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Gastroenterol. Insights, Volume 14, Issue 3 (September 2023) – 13 articles

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14 pages, 1078 KiB  
Review
New Insights into Surgical Management of Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma in the Era of “Transplant Oncology”
by Fabio Melandro, Davide Ghinolfi, Gaetano Gallo, Silvia Quaresima, Riccardo Aurelio Nasto, Massimo Rossi, Gianluca Mennini and Quirino Lai
Gastroenterol. Insights 2023, 14(3), 406-419; https://doi.org/10.3390/gastroent14030030 - 19 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1082
Abstract
Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA) represents the second most frequent type of primary liver neoplasm. The diagnosis and treatment of patients with iCCA involves many challenges. To date, surgical resection with negative margins is the main curative option, achieving an acceptable long-term survival. Despite enabling [...] Read more.
Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA) represents the second most frequent type of primary liver neoplasm. The diagnosis and treatment of patients with iCCA involves many challenges. To date, surgical resection with negative margins is the main curative option, achieving an acceptable long-term survival. Despite enabling a considerable improvement in the outcome, iCCA recurrence after surgery is still common. Tumor extension and the histological subtype, as well as vascular and lymph node involvements, are key factors used to define the prognosis. In this narrative review, we aimed to discuss the potential benefits of using different surgical strategies in the field of iCCA, including vascular resection, the mini-invasive approach, liver transplantation, the mechanism used to enable future liver remnant augmentation, and lymph node dissection. We also discussed the new protocols developed in the field of systemic treatment, including immunotherapy and molecular targeted therapy. Recent advancements in the diagnosis, surgical treatment, and understanding of tumor biology have changed the landscape in terms of treatment options. Creating a multidisciplinary tumor board is essential to achieving the best patient outcomes. Further investigational trials are required with the intent of tailoring the treatments and establishing the right patient population who would benefit from the use of new therapeutics algorithms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biliary Content)
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12 pages, 1778 KiB  
Article
The Potential Relationship between Gastric and Small Intestinal-Derived Endotoxin on Serum Testosterone in Men
by Laura N. Phan, Karen J. Murphy, Karma L. Pearce, Cuong D. Tran and Kelton P. Tremellen
Gastroenterol. Insights 2023, 14(3), 394-405; https://doi.org/10.3390/gastroent14030029 - 14 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1311
Abstract
The association between H. pylori and small intestinal permeability (IP) on serum testosterone levels in men as mediated by metabolic endotoxemia remains unclear. We sought to explore relationships using correlational analysis between H. pylori IgG class antibody levels and small IP via dual [...] Read more.
The association between H. pylori and small intestinal permeability (IP) on serum testosterone levels in men as mediated by metabolic endotoxemia remains unclear. We sought to explore relationships using correlational analysis between H. pylori IgG class antibody levels and small IP via dual sugar probe analysis on T levels in 50 male participants of reproductive age. Sleep quality, physical activity levels, and Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) symptom severity were measured as potential confounders. Measures for H. pylori (antibodies) increased small IP (lactulose/rhamnose ratio), and hypogonadism (testosterone) did not exceed diagnostic cut-off values for respective pathologies. There was no correlation between lactulose/rhamnose e ratio and GI function markers, zonulin, H. pylori, and IBS questionnaire scores; inflammatory markers, high-sensitivity C-reactive Protein (hsCRP) and Lipopolysaccharide-Binding Protein (LBP); nor endocrine markers, testosterone, Luteinizing hormone (LH), and Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). There was a moderate inverse relationship revealed between IBS symptom severity and LBP (r = −0.457, p = 0.004); and hsCRP and testosterone (r = −0.398, p = 0.004). This was independent of physical activity level and sleep quality, but not BMI, which supports the existing link between adiposity, inflammation, and hypogonadism currently present in the literature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gastrointestinal Disease)
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11 pages, 701 KiB  
Article
Adherence to Recommended Immunization Schedules in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease on Biologics and Small Molecule Therapies
by Mohammad Shehab, Ranim Almatar, Rawan Almohammad and Ahmad Alfadhli
Gastroenterol. Insights 2023, 14(3), 383-393; https://doi.org/10.3390/gastroent14030028 - 14 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1257
Abstract
Introduction: Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) on biologic therapies are at increased risk of infections, emphasizing the importance of immunization. This study aimed to assess vaccination prevalence among patients with IBD on specific biologic therapies. Methods: A survey-based cross-sectional study was conducted [...] Read more.
Introduction: Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) on biologic therapies are at increased risk of infections, emphasizing the importance of immunization. This study aimed to assess vaccination prevalence among patients with IBD on specific biologic therapies. Methods: A survey-based cross-sectional study was conducted at an IBD center, including patients receiving different biologic therapies from 1 January 2022 to the 30 April 2023. Demographic and vaccination data were collected using patient electronic records and patient interviews. Results: A total 394 patients (100%) received the measles, mumps, rubella (MMR), tetanus, reduced diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine. A total of 79 patients (20%) received the influenza vaccine, 40 patients (10.2%) were vaccinated against hepatitis A (HAV), and 34 patients (8.6%) received the pneumococcal vaccine. From the 103 female patients who are eligible to take human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, only 7 (6.8%) received it. Out of the 100 eligible patients above the age of 50, only 9 (9%) received the herpes zoster (HZ) vaccine. Conclusion: The uptake of certain vaccines such as Hepatitis B (HBV), seasonal influenza, HAV, pneumococcal, HZ and HPV vaccines among patients with IBD were below expectations. These findings highlight the need for interventions to improve patients’ awareness and adherence to prevent infectious complications in patients with IBD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gastrointestinal Disease)
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20 pages, 1571 KiB  
Article
A Current Approach to Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients
by Sorina I. Stan, Teodora Biciusca, Viorel Biciusca, Ramona Cioboata, Diana Clenciu, Adina Mitrea, Alice Elena Ghenea and Suzana Danoiu
Gastroenterol. Insights 2023, 14(3), 363-382; https://doi.org/10.3390/gastroent14030027 - 08 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1086
Abstract
(1) Background: The relationship between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is bidirectional: NAFLD increases the risk of T2DM, and T2DM promotes the progression of the disease into non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). (2) Material and methods: We performed a [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The relationship between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is bidirectional: NAFLD increases the risk of T2DM, and T2DM promotes the progression of the disease into non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). (2) Material and methods: We performed a retrospective, open study that included 59 patients with NAFLD and T2DM who were distributed into two groups: 44 (74.57%) patients were diagnosed with hepatic steatosis (HS) and 15 (25.42%) patients were diagnosed with NASH. (3) Results: Among the non-specific inflammatory biomarkers, serum ferritin (SF) and the neutrophil-percentage-to-albumin ratio (NPAR) showed higher and statistically significant mean values (p = 0.003 respectively p = 0.03) in the group of patients with NASH and T2DM. Conclusions: Consequently, it is essential to identify alternative markers for the inflammatory process, particularly in individuals with diabetes, as it is a key characteristic of NASH. This need arises from the desire to avoid the risks associated with liver biopsy procedures (LBP) and to prevent the unpredictable and unfavorable progression of NAFLD in patients with T2DM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chronic Liver Disease and Comorbidities)
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11 pages, 1447 KiB  
Review
Musculoskeletal Injuries in the Endoscopy Practitioner Risk Factors, Ergonomic Challenges and Prevention—Narrative Review and Perspectives
by Tadej Durič, Ivana Cibulková and Jan Hajer
Gastroenterol. Insights 2023, 14(3), 352-362; https://doi.org/10.3390/gastroent14030026 - 04 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1768
Abstract
GI endoscopy forms an important part in the daily practice of a gastroenterologist. Musculoskeletal injuries related to GI endoscopy are on the rise. Observational studies and surveys depict the importance of a proper ergonomic environment when performing GI endoscopy. Our aim is to [...] Read more.
GI endoscopy forms an important part in the daily practice of a gastroenterologist. Musculoskeletal injuries related to GI endoscopy are on the rise. Observational studies and surveys depict the importance of a proper ergonomic environment when performing GI endoscopy. Our aim is to describe the pathophysiology, risk factors and possible preventive measures to reduce the risk of musculoskeletal injuries during gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy. We review the most relevant studies that outline the gravity of the problem. A detailed analysis of proposed ergonomic recommendations is performed, outlining crucial steps in injury prevention. Proper ergonomic education is a key step in preventing occupational injury. Robotics and other mechanical solutions offer a variety of approaches to tackling the ergonomic challenge. Implementing proper ergonomic education and mechanical solutions lowers the possibility of occupational injury. The strategies and appliances presented are beneficial to all GI endoscopy practitioners. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gastrointestinal and Hepato-Biliary Imaging)
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10 pages, 1863 KiB  
Article
VDR Immunohistochemistry Expression Is Down-Regulated in Colorectal Cells of Patients with IBD and Could Rank the Patients According to Their Complications Risk
by Argjira Juniku-Shkololli, Suzana Manxhuka-Kërliu, Valon Hamza and Mimoza Basholli
Gastroenterol. Insights 2023, 14(3), 342-351; https://doi.org/10.3390/gastroent14030025 - 21 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1038
Abstract
Background: Rising incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an increasing concern among patients of young age worldwide and its most important complication is colitis-associated cancer (CAC). Vitamin D (VD) deficiency is common in IBD and inversely associated with disease activity; meanwhile, [...] Read more.
Background: Rising incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an increasing concern among patients of young age worldwide and its most important complication is colitis-associated cancer (CAC). Vitamin D (VD) deficiency is common in IBD and inversely associated with disease activity; meanwhile, vitamin D receptor (VDR) signaling in the gut protects the mucosal epithelial barrier and inhibits inflammation in the colon. This study aims to investigate the connection between VDR expression and IBD in human colorectal tissues. Research design and methods: Using a cross-sectional analysis, this study investigated VDR nuclear immunohistochemistry expression in 35 subjects. The expression level was measured in patients with IBD, and compared with healthy controls (cut off 36.29%). Results: VDR nuclear expression was significantly down-regulated in colorectal tissues of patients with IBD, compared with controls (p = 0.025). Under-expression of VDR was more remarkable in colon cells of patients with UC (p = 0.023). These results confirm the protective role of VD for colonic mucosa in human colon as well, and suggest a benefit from VD supplementation in IBD patients. Conclusions: Our findings add to the body of evidence regarding the positive effect of VD in colorectal mucosal integrity. This study contributes in establishing one of the proposed markers related to disease activity, which can also predict the risk for complications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gastrointestinal Disease)
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15 pages, 1191 KiB  
Review
Diagnostic Approach and Pathophysiological Mechanisms of Anemia in Chronic Liver Disease—An Overview
by Cristina Maria Marginean, Denisa Pirscoveanu, Mihaela Popescu, Anca Oana Docea, Antonia Radu, Alin Iulian Silviu Popescu, Corina Maria Vasile, Radu Mitrut, Iulia Cristina Marginean, George Alexandru Iacob, Dan Mihai Firu and Paul Mitrut
Gastroenterol. Insights 2023, 14(3), 327-341; https://doi.org/10.3390/gastroent14030024 - 14 Aug 2023
Viewed by 2852
Abstract
Hematological abnormalities are frequently linked to chronic liver disease of any etiology. About 75% of patients with advanced chronic liver disease experience anemia. The causes of anemia are complex and multifactorial, particularly in cirrhotic patients. Acute and long-term blood loss from the upper [...] Read more.
Hematological abnormalities are frequently linked to chronic liver disease of any etiology. About 75% of patients with advanced chronic liver disease experience anemia. The causes of anemia are complex and multifactorial, particularly in cirrhotic patients. Acute and long-term blood loss from the upper gastrointestinal tract, malnutrition, an enlarged spleen brought on by portal hypertension, hemolysis, and coagulation issues are the main causes of anemia. Alcohol, a common cause of chronic liver disease, determines anemia through direct toxicity on the bone marrow, with the suppression of hematopoiesis, through vitamin B6, B12, and folate deficiency due to low intake and malabsorption. In patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection, antiviral drugs such as pegylated interferon and ribavirin can also cause significant anemia. The use of interferon has been linked to bone marrow toxicity, and hemolytic anemia brought on by ribavirin is a well-known dose-dependent side effect. Within six months of the infection with hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and Epstein–Barr viruses, aplastic anemia associated with hepatitis is seen. This anemia is characterized by pancytopenia brought on by hypocellular bone marrow. Esophageal varices, portal hypertensive gastropathy, and gastric antral vascular ectasia can all cause acute and chronic blood loss. These conditions can progress to iron deficiency anemia, microcytic anemia, and hypochromic anemia. Another common hematologic abnormality in liver cirrhosis is macrocytosis, with multifactorial causes. Vitamin B12 and folate deficiency are frequent in liver cirrhosis, especially of alcoholic etiology, due to increased intestinal permeability, dysbiosis, and malnutrition. Many chronic liver diseases, like viral and autoimmune hepatitis, have a chronic inflammatory substrate. Proinflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor and interleukin 1, 6, and 10, are the main factors that diminish iron availability in progenitor erythrocytes and subsequent erythropoiesis, leading to the development of chronic inflammatory, normochromic, normocytic anemia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Liver)
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9 pages, 975 KiB  
Article
Magnetic Resonance Enterography Reinvented: Exploring the Potential of a New Natural Beverage as an Alternative to Polyethylene Glycol Solution
by Matteo Renzulli, Maria Adriana Cocozza, Maurizio Biselli, Arrigo Cattabriga, Nicolò Brandi, Ferdinando Antonino Giannone, Marco Storchi, Paolo Gionchetti, Gilberto Poggioli, Silvio Laureti, Rita Golfieri and Alberta Cappelli
Gastroenterol. Insights 2023, 14(3), 318-326; https://doi.org/10.3390/gastroent14030023 - 04 Aug 2023
Viewed by 937
Abstract
The aim of the present study was to test a new oral contrast medium composed of natural components for the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of small bowel diseases. Between January 2018 and June 2019, 35 patients affected by ileocolic Crohn’s disease (CD) were [...] Read more.
The aim of the present study was to test a new oral contrast medium composed of natural components for the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of small bowel diseases. Between January 2018 and June 2019, 35 patients affected by ileocolic Crohn’s disease (CD) were enrolled in the present study. Each patient underwent two sequential MR enterographies, first with the standard polyethylene glycol (PEG) water solution and, after 3 weeks, with the new natural beverage designed by our team. At the end of the administration of each oral contrast, a satisfaction survey was given to the patients to assess the palatability of both beverages. The intestinal distention and the quality of images were evaluated by two expert radiologists for both studies and the interreader agreement was calculated. According to the satisfaction questionnaire, 97.1% of patients expressed positive judgments regarding the natural beverage (71.4% very good and 25.7% good) whereas only 8.6% of them appreciated the PEG water solution (8.6% good) (p = 0.0001). The degree of intestinal distention was excellent and good in 97.1% of patients after the administration of PEG and in 94.3% of the patients after the administration of the natural beverage, without significant differences between the two products and with almost perfect (k = 0.821) and substantial (k = 0.754) inter-observer variability, respectively. No statistical differences were observed between the two expert radiologists regarding the evaluation of the imaging quality; in particular, they were considered good and excellent in 100% of patients after the administration of PEG water solution and in 97.2% of those who took the natural beverage, with substantial (k = 0.618) and almost perfect (k = 0.858) inter-observer variability, respectively. The new natural beverage demonstrated the same intestinal distension and excellent image quality compared to the synthetic standard oral contrast administered during MRE for small bowel diseases, proving to be a valid alternative with better palatability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Basic and Translational Research in Inflammatory Bowel Disease)
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9 pages, 257 KiB  
Article
Quality of Life Assessment in Intestinal Stoma Patients in the Saudi Population: A Cross-Sectional Study
by Reem Awad Alharbi, Nadeem Ahmad, Fatemah Yasser Alhedaithy, Majdoleen Dakhil N. Alnajim, Naima Waheed, Aisha A. Alessa, Banan A. Khedr and Marriyam A. Aleissa
Gastroenterol. Insights 2023, 14(3), 309-317; https://doi.org/10.3390/gastroent14030022 - 04 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1479
Abstract
Background: A stoma poses numerous physical, social, and psychological challenges and interferes with some religious practices, thus potentially negatively affecting the quality of life. In the contemporary era of stoma care, the study sought to assess this impact in a population with distinctive [...] Read more.
Background: A stoma poses numerous physical, social, and psychological challenges and interferes with some religious practices, thus potentially negatively affecting the quality of life. In the contemporary era of stoma care, the study sought to assess this impact in a population with distinctive sociocultural characteristics. Methods: A modified City of Hope Quality of Life ostomy questionnaire was used to survey patients with intestinal stomas. The scoring was dichotomous on a 0 to 10 scale, where 0–3 indicated severe impact, 4–6 moderate, and 7–10 minimum. Statistical analysis involved Student’s t-test, one-way ANOVA, Spearman’s correlation, and multivariate linear regression. Results: There were 108 patients, with 59 males and 49 females. The mean age was 40.8 years. The overall quality of life score was 6, for the social domain 7, the physical domain 6, the psychological domain 5, and the spiritual domain 6. The stoma’s impact on the quality of life was severe in 2%, moderate in 61%, and minimal in 37% of patients. Young patients, women, and those with benign diseases or without a job had low scores. Furthermore, 90% of patients had difficulty performing religious activities. For the regression analysis, life quality predictors were dietary, religious, pouch and stoma site issues, leak, odor, diarrhea or constipation, depression, anxiety, and future and disease concerns. Conclusions: Despite advances in stoma care, stoma patients had multiple impediments to their life quality. These were mainly psychological, but the physical and religious ones were also significant. A holistic approach to managing stoma patients is thus needed to help them have fulfilling lives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gastrointestinal Disease)
16 pages, 723 KiB  
Review
Hepatoprotective Effects of Liv.52 in Chronic Liver Disease Preclinical, Clinical, and Safety Evidence: A Review
by Chetan Kantharia, Munesh Kumar, Mukesh Kumar Jain, Lokendra Sharma, Lokesh Jain and Anish Desai
Gastroenterol. Insights 2023, 14(3), 293-308; https://doi.org/10.3390/gastroent14030021 - 31 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 26848
Abstract
Chronic liver disease (CLD) is a growing concern worldwide. The common etiological factors include infection, alcohol abuse, exposure to hepatotoxic drugs, autoimmune disorders, and metabolic diseases. The chronic liver disease progresses to liver cirrhosis and its consequent complications. It is routinely managed by [...] Read more.
Chronic liver disease (CLD) is a growing concern worldwide. The common etiological factors include infection, alcohol abuse, exposure to hepatotoxic drugs, autoimmune disorders, and metabolic diseases. The chronic liver disease progresses to liver cirrhosis and its consequent complications. It is routinely managed by a combination of various therapies in combination with lifestyle modifications. The current literature supports the growing importance of the usage of herbal medicines in the management of CLD due to their efficacy and very low incidence of adverse effects. Liv.52 is a known polyherbal formulation and has been used for over 50 years in India and other countries. The evidence collected from preclinical and clinical studies supports the use of Liv.52 in symptomatic improvement and supportive treatment due to hepatitis (including Hepatitis B), alcoholic liver disease, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and hepatotoxicity due to drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis. Liv.52 has also shown some preliminary hepatoprotective effects in patients with liver cirrhosis due to its potential antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Both the syrup and tablet formulations are well tolerated and have shown a good safety profile. Liv.52 may be a favorable herbal choice for the management of CLD due to various etiologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Liver)
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11 pages, 3985 KiB  
Article
Computed Tomography Imaging Evaluation of Pancreatic Density and Muscular Mass as Predictive Risk Factors for Pancreatic Fistula Formation after Duodenocephalopancreasectomy
by Naomi Calabrò, Chiara Borraccino, Christian Garlisi, Teresa Bongiovanni, Paola Basile, Ahmed Abu-Omar, Mariano Scaglione, Raffaele Romito and Alessandro Carriero
Gastroenterol. Insights 2023, 14(3), 282-292; https://doi.org/10.3390/gastroent14030020 - 13 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1182
Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive role of preoperative pancreatic density and muscular mass, assessed via CT imaging, in patients undergoing duodenocephalopancreasectomy, specifically in relation to the occurrence of postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF). A retrospective analysis was conducted on [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive role of preoperative pancreatic density and muscular mass, assessed via CT imaging, in patients undergoing duodenocephalopancreasectomy, specifically in relation to the occurrence of postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF). A retrospective analysis was conducted on a cohort of 57 consecutive patients who had been diagnosed with cephalo-pancreatic disease and had undergone duodenocephalopancreasectomy in the last five years. The most prevalent pathologies observed were ductal adenocarcinoma (29.2%), biliary adenocarcinoma (12.9%), and duodenal and papillary adenocarcinoma (13.9%). We collected information about age, sex, histopathological findings, type of surgery, presence or absence of pancreatic fistula, pancreatic density on preoperative CT images, and muscular area, calculated at the level of the L3 vertebra using “3D Slicer” software. Our data show that 28% of patients developed a pancreatic fistula, with an average attenuation of pancreatic density of 27 HU, which was lower than that observed in the non-fistula group (33.31 HU). However, statistical analysis did not reveal a significant association between low pancreatic density and fistula development. Therefore, our findings do not establish a significant association between pancreatic fistula and pancreatic density, aligning with the existing literature on the subject. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pancreas)
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11 pages, 1871 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Point Shear Wave Elastography and 2-Dimensional Shear Wave Elastography Values of Liver Metastases from Colorectal Cancer
by Emiliya Lyubomirova Nacheva-Georgieva, Daniel Ilianov Doykov, Bozhidar Krasimirov Hristov, Katya Angelova Doykova and Mladen Ilianov Doykov
Gastroenterol. Insights 2023, 14(3), 271-281; https://doi.org/10.3390/gastroent14030019 - 03 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1169
Abstract
Nowadays ultrasound-based non-invasive techniques for the evaluation of tissue elasticity are becoming increasingly popular. A key determinant for the adequate treatment of focal liver lesions is on establishment of accurate diagnosis. Contemporary imaging modalities, particularly ultrasonographic, are widely accepted for assessing the elasticity [...] Read more.
Nowadays ultrasound-based non-invasive techniques for the evaluation of tissue elasticity are becoming increasingly popular. A key determinant for the adequate treatment of focal liver lesions is on establishment of accurate diagnosis. Contemporary imaging modalities, particularly ultrasonographic, are widely accepted for assessing the elasticity of focal liver lesions but the investigation of their accuracy and differentiation potential is still ongoing. Aim: To compare the values of point shear wave elastography (pSWE) and two-dimensional shear wave elastography (2D-SWE) for liver metastases from colorectal cancer. Materials and Methods: A total of 31 adult patients with liver metastases from colorectal cancer (CRC) were included from the Department of Gastroenterology of University Hospital Kaspela, Plovdiv, Bulgaria, in the period June 2022 to November 2022. The men/women ratio of the participants was respectively 11 women and 20 men. For all of them point shear wave elastography (pSWE) and two-dimensional shear wave elastography (2D-SWE) were performed to evaluate the stiffness of liver metastases, by measuring the shear wave velocity (SWV) in a region of interest (ROI). Prior histological confirmation of colorectal cancer through diagnostic lower endoscopy was a prerequisite for inclusion in the study. Contrast-enhanced computer tomography (CECT) was used as a reference imaging modality to confirm the presence of lesions in the liver. All the images were evaluated by a radiologist with long-standing experience in liver imaging. Results: For point shear wave elastography (pSWE), the lower limit was found to be 1.80 m/s (90% CI: 1.39 to 2.32) and the upper limit was 4.21 m/s (90% CI: 3.69 to 4.60). For two-dimensional shear wave elastography (2D-SWE), the lower limit was determined to be 1.87 m/s (90% CI: 1.54 to 2.25) and the upper limit was 3.65 m/s (90% CI: 3.26 to 3.97). Conclusions: Point shear wave elastography (pSWE) and two-dimensional shear wave elastography (2D-SWE) could bring additional information about the stiffness of liver metastases from colorectal cancer but they are not to be considered a method to substitute biopsy of colorectal cancer during lower endoscopy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Colorectal Cancer: From Molecular Mechanisms to Therapy Strategies)
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22 pages, 1334 KiB  
Review
Hepatitis C and Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis in the 21st Century: Impact on Liver Disease and Liver Transplantation
by Sonia Samuel, Ahmad Abulawi and Raza Malik
Gastroenterol. Insights 2023, 14(3), 249-270; https://doi.org/10.3390/gastroent14030018 - 29 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1789
Abstract
Hepatitis C infection is a leading etiology of hepatic dysfunction and a major indication for liver transplantation due to the development of fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and, specifically, its subtype nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a rising cause [...] Read more.
Hepatitis C infection is a leading etiology of hepatic dysfunction and a major indication for liver transplantation due to the development of fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and, specifically, its subtype nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a rising cause of liver disease. It is predicted to surpass hepatitis C as a leading indication for transplant. The introduction of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) decreased the prevalence of chronic hepatitis C infections, but the obesity epidemic and metabolic syndrome have increased the prevalence of NASH. Weight loss and dietary modifications are recommended NASH therapies, but unlike for hepatitis C, federally approved agents are lacking and currently under investigation. Clinical trials face many barriers in NASH treatment because of the difficulty of diagnosis and a lack of standardized and accurate clinical and histologic responses. Mortality and morbidity in NASH are heightened because of the presence of multiple comorbidities including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and renal dysfunction. A liver transplant may be indicated, but a thorough screening of candidates, including a comprehensive cardiovascular assessment, is essential to ensuring successful outcomes pre- and post-transplant. Therapeutic agents for NASH are warranted before it becomes a significant and leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Liver Research)
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