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Gastroenterol. Insights, Volume 13, Issue 4 (December 2022) – 7 articles

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17 pages, 3232 KiB  
Review
An Insight on Pharmacological and Mechanical Preventive Measures of Post-ERCP PANCREATITIS (PEP)—A Review
by Yinqiu Zhang, Yan Liang and Yadong Feng
Gastroenterol. Insights 2022, 13(4), 387-403; https://doi.org/10.3390/gastroent13040038 - 02 Dec 2022
Viewed by 3734
Abstract
Pancreatitis is the most common complication following endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography (ERCP). With the progress of research in many drugs and technologies, promising efficacy has been achieved in preventing post-ERCP pancreatitis (PEP). Recently, combined prevention has received more attention in order to further reduce [...] Read more.
Pancreatitis is the most common complication following endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography (ERCP). With the progress of research in many drugs and technologies, promising efficacy has been achieved in preventing post-ERCP pancreatitis (PEP). Recently, combined prevention has received more attention in order to further reduce the incidence of PEP. However, there is no review about the combined prevention of PEP. This review summarizes the medication and ERCP techniques that are used to prevent PEP and emphasizes that appropriate combination prevention approaches should be based on risk stratification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnostic and Therapeutic Challenges in Pancreatobiliary Diseases)
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10 pages, 667 KiB  
Review
Clinical and Safety Evaluation of Liv.52 in Alcoholic Liver Disease: A Review
by Subramanian Ganesh, Neeraj Joshi, Mukesh Kumar Jain, Lokendra Sharma, Anish Desai, Mohamed Rafiq, Uddagiri Venkanna Babu and Rajesh Kumawat
Gastroenterol. Insights 2022, 13(4), 377-386; https://doi.org/10.3390/gastroent13040037 - 13 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 36277
Abstract
Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) has been a growing concern in developed and developing nations. Oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation are the most common cause of the development and progression of ALD. Due to paucity in the number and efficacy of hepatoprotective drugs currently [...] Read more.
Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) has been a growing concern in developed and developing nations. Oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation are the most common cause of the development and progression of ALD. Due to paucity in the number and efficacy of hepatoprotective drugs currently available, and with the easy availability of natural therapy and herbal medicines, ALD is managed using a combination of pharmaceutical interventions and herbal medications. However, the effectiveness of these hepatoprotectives is controversial. Preclinical and clinical studies have demonstrated that Liv.52 modulates the lipotropic activity of hepatocytes, reduces inflammation, enhances alcohol and acetaldehyde metabolism, and protects the hepatic parenchyma by restoring the antioxidant levels of hepatocytes. Clinical studies further support that there is improvement in the subjective symptoms of patients as well as improvements in liver function test parameters. Studies suggest that Liv.52 is well tolerated and has no reported side effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Liver Research)
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12 pages, 583 KiB  
Article
Efficacy of Helicobacter pylori Eradication Based on Rabeprazole–Bismuth–Tetracycline–Tinidazole Regimen in Vietnamese Patients with Duodenal Ulcers
by Liem Thanh Nguyen, Vuong Ba Nguyen, Tu Viet Tran, Huy Quang Duong, Loan Thi Thuy Le, Mai Huynh Truc Phuong and Thang Nguyen
Gastroenterol. Insights 2022, 13(4), 365-376; https://doi.org/10.3390/gastroent13040036 - 22 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3898
Abstract
(1) Background: In Vietnam, H. pylori bacteria has a resistance rate of 63% to the antibiotic clarithromycin. The initial therapy of H. pylori eradication with a standard three-drug regimen has low efficacy. Objective: Assess the efficacy of H. pylori eradication therapy which uses [...] Read more.
(1) Background: In Vietnam, H. pylori bacteria has a resistance rate of 63% to the antibiotic clarithromycin. The initial therapy of H. pylori eradication with a standard three-drug regimen has low efficacy. Objective: Assess the efficacy of H. pylori eradication therapy which uses a four-drug regimen of rabeprazole–bismuth–tetracycline–tinidazole in patients with duodenal ulcers. (2) Methods: We performed gastrointestinal endoscopy on patients with a diagnosis of duodenal ulcers, gastric mucosa biopsy for a rapid urease test, and histopathology to diagnose H. pylori bacteria before and after treatment. Treatment for eradication of H. pylori bacteria using a rabeprazole–bismuth–tetracycline–tinidazole regimen was prescribed for 14 days. (3) Results: The rate of successful H. pylori eradication treatment according to per protocol (PP) and intention to treat (ITT) was 91.3% (95%CI: 84.8–96.7) and 82.4% (95%CI: 74.5–89.2) respectively. The success rate of H. pylori eradication therapy in males was 96.0% (95%CI: 92–100), higher than in females, which was 70.6% (95%CI: 47.1–88.2), p < 0.01. (4) Conclusions: Treatment of H. pylori with rabeprazole–bismuth–tetracycline–tinidazole regimen is highly effective. Men had higher H. pylori eradication results than women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Management and Treatment of Digestive Disorders)
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16 pages, 1037 KiB  
Article
Gut Health and Its Association with Wellbeing and Nutrient Intake in Community-Dwelling Older Adults
by Frida Fart, Lina Tingö, Stina Engelheart, Carl Mårten Lindqvist, Robert J. Brummer, Annica Kihlgren and Ida Schoultz
Gastroenterol. Insights 2022, 13(4), 349-364; https://doi.org/10.3390/gastroent13040035 - 17 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2262
Abstract
Many of the increasing number of community-dwelling older adults will need increased healthcare in the future. By characterising gut health and its association with wellbeing and nutrient intake in this population, we aim to recognise areas along the gut–brain axis through which the [...] Read more.
Many of the increasing number of community-dwelling older adults will need increased healthcare in the future. By characterising gut health and its association with wellbeing and nutrient intake in this population, we aim to recognise areas along the gut–brain axis through which the health of community-dwelling older adults might be promoted. In this cross-sectional observational study, validated questionnaires were used to assess gut health, nutrient intake, and wellbeing in 241 community-dwelling older adults (≥65 years old). In total, 65% of the participants experienced at least one gastrointestinal symptom, of which females had more abdominal pain and constipation, while the oldest old (i.e., ≥80 years old) had more diarrhoea. Increased gastrointestinal symptoms correlated with more stress, anxiety, depression, and a decreased quality of life, in addition to dyspepsia which correlated with a lower E% of protein. Most of the participants did not reach the recommended intake for protein, fibre and polyunsaturated fats. Males had a lower intake of protein (E%) and fibre (g/MJ) than females, and the oldest old had a lower E% of protein than younger older adults. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that gastrointestinal symptoms are common, and most of the study participants had an imbalanced macronutrient intake, which could be a target for future possible dietary interventions to improve overall health. Full article
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9 pages, 534 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha Gene (−308 G/A, −238 G/A and −857 C/T) Polymorphisms and the Risk of Gastric Cancer in Eastern Indian Population
by Kanishka Uthansingh, Girish Kumar Pati, Prasanta Kumar Parida, Jimmy Narayan, Subhasis Pradhan, Manoj Kumar Sahu and Rabindra Nath Padhy
Gastroenterol. Insights 2022, 13(4), 340-348; https://doi.org/10.3390/gastroent13040034 - 10 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1739
Abstract
Introduction: Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related decimations worldwide. The gastric infection at both the stomach and duodenum with Helicobacter pylori causes inflammation by the tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). The aim of the study was to associate and [...] Read more.
Introduction: Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related decimations worldwide. The gastric infection at both the stomach and duodenum with Helicobacter pylori causes inflammation by the tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). The aim of the study was to associate and evaluate the three TNF-α gene polymorphisms at positions −308 G/A, −238 G/A, and −857 C/T with the risk of GC. Methods: A total of 156 individuals (consecutively diagnosed 95 GC patients and 61 controls) above the age of 18 years were enrolled in the study. Healthy individuals with normal upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGIE) irrespective of their family history of GC or peptic ulcer were included as controls. The cited three TNF-α gene polymorphisms were evaluated using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Results: There was no significant difference in the distribution of gene polymorphisms as genetic factors, TNF-α−308 GA/AA (22.1% vs. 14.8%, p = 0.2), TNF-α−238 GA/AA (21% vs. 19.6%, p = 0.8), and TNF-α−857 CT/TT (8.4% vs. 11.5%, p = 0.5), between GC cases and healthy controls. A subgroup analysis of H. pylori-positive patients showed that there was no significant difference in the distribution of GA/AA polymorphisms in TNF-α−308 (15(45.5%) vs. 3(23%); p = 0.17) and −238 (12(36.3%) vs. 2(15.4%); p = 0.17), and the distribution of TT/CT −857 CT/TT (13(39.4%) vs. 2(15.4%); p = 0.13), among the GC cases and controls. Conclusion: The statistical comparisons of GA/AA vs. GG genotypes at −308 (with OR = 1.6, 95% CI: 0.6–3.8), −238 (OR = 1.09, 95% CI: 0.4–2.4) and TT/CT vs. CC genotypes at −857 (OR = 0.7, 95% CI: 0.2–2.1) did not suggest any association of TNF-α with GC in the population herein. Hence, the TNF-α (−308 G/A, −238 G/A and −857 C/T) may not be the associating factor for GC incidence determined by the PCR–RFLP method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Advances in Gastrointestinal Cancer)
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14 pages, 5865 KiB  
Review
Diverticular Disease—An Updated Management Review
by Sujata Kishnani, Kathryn Ottaviano, Lisa Rosenberg, Soe Htet Arker, Hwajeong Lee, Michael Schuster, Micheal Tadros and Brian Valerian
Gastroenterol. Insights 2022, 13(4), 326-339; https://doi.org/10.3390/gastroent13040033 - 30 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 8927
Abstract
Diverticular disease is highly prevalent in the Western world, placing an increased burden on healthcare systems. This review clarifies the consensus in the literature on the disease’s classification, etiology, and management. Diverticular disease, caused by sac-like protrusions of colonic mucosa through the muscular [...] Read more.
Diverticular disease is highly prevalent in the Western world, placing an increased burden on healthcare systems. This review clarifies the consensus in the literature on the disease’s classification, etiology, and management. Diverticular disease, caused by sac-like protrusions of colonic mucosa through the muscular colonic wall, has a varied disease course. Multiple theories contribute to our understanding of the etiology of the disease, with pathogenesis affected by age, diet, environmental conditions, lifestyle, the microbiome, genetics, and motility. The subtypes of diverticular disease in this review include symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease, segmental colitis associated with diverticulosis, and uncomplicated and complicated diverticulitis. We discuss emerging treatments and outline management options, such as supportive care, conservative management with or without antibiotics, and surgical intervention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Management and Treatment of Digestive Disorders)
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13 pages, 2883 KiB  
Article
Abdominal and Thoracic Imaging Features in Children with MIS-C
by Elena Ilieva, Vilyana Kostadinova, Iren Tzotcheva, Nadezhda Rimpova, Yordanka Paskaleva and Snezhina Lazova
Gastroenterol. Insights 2022, 13(4), 313-325; https://doi.org/10.3390/gastroent13040032 - 21 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2085
Abstract
(1) Background: Currently, multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is diagnosed based on clinical symptoms and laboratory findings of inflammation in the body. Once MIS-C is diagnosed, children will need to be followed over time. The imaging modalities most commonly used in the [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Currently, multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is diagnosed based on clinical symptoms and laboratory findings of inflammation in the body. Once MIS-C is diagnosed, children will need to be followed over time. The imaging modalities most commonly used in the evaluation of patients with MIS-C include radiographs, ultrasound (US), and computed tomography (CT). Our study aims to summarise the literature data for the main gastrointestinal and pulmonary imaging features in children diagnosed with MIS-C and to share a single-centre experience. (2) Methods: We present the imaging findings in a cohort of 51 children diagnosed with MIS-C, admitted between December 2020 and February 2022. Imaging studies include chest and abdominal radiographs, thoracic, abdominal, and neck US and echocardiography (ECHO), and CT of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis. (3) Results: In accordance with the results in other studies, our observations show predominantly gastrointestinal involvement (GI) with ascites (33/51, 65%) and lymphadenopathy (19/51, 37%), ileitis or colitis (18/51, 35%), some cases of splenomegaly (9/51, 18%), hepatomegaly (8/51, 16%), and a few cases of renal enlargement (3/51, 6%) and gallbladder fossa oedema/wall thickening (2/51, 4%). Most common among the thoracic findings are posterior–basal consolidations (16/51, 31%), pleural effusion (14/51, 27%), and ground-glass opacities (12/51, 24%). We also register the significant involvement of the cardiovascular system with pericarditis (30/51, 58%), pericardial effusion (16/51, 31%), and myocarditis (6/51, 12%). (4) Conclusions: Radiologists should be aware of those imaging findings in order to take an important and active role not only in applying an accurate diagnosis, but also in the subsequent management of children with MIS-C. Radiological findings are not the primary diagnostic tool, but can assist in the evaluation of the affected systems and guide treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Gastroenterological Aspects of COVID-19 Infection)
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