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Time Perception Mechanisms at Central Nervous System

Rhailana Fontes
Jéssica Ribeiro
Daya S. Gupta
Dionis Machado
Fernando Lopes-Júnior
Francisco Magalhães
Victor Hugo Bastos
Kaline Rocha
Victor Marinho
Gildário Lima
Bruna Velasques
Pedro Ribeiro
Marco Orsini
Bruno Pessoa
Marco Antonio Araujo Leite
7 and
Silmar Teixeira
Brain Mapping and Plasticity Laboratory, Federal University of Piauí, Parnaíba, Brazil
Department of Biology, Camden County College, Blackwood, NJ, USA
Laboratory of Brain Mapping and Functionality, Federal University of Piauí, Parnaíba, Brazil
Neurophisic Applied Laboratory, Federal University of Piauí, Parnaíba, Brazil
Brain Mapping and and Sensory-Motor Integration Laboratory, Psychiatry Institute of Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Rehabilitation Science Program, Analysis of Human Movement Laboratory, Augusto Motta University Center, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Neurology Department, Federal Fluminense University, Niterói, Brazil
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Neurol. Int. 2016, 8(1), 5939;
Submission received: 5 April 2015 / Revised: 24 November 2015 / Accepted: 30 November 2015 / Published: 1 April 2016


The five senses have specific ways to receive environmental information and lead to central nervous system. The perception of time is the sum of stimuli associated with cognitive processes and environmental changes. Thus, the perception of time requires a complex neural mechanism and may be changed by emotional state, level of attention, memory and diseases. Despite this knowledge, the neural mechanisms of time perception are not yet fully understood. The objective is to relate the mechanisms involved the neurofunctional aspects, theories, executive functions and pathologies that contribute the understanding of temporal perception. Articles form 1980 to 2015 were searched by using the key themes: neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, theories, time cells, memory, schizophrenia, depression, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and Parkinson’s disease combined with the term perception of time. We evaluated 158 articles within the inclusion criteria for the purpose of the study. We conclude that research about the holdings of the frontal cortex, parietal, basal ganglia, cerebellum and hippocampus have provided advances in the understanding of the regions related to the perception of time. In neurological and psychiatric disorders, the understanding of time depends on the severity of the diseases and the type of tasks.
Keywords: Time perception; time cells; memory; psychiatric diseases Time perception; time cells; memory; psychiatric diseases

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MDPI and ACS Style

Fontes, R.; Ribeiro, J.; Gupta, D.S.; Machado, D.; Lopes-Júnior, F.; Magalhães, F.; Bastos, V.H.; Rocha, K.; Marinho, V.; Lima, G.; et al. Time Perception Mechanisms at Central Nervous System. Neurol. Int. 2016, 8, 5939.

AMA Style

Fontes R, Ribeiro J, Gupta DS, Machado D, Lopes-Júnior F, Magalhães F, Bastos VH, Rocha K, Marinho V, Lima G, et al. Time Perception Mechanisms at Central Nervous System. Neurology International. 2016; 8(1):5939.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Fontes, Rhailana, Jéssica Ribeiro, Daya S. Gupta, Dionis Machado, Fernando Lopes-Júnior, Francisco Magalhães, Victor Hugo Bastos, Kaline Rocha, Victor Marinho, Gildário Lima, and et al. 2016. "Time Perception Mechanisms at Central Nervous System" Neurology International 8, no. 1: 5939.

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