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Gastroenterology Insights is published by MDPI from Volume 11 Issue 1 (2020). Previous articles were published by another publisher in Open Access under a CC-BY (or CC-BY-NC-ND) licence, and they are hosted by MDPI on mdpi.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with PAGEPress.

Gastroenterol. Insights, Volume 4, Issue 2 (July 2012) – 8 articles

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953 KiB  
Review
Probiotics: Defenders of Gastrointestinal Habitats
by Desh D. Singh, Sarika Amdeka and Vinod Singh
Gastroenterol. Insights 2012, 4(2), e22; https://doi.org/10.4081/gi.2012.e22 - 19 Nov 2012
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1
Abstract
Intestinal microbiota play an important role in maintaining normal gastrointestinal (GI) function and ensuring that changes in the composition of the intestinal microbiota can promote GI function. The digestive tract is full of bacteria and many of these, including probiotics, are necessary for [...] Read more.
Intestinal microbiota play an important role in maintaining normal gastrointestinal (GI) function and ensuring that changes in the composition of the intestinal microbiota can promote GI function. The digestive tract is full of bacteria and many of these, including probiotics, are necessary for optimal digestive function. During bacterial gastroenteritis, harmful bacteria invade the digestive tract causing unpleasant symptoms and upsetting the balance between good and bad bacteria. Supplemental probiotics can help restore this balance. Studies have demonstrated that probiotics can often help reduce the severity of symptoms such as diarrhea and may help accelerate recovery. Probiotics are therapeutic preparations of live microorganisms administered in sufficient dosage to be beneficial to health. The therapeutic effects of these microorganisms appear to be strain specific. Primal Defense®, a unique, probiotic, bacterial compound, contains probiotics that support gut flora balance, promote consistent bowel function, control stomach acid levels to quickly eliminate burning sensation in the stomach and maintain immune system response. The probiotics in Primal Defense® maximize the benefits of a healthy diet by supporting normal absorption and assimilation of nutrients in the gut. Nearly 75% of our immune defenses are located in the digestive tract, so maintaining a favorable bacterial balance in the intestines (ideally 80% good or neutral bacteria to 20% bad or harmful bacteria) is crucial to achieving and maintaining optimum health. Full article
562 KiB  
Article
Cultural Characteristics and Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern of Helicobacter pylori Isolated from Dyspepsia Patients
by Bolanle A. Adeniyi, Temitope O. Lawal, Jesse A. Otegbayo, Olayiwola A. Oluwasola, Georgina N. Odaibo, Samuel O. Ola, Clement A. Okolo, Adegboyega Akere and Aderemi O. Kehinde
Gastroenterol. Insights 2012, 4(2), e21; https://doi.org/10.4081/gi.2012.e21 - 19 Nov 2012
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2
Abstract
Helicobacter pylori consist in a helical shaped Gram-negative bacterium, approximately 3 micrometers long with a diameter of approximately 0.5 micrometers. It has 4-6 flagella. It is microaerophilic and tests positive for oxidase, catalase and urease. With its flagella, the bacterium moves through the [...] Read more.
Helicobacter pylori consist in a helical shaped Gram-negative bacterium, approximately 3 micrometers long with a diameter of approximately 0.5 micrometers. It has 4-6 flagella. It is microaerophilic and tests positive for oxidase, catalase and urease. With its flagella, the bacterium moves through the stomach lumen and drills into the mucus gel layer of the stomach. In humans, H. pylori have been associated with peptic ulcers, chronic gastritis, duodenitis and stomach cancer. It is widely believed that in the absence of treatment, H. pylori infection, once established in its gastric niche, persists for life. The aim of this research is to study the cultural characteristics and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of H. pylori strains isolated from southwest Nigeria. The cultural characteristics and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of Helicobacter pylori strains isolated from gastric mucosal antral biopsy specimens collected from 43 of 52 dyspepsia patients in the University College Hospital Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria, were determined using standard microbiological methods for Helicobacter pylori isolation. The 43 isolates were subjected to 23 different antibiotics and each of the antibiotics demonstrated a variable degree of activity against the isolates. Among the antibiotics to which the organism was most susceptible are: ofloxacin (30 μg) 100% activity, ciprofloxacin (5 μg) 97.67% activity, gentamicin (120 μg) 95.35 activity, amikacin (30 μg), kanamycin (30 μg) and chloramphenicol (30 μg) each 90.70% activity, clarithromycin (15 μg) 93.02, while the less active antibiotics are: augmentin (30 μg) 23.26% active, amoxycillin (25 μg) and metronidazole (50 μg) each 27.91% active and clindamycin (2 mg) 30.23% active. From the result of the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of the strains of the organism, 95.35% of the total isolates are multi drug resistant. Resistance was developed to, among others, augmentin (30 μg), amoxycillin (25 μg), metronidazole (50 μg) and clindamycin (2 mg). Full article
653 KiB  
Article
Refractory Ulcerative Colitis Complicated by Cytomegalovirus Infection Successfully Treated With Valganciclovir
by Tiziana Larussa, Evelina Suraci, Immacolata Nazionale, Francesco Conforti, Maria Imeneo and Francesco Luzza
Gastroenterol. Insights 2012, 4(2), e19; https://doi.org/10.4081/gi.2012.e19 - 13 Nov 2012
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1
Abstract
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is widespread in the general population. In patients with severe and/or steroid-refractory ulcerative colitis (UC), local reactivation of CMV can be detected in actively inflamed colonic tissue in approximately 30% of cases. However, the role of CMV in patients with [...] Read more.
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is widespread in the general population. In patients with severe and/or steroid-refractory ulcerative colitis (UC), local reactivation of CMV can be detected in actively inflamed colonic tissue in approximately 30% of cases. However, the role of CMV in patients with UC is not clearly understood. There is evidence to show a possible role in exacerbating a colitis flare, whereas other studies describe CMV as an innocent bystander. We report the case of a patient with severe UC complicated by CMV infection who did not respond to conventional therapy. A complete diagnostic panel for CMV diagnosis, including tissue polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry, was carried out. Three-week therapy with oral valganciclovir resulted in dramatic clinical and endoscopic improvement. Timing of diagnosis and treatment of CMV infection complicating UC is crucial in order to recognize the organ-disease and plan appropriate treatment. Full article
717 KiB  
Case Report
A Case Report of Severe Atypical Weil’s Syndrome in a Department of Gastroenterology
by Yi-Qun Hu, Jing-Jin Song, Ya-Pi Lu, Xun-Ding Lin, Bayasi Guleng and Jian-Lin Ren
Gastroenterol. Insights 2012, 4(2), e18; https://doi.org/10.4081/gi.2012.e18 - 21 Sep 2012
Viewed by 1
Abstract
Leptospirosis is a reemerging zoonosis of global importance. Outbreaks are related to agricultural environments and exposure to flooding, and it is primarily found in tropical countries. Although cases with typical presentation are relatively easy to diagnose and treat, atypical cases make it difficult [...] Read more.
Leptospirosis is a reemerging zoonosis of global importance. Outbreaks are related to agricultural environments and exposure to flooding, and it is primarily found in tropical countries. Although cases with typical presentation are relatively easy to diagnose and treat, atypical cases make it difficult to differentiate from other diseases, especially those patients with digestive symptoms who present to departments of gastroenterology. A 54-year old man was admitted to hospital for jaundice, vomiting and fatty liver. leptospirosis antibody test and polymerase chain reaction did not help us to make a definite diagnosis. However, based on the patient’s presentation, physical characteristics and the muscular biopsy, Weil’s syndrome was diagnosed. This is a reminder that leptospirosis may be found in a developed city of southern China. Clinical experience, disease characterizations, physical signs and biopsy should be applied as more efficient ways to recognize atypical cases of leptospirosis. Full article
615 KiB  
Article
Validation of the Reflux Disease Questionnaire into Greek
by Eirini Oikonomidou, Constantinos Mihas, Foteini Anastasiou and Christos Lionis
Gastroenterol. Insights 2012, 4(2), e20; https://doi.org/10.4081/gi.2012.e20 - 14 Sep 2012
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1
Abstract
Primary care physicians face challenges in diagnosing and managing gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). The Reflux Disease Questionnaire (RDQ) meets the standards of validity, reliability, and practicability. This paper reports on the validation of the Greek translation of the RDQ. RDQ is a condition [...] Read more.
Primary care physicians face challenges in diagnosing and managing gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). The Reflux Disease Questionnaire (RDQ) meets the standards of validity, reliability, and practicability. This paper reports on the validation of the Greek translation of the RDQ. RDQ is a condition specific instrument. For the validation of the questionnaire, the internal consistency of its items was established using the alpha coefficient of Chronbach. The reproducibility (test-retest reliability) was measured by kappa correlation coefficient and the criterion of validity was calculated against the diagnosis of another questionnaire already translated and validated into Greek (IDGP) using kappa correlation coefficient. A factor analysis was also performed. Greek RDQ showed a high overall internal consistency (alpha value: 0.91) for individual comparison. All 8 items regarding heartburn and regurgitation, GERD, had good reproducibility (Cohen’s κ 0.60-0.79), while the remaining 4 items about dyspepsia had a moderate reproducibility (Cohen’s κ=’ 0.40-0.59) The kappa coefficient for criterion validity for GERD was rather poor (0.20, 95% CI: 0.04, 0.36) and the overall agreement between the results of the RDQ questionnaire and those based on the IDGP questionnaire was 70.5%. Factor analysis indicated 3 factors with Eigenvalue over 1.0, and responsible for 76.91% of variance. Regurgitation items correlated more strongly with the third component but pain behind sternum and upper stomach pain correlated with the second component. The Greek version of RDQ seems to be a reliable and valid instrument following the pattern of the original questionnaire, and could be used in primary care research in Greece. Full article
635 KiB  
Case Report
Spontaneous Sublingual and Intramural Small-Bowel Hematoma in A Patient on Oral Anticoagulation
by Mohamed Moftah, Ronan Cahill and Sean Johnston
Gastroenterol. Insights 2012, 4(2), e17; https://doi.org/10.4081/gi.2012.e17 - 01 Aug 2012
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2
Abstract
Spontaneous sublingual hematoma and intramural small bowel hematoma are rare and serious complications of anticoagulant therapy. Though previously reported individually, there has been no previous report of the same two complications occurring in a single patient. A 71-year-old Caucasian man, who was on [...] Read more.
Spontaneous sublingual hematoma and intramural small bowel hematoma are rare and serious complications of anticoagulant therapy. Though previously reported individually, there has been no previous report of the same two complications occurring in a single patient. A 71-year-old Caucasian man, who was on warfarin for atrial fibrillation, presented with difficulty in swallowing due to a sublingual hematoma. He was observed in our intensive care unit, his warfarin was held and he recovered with conservative management. He represented two months later with a two day history of abdominal pain and distension. An abdominopelvic computed tomography (CT) scan now showed small bowel obstruction due to intramural small bowel hematoma and haemorrhagic ascites. Again, this was treated expectantly with a good outcome. In conclusion, life threatening haemorrhagic complications of oral anticoagulant therapy can recur. Conservative treatment is successful in most cases, but an accurate diagnosis is mandatory to avoid unnecessary surgery. CT scan is the investigation of choice for the diagnosis of suspected haemorrhagic complications of over coagulation. Full article
339 KiB  
Article
Irritable Bowel Syndrome Subtype Screening Characteristics: Constipation Subtype Patient Profiles Explored
by Joyce K. Anastasi, Bernadette Capili, Jessica Quinn, Donald J. McMahon and Colin G. Scully
Gastroenterol. Insights 2012, 4(2), e16; https://doi.org/10.4081/gi.2012.e16 - 10 Jul 2012
Viewed by 1
Abstract
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), a chronic disorder, greatly impacts the lives of those affected. Approximately one quarter of the North American population suffers from this condition that includes abdominal pain, discomfort and alterations in normal bowel function. Constipation-subtype IBS (IBS-C) is often found [...] Read more.
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), a chronic disorder, greatly impacts the lives of those affected. Approximately one quarter of the North American population suffers from this condition that includes abdominal pain, discomfort and alterations in normal bowel function. Constipation-subtype IBS (IBS-C) is often found to be a prevalent subtype; however, a lack of knowledge and effective treatment options remains surrounding this disorder. In the course of an ongoing study conducted by our research team on the use of acupuncture and moxibustion in the management of IBS symptoms, a considerable number of screened patients have met the widely accepted Rome III criteria for IBS-C. Full article
564 KiB  
Article
Isolated and Unexplained Dilation of The Common Bile Duct on Computed Tomography Scanscans
by Naveen B. Krishna, Pavan Tummala, Christopher D. Mehan, Amith V. Reddy, Jeremy A. Hartman, Mohit Mehra and Banke Agarwal
Gastroenterol. Insights 2012, 4(2), e15; https://doi.org/10.4081/gi.2012.e15 - 10 Jul 2012
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1
Abstract
Isolated dilation of common bile duct (CBD) with normal sized pancreatic duct and without identifiable stones or mass lesion (unexplained) is frequently encountered by computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging. We studied the final diagnoses in these patients and tried to elucidate factors that can [...] Read more.
Isolated dilation of common bile duct (CBD) with normal sized pancreatic duct and without identifiable stones or mass lesion (unexplained) is frequently encountered by computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging. We studied the final diagnoses in these patients and tried to elucidate factors that can predict a malignant etiology. This is a retrospective analysis of prospective database from a University based clinical practice (2002- 2008). We included 107 consecutive patients who underwent endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) for evaluation of isolated and unexplained CBD dilation noted on contrast computed tomography scans. EUS examination was performed using a radial echoendoscope followed by a linear echoechoendoscope, if a focal mass lesion was identified. Fine-needle aspirates were assessed immediately by an attending cytopathologist. Main outcome measurements included i) prevalence of neoplasms, CBD stones and chronic pancreatitis and ii) performance characteristics of EUS/EUS-fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA). A malignant neoplasm was found in 16 patients (14.9%) of the study subjects, all with obstructive jaundice (ObJ). Six patients had CBD stones; three with ObJ and three with abnormal liver function tests. EUS findings suggestive of chronic pancreatitis were identified in 27 patients. EUSFNA had 97.3% accuracy (94.1% in subset with ObJ) with a sensitivity of 81.2% and specificity of 100% for diagnosing malignancy. Presence of ObJ and older patient age were only significant predictors of malignancy in our cohort. Amongst patients with isolated and unexplained dilation of CBD, the risk of malignancy is significantly higher in older patients presenting with ObJ. EUS-FNA can diagnose malignancy in these patients with high accuracy besides identifying other potential etiologies including missed CBD stones and chronic pancreatitis. Full article
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