction AP-5, and fraction AP-7 restricted the cress shoots to 83.10% and roots to 85.65% of the control treatment. The findings of this study indicate that A. procera extracts have allelopathic activity and these fractions might contribute to the activity. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 2163 KiB  
Article
SCR Suppressor Mutants: Role in Hypocotyl Gravitropism and Root Growth in Arabidopsis thaliana
by Archana Sharma, Zahida Hassan Pervaiz and Joanna Wysocka-Diller
Int. J. Plant Biol. 2022, 13(4), 506-522; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijpb13040041 - 7 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1640
Abstract
The SCARECROW (SCR) transcription factor plays a key role in plant growth and development. However, we know very little about the role of SCR regulated pathways in plant development. Here, we used the homozygous scr1 mutant Arabidopsis thaliana (Wassilewskija ecotype), which had a [...] Read more.
The SCARECROW (SCR) transcription factor plays a key role in plant growth and development. However, we know very little about the role of SCR regulated pathways in plant development. Here, we used the homozygous scr1 mutant Arabidopsis thaliana (Wassilewskija ecotype), which had a T-DNA insertion in the SCR coding region and lacks a detectable SCR transcript. This scr1 mutant has a determinate mode of root growth, shoot agravitropism and abnormal internal architecture in all organs examined. To screen for mutants that suppress the scr1 abnormal phenotypes, we exposed homozygous scr1 seeds to ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS) mutagen. Upon growth out of these mutagenized seeds, thirteen suppressor mutant-harboring strains were identified. All thirteen suppressor-harboring strains were homozygous for scr1 and lacked the SCR transcript. Ten scr hypocotyl gravitropic suppressor lines showed improved hypocotyl gravitropic response. These ten suppressors fall into six complementation groups suggesting six different gene loci. Similarly, three independent scr root length suppressor lines rescued only the root growth phenotype and fell into three complementation groups, suggesting the involvement of three different gene loci. These suppressors might identify novel functions of the SCR gene in plant development. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

7 pages, 1093 KiB  
Article
On Using the Allium Test for Waterbody Biomonitoring in the Murmansk Region
by Maria V. Smirnova and Dmitry B. Denisov
Int. J. Plant Biol. 2022, 13(4), 499-505; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijpb13040040 - 30 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1828
Abstract
Having started in the 1930-40s, the industrial development of the Kola North has caused elevated environmental pollution of the area’s water bodies. The pollutants contained in dust emissions, dissolved substances and waste waters require their genotoxicity to be estimated using in vivo assays. [...] Read more.
Having started in the 1930-40s, the industrial development of the Kola North has caused elevated environmental pollution of the area’s water bodies. The pollutants contained in dust emissions, dissolved substances and waste waters require their genotoxicity to be estimated using in vivo assays. This article addresses the effect of pollutants entering the water bodies of the Murmansk region together with mining waste, which leads to a decrease in mitotic activity and an increase in chromosomal abnormalities in the roots of Allium cepa L. The evaluated waters showed an effect of reducing the mitotic index and the appearance of chromosomal aberrations; this may be associated with the presence of compounds in the water, such as mining waste. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Response to Stresses)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 1218 KiB  
Article
Size–Number and Shape Distribution of Buried Seeds in Soil in a Field Not Cultivated for More Than 10 Years
by Luís Silva Dias
Int. J. Plant Biol. 2022, 13(4), 485-498; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijpb13040039 - 28 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1140
Abstract
Seeds act as reserves for plant dispersion in time and their burial in soil plays an essential role in preventing or reducing losses. Two hypotheses regarding the depth distribution of seeds in soil were investigated. One states that the burial of small seeds [...] Read more.
Seeds act as reserves for plant dispersion in time and their burial in soil plays an essential role in preventing or reducing losses. Two hypotheses regarding the depth distribution of seeds in soil were investigated. One states that the burial of small seeds is restricted to shallower depths than large seeds. The other states that seed shape is important to burial. The fraction of seeds located at depths allowing viable non-photosynthetic growth was also investigated in relation to size and shape. Cores of 20 cm depth were taken from soil with an auger, divided in eight fractions of equal length and sorted through a series of ten sieves, and viable spherical and non-spherical seeds were separately counted. Burial was evaluated by the symmetry of depth–number distributions fitted by Weibull equations. The maximum depth for successful germination and emergence was calculated by combining Weibull equations with published or original material on the relationship between the volume and mass of seeds, and the maximum elongation of hypocotyls in soil. The burial of smaller seeds was found to be restricted to shallower depths, but in larger seeds, size itself appeared to be an unsurmountable barrier to burial. Smaller spherical seeds buried at shallower depths than smaller non-spherical seeds, their number decreasing monotonically with depth, while the number of non-spherical seeds increased from the surface to 10.0–12.5 cm, decreasing thereafter. Larger seeds, spherical or non-spherical, had essentially the same depth–number distribution. In very small seeds (≤0.014 mm3; approximately 75% of the 29,740 total seeds), almost all spherical and non-spherical seeds were at depths at which non-photosynthetic viable growth would be unsustainable. This fraction reduced as the size of seeds increased, but it never fell below 50% and was only rarely less than 80%. The implications of these high values for aboveground recruitment are discussed in terms of the density of seeds. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

12 pages, 1858 KiB  
Article
Morphological and Genetic Diversity of Scutellaria tuvensis Juz., an Endemic of Desert Steppes
by Alexandra Guseva, Dinara Muraseva and Vera Cheryomushkina
Int. J. Plant Biol. 2022, 13(4), 473-484; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijpb13040038 - 24 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1352
Abstract
For the first time, an assessment of phenotypic variability and genetic polymorphism was performed on endemic plants Scutellaria tuvensis Juz. growing in Tuva (five populations; Russia). Based on morphological traits of individuals, principal component analysis clustered the individuals into three groups depending on [...] Read more.
For the first time, an assessment of phenotypic variability and genetic polymorphism was performed on endemic plants Scutellaria tuvensis Juz. growing in Tuva (five populations; Russia). Based on morphological traits of individuals, principal component analysis clustered the individuals into three groups depending on characteristics of their habitats: group 1 turned out to be sampled from beach gravel, group 2 from a detrital cone, and group 3 from coarse rock fragments; this finding was confirmed by specific features of the development of the individuals in these habitats. Using inter-simple sequence repeat markers, high genetic polymorphism was identified at the population level: the proportion of polymorphic loci was 95%, expected heterozygosity 0.221, the absolute number of alleles 1.533, and the effective number of alleles 1.376. Population 3 (P 3) was the most genetically homogeneous; P 5 was characterized by the highest genetic diversity. In an unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean dendrogram, the studied populations formed two major groups: the first cluster included P 4 and P 5, and the second cluster contained plants collected in P 1, P 2, and P 3. An analysis of the population structure using the STRUCTURE software showed the same result, dividing the sample under study into two subpopulations. The genetic differentiation index among populations was 0.232, and gene flow 1.655. According to analysis of molecular variance, intrapopulation differences accounted for 73% of total genetic diversity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Ecology and Biodiversity)
Show Figures

Figure 1

10 pages, 327 KiB  
Article
Proximate, Vitamins, Minerals and Anti-Nutritive Constituents of the Leaf and Stem of Helichrysum odoratissimum (L.) Sweet: A Folk Medicinal Plant in South Africa
by Abolaji Olajumoke Afuape, Anthony Jide Afolayan and Lisa Valencia Buwa-Komoreng
Int. J. Plant Biol. 2022, 13(4), 463-472; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijpb13040037 - 20 Oct 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2146
Abstract
Helichrysum odoratissimum (L.) Sweet (Asteraceae) is a perennial shrub used in South African folk medicine to combat human diseases such as diabetes, coughs, asthma, and diarrhoea, and for wound treatment. This study evaluated the leaf and stem of H. odoratissimum for their nutritive [...] Read more.
Helichrysum odoratissimum (L.) Sweet (Asteraceae) is a perennial shrub used in South African folk medicine to combat human diseases such as diabetes, coughs, asthma, and diarrhoea, and for wound treatment. This study evaluated the leaf and stem of H. odoratissimum for their nutritive and anti-nutritive qualities using the standard methods of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC), atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) and colorimetry. Crude fat and protein were high in the leaf (7.61% and 7.82% DW), but low in the stem (2.25% and 3.4%), respectively. The neutral detergent fibre (NDF) content was significantly higher in the stem (68.5%) compared to the leaf (43.6%), while non-fibre carbohydrate (NFC) in the leaf (24.93%) was higher than in the stem (15.67%). Mineral analysis showed that both the leaf and stem of H. odoratissimum are good sources of potassium, calcium, sodium, magnesium, phosphorus and iron. Appreciable amounts of vitamins B2, C and E in the leaf and stem supports the folkloric utility of the plant in the traditional treatment of wounds, coughs and colds. A tolerable amount of phytate in both leaf (0.36%) and stem (1.06%) might be a factor for safer consumption of the plant as food and medicine. These findings suggest the use of the plant as a source for dietary supplementation and ethnomedicinal applications. Full article
20 pages, 1473 KiB  
Review
Unraveling the Epigenetic Landscape for Salt Tolerance in Plants
by Suchismita Roy and Praveen Soni
Int. J. Plant Biol. 2022, 13(4), 443-462; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijpb13040036 - 13 Oct 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1902
Abstract
In every organism, the expression of genes is regulated in response to the changes in the surrounding environment. The study of epigenetics in plants is essential in view of the improvement of agricultural productivity. Epigenetic modifications can enhance crops’ yield and stress tolerance [...] Read more.
In every organism, the expression of genes is regulated in response to the changes in the surrounding environment. The study of epigenetics in plants is essential in view of the improvement of agricultural productivity. Epigenetic modifications can enhance crops’ yield and stress tolerance without making any alteration within their genomic sequences. The routes of epigenetic modifications include processes such as methylation of DNA, modifications of histone proteins, chromatin remodeling, and non-coding RNA-mediated regulation of genes. Genome-wide epigenetic profiles, coined as the epigenome, of several plants have been identified in recent years. In the scope of this review, we are going to discuss progress made in the field of plant epigenomics under the limelight of stress tolerance, especially saline conditions. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 7586 KiB  
Article
Structural Disparity of Avocado Rootstocks In Vitro for Rooting and Acclimation Success
by Jayeni Hiti-Bandaralage, Alice Hayward and Neena Mitter
Int. J. Plant Biol. 2022, 13(4), 426-442; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijpb13040035 - 13 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2113
Abstract
Improving clonal rootstock propagation of avocado has been a major industry/research challenge globally for many decades. Tissue culture has been a focus for clonal propagation with substantial advancements in recent years. In the process of tissue culture, avocado rootstocks display differences in rooting [...] Read more.
Improving clonal rootstock propagation of avocado has been a major industry/research challenge globally for many decades. Tissue culture has been a focus for clonal propagation with substantial advancements in recent years. In the process of tissue culture, avocado rootstocks display differences in rooting and acclimation capacity. Such differences may relate to the specific structural characteristics of the rootstock. This study aimed to investigate the structural difference during tissue culture in two rootstocks ‘Reed’ and ‘Velvick’, with differing rooting and acclimation capacity. Histological investigations were carried out of stem vasculature, leaves and roots of tissue cultured plantlets. Quantitative parameters; stomatal index, stomatal density, trichome density, vein-islet density and vein termination density were also analysed. Prominent fascicular cambium and fewer phloem fibres in stems positively correlated with rooting capacity. Acclimation success positively correlated to the presence of fully differentiated secondary xylem in root. Presence of smaller epidermal cells, high stomatal density and reduced vein termination density was associated with reduced acclimation success. These findings will support optimisation strategies for micropropagation of not only difficult-to-root and difficult-to-acclimate avocado rootstocks, but also, other woody perennials experiencing similar problems. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

7 pages, 984 KiB  
Article
Iceberg Lettuce and Radicchio Chicory Organic Management of Amendment and Fertigation
by Fernando Teruhiko Hata, Isabella Accorsi Sanches, Caio Eduardo Pelizaro Poças, Milena Cesila Rabelo, Lívia Cristina Pronko Gouveia, Victor Hugo Caetano Silveira and Maurício Ursi Ventura
Int. J. Plant Biol. 2022, 13(4), 419-425; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijpb13040034 - 6 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1629
Abstract
The aim of the study is to investigate low-cost sources of organic-allowed inputs for iceberg lettuce and chicory radicchio vegetative growth. Experiments were conducted under protected cultivation. The following treatments were used: boiled chicken manure for fertigation (2.5; 5; 7.5; and 10%); Bokashi [...] Read more.
The aim of the study is to investigate low-cost sources of organic-allowed inputs for iceberg lettuce and chicory radicchio vegetative growth. Experiments were conducted under protected cultivation. The following treatments were used: boiled chicken manure for fertigation (2.5; 5; 7.5; and 10%); Bokashi as a mineral fertilizer N-P-K (4-14-8) in the substrate; and the control (water). The total leaf biomass (TLB) (g), commercial leaf biomass (CLB) (g), plant diameter (DIA) (cm), plant height (HEI) (cm), number of leaves (NL) (for lettuce only), and chlorophyll index (CLO) (Falker index) were evaluated. The mineral fertilizer provided the highest means of production variables for both lettuce and chicory. For iceberg lettuce, the means of an organic treatment were similar to the mineral fertilizer only for the CLO variable and for the NL in BCM 10%. For radicchio chicory, the organic treatments had similar means to the mineral fertilizer for the DIA and CLO. Only Bokashi had a similar mean to mineral for the HEI variable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Humus Forms in Plant–Soil Interactions)
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 3052 KiB  
Article
Type of Stress Induces Differential Responses in Acer rubrum (Red Maple), but Induced Responses Have No Effect on Herbivorous Pests
by Cindy Perkovich, Anthony Witcher, Grayson DeLay and Karla Addesso
Int. J. Plant Biol. 2022, 13(4), 400-418; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijpb13040033 - 28 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1554
Abstract
Plants thrive in dynamic environments requiring adaptive strategies in response to environmental stressors. Furthermore, insect herbivores may be attracted or deterred by the expression of these traits. This study examines growth, physiological, and phytochemical adaptations of maple trees in response to stressors and [...] Read more.
Plants thrive in dynamic environments requiring adaptive strategies in response to environmental stressors. Furthermore, insect herbivores may be attracted or deterred by the expression of these traits. This study examines growth, physiological, and phytochemical adaptations of maple trees in response to stressors and how these stressors effect herbivore feeding behavior within an agricultural production system. Agricultural systems are unique because plants experience environmental stressors unique to production such as herbicide sprays and girdling. Using four environmental stressors commonly observed in agricultural production (control, mechanical defoliation, chemical defoliation, and girdling), applied to two cultivars of red maple (Acer rubrum, ‘Brandywine’ and ‘Franksred’), this study analyzed differentiation of expressed traits in a production system. Responses varied depending on cultivar and stress treatment but had no effect on insect herbivore behavior. Understanding the ecological interactions within these systems will provide information for better plant production and pest management recommendations. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 5929 KiB  
Article
Salinity Tolerance and Ion Accumulation of Coastal and Inland Accessions of Clonal Climbing Plant Species Calystegia sepium in Comparison with a Coastal-Specific Clonal Species Calystegia soldanella
by Astra Jēkabsone and Gederts Ievinsh
Int. J. Plant Biol. 2022, 13(4), 381-399; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijpb13040032 - 23 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1372
Abstract
Plant species adapted to saline habitats represent an important resource in the assessment of salinity tolerance mechanisms. The aim of the present study was to analyze salinity tolerance and ion accumulation characteristics for various accessions of Calystegia sepium from different habitats in comparison [...] Read more.
Plant species adapted to saline habitats represent an important resource in the assessment of salinity tolerance mechanisms. The aim of the present study was to analyze salinity tolerance and ion accumulation characteristics for various accessions of Calystegia sepium from different habitats in comparison to these of Calystegia soldanella in controlled conditions. Plants were introduced in culture using stem explants with leaf and were cultivated in controlled conditions under six different substrate salinities. Salinity tolerance of both C. sepium and C. soldanella plants was relatively high, but the tolerance of particular accessions did not depend on the substrate salinity level in their natural habitats. C. sepium accession from a mesophytic non-saline habitat was only slightly negatively affected by increasing substrate salinity. However, coastal accession of C. sepium and coastal-specific species C. soldanella had some similarities in ion accumulation characteristics, both accumulating a high concentration of soluble ions in aboveground parts and excluding them from underground parts. All C. sepium accessions from different habitats represented varied physiotypes, possibly associated with their genetic differences. C. sepium accessions from different habitats can be suggested as models for further studies aiming at dissecting possible genetic, epigenetic and physiological mechanisms of adaptation to heterogeneous environmental conditions. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop