Improving Functioning of Children Birth to Five with Emotional and Behavioral Problems: The Role of Comprehensive Mental Health Services and Supports
1.1. Prevalence and Implications of Children’s Mental Health Issues
1.2. Determinants for Early Childhood Social-Emotional and Behavioral Problems
1.3. Early Childhood Systems of Care
1.4. Alameda County and Early Connections
1.5. Current Study
2.1. Data Sources and Measures
2.3. Data Analysis
3.1. Sample Characteristics
3.2. Percent Receiving Mental Health Services
3.3. Prevalence of and Associations between the Eight Domains Measured
3.4. Other Needs
3.5. Longitudinal Association between Mental Health Services and Child Functioning
4.1. Other Needs
4.2. Mental Health Disparities
4.3. Study Strengths and Limitations
4.4. Implications for Research and Practice
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
|ECE||EBF||Devel||Health||Basic Needs||Safety||Social Relationship||Family|
|Early care and education (ECE)||1.00|
|Emotional and behavioral functioning (EBF)||0.53||1.00|
|Developmental functioning (Devel)||0.40||0.41||1.00|
|Health problems that affect development (Health)||0.08||0.06||0.43||1.00|
|Social relationship issues||0.51||0.64||0.37||0.10||0.14||0.18||1.00|
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|Latent Construct:||Cronbach’s α:||Items That Composed the Instrument:||Number of Children |
|Prevalence (95%CI, Exact) of Construct|
|Outcomes of interest|
|Early care and education||0.73||1. attendance|
2. learning difficulties
3. group care interactions
4. conduct behavior
|n = 488||56.1% |
|Emotional and behavioral functioning||0.82||1. anxiety/fears|
2. separation problems
3. poor boundaries
7. ability to regulate
8. impulse control
9. oppositional behavior
10. concentration/attention span
12. verbal abuse
13. self-injurious behavior
14. obsessive/compulsive behavior
15. sexualized behaviors
16. unusual thoughts/verbalizations
|n = 480||97.3% |
|Developmental functioning||0.69||1. gross motor|
2. fine motor
|n = 488||80.7%|
|Health problems that affect development||0.48||1. medical|
5. receiving consistent medical care
|n = 494||27.5% |
|Basic needs||0.87||1. housing|
|n = 491||41.8% |
|Safety||0.61||1. exposure to community violence|
2. exposure to domestic violence
|n = 488||56.8% |
|Social relationship issues||0.73||1. interaction with adults|
2. ability to seek help from adults
3. interaction with peers
|n = 493||89.2% |
|Family functioning||0.71||1. family stability|
2. parent/caregiver-child relationship
3. sibling relationship(s)
4. parent/caregiver mental health
5. parent/caregiver substance abuse
|n = 489||95.7% |
|Unique CFE Clients in 2010 (n = 496)||CFE Clients in |
(n = 148)
|Alameda County |
Population Aged Birth to 5 (n = 122,309)
|Asian American/Pacific Islander||9.5%||8.8%||25%|
|Language of choice for service provision|
|East Asian or Southeast Asian (6 languages)||4.05%||2.7%|
|Other non-English (3+ languages)||1.6%||0.7%|
|ß Coefficient||95% Confidence Interval|
|Length of time participating|
|2nd data collection follow-up||−1.68||−2.48, −0.88|
|3rd data collection follow-up||−2.97||−4.42, −1.51|
|English speaker||0.95||−1.09, 2.99|
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Cohen, A.K.; Hazelton, T.; Bassey, H.; Gutierrez-Padilla, M.; Novosel, C.; Nichols, C.R.; Jain, S. Improving Functioning of Children Birth to Five with Emotional and Behavioral Problems: The Role of Comprehensive Mental Health Services and Supports. Pediatr. Rep. 2023, 15, 33-44. https://doi.org/10.3390/pediatric15010005
Cohen AK, Hazelton T, Bassey H, Gutierrez-Padilla M, Novosel C, Nichols CR, Jain S. Improving Functioning of Children Birth to Five with Emotional and Behavioral Problems: The Role of Comprehensive Mental Health Services and Supports. Pediatric Reports. 2023; 15(1):33-44. https://doi.org/10.3390/pediatric15010005Chicago/Turabian Style
Cohen, Alison K., Tracy Hazelton, Henrissa Bassey, Margie Gutierrez-Padilla, Carolyn Novosel, Chloe R. Nichols, and Sonia Jain. 2023. "Improving Functioning of Children Birth to Five with Emotional and Behavioral Problems: The Role of Comprehensive Mental Health Services and Supports" Pediatric Reports 15, no. 1: 33-44. https://doi.org/10.3390/pediatric15010005