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Neurology International is published by MDPI from Volume 12 Issue 3 (2020). Previous articles were published by another publisher in Open Access under a CC-BY licence, and they are hosted by MDPI on mdpi.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with PAGEPress.

Neurol. Int., Volume 3, Issue 3 (November 2011) – 5 articles

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924 KiB  
Article
Cerebral Venous Thrombosis: Diagnosis Dilemma
by Pipat Chiewvit, Siriwan Piyapittayanan and Niphon Poungvarin
Neurol. Int. 2011, 3(3), e13; https://doi.org/10.4081/ni.2011.e13 - 15 Dec 2011
Cited by 58 | Viewed by 1
Abstract
Cerebral venous thrombosis is increasing common disease in daily practice with sharing clinical nonspecific symptoms. This disorder is potentially lethal but treatable, oftenly it was overlooked in both clinical and radiologic in routine practice. Whenever, clinical suspected, prompt investigation by noninvasive imaging such [...] Read more.
Cerebral venous thrombosis is increasing common disease in daily practice with sharing clinical nonspecific symptoms. This disorder is potentially lethal but treatable, oftenly it was overlooked in both clinical and radiologic in routine practice. Whenever, clinical suspected, prompt investigation by noninvasive imaging such as conventional technique of CT, MR or advanced modilities such as CTV, MRV will helpful in prompt diagnosis and treatment. These imaging modalities may reveal either direct sign( visualization of intraluminal clot) and indirect signs ( paranchymatous change, intracranial hemorrhage). By using of effective treatment will improve the prognosis of the patient. This review summarizes insights into etiology, incidence, imaging modalities and current of the treatment.
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325 KiB  
Article
Importance of Differentiating Mycobaterium bovis in Tuberculous Meningitis
by Alejandra Gonzàlez-Duarte, Alfredo Ponce de Leon and José Sifuentes Osornio
Neurol. Int. 2011, 3(3), e9; https://doi.org/10.4081/ni.2011.e9 - 12 Dec 2011
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2
Abstract
The aim of the article is to describe the principal findings among patients with M.tuberculosis and M. bovis CNS infection. Mycoba - cterium tuberculosis is one of the most common infectious agents that cause death and neurological sequelae around the world. Most of [...] Read more.
The aim of the article is to describe the principal findings among patients with M.tuberculosis and M. bovis CNS infection. Mycoba - cterium tuberculosis is one of the most common infectious agents that cause death and neurological sequelae around the world. Most of the complications of CNS TB can be attributed to a delay in the diagnosis. Unfortu nately, there are no specific diagnostic tools to support an early diagnosis. Other prognostic factors different from delay in treatment have not been identified. Clinical, radiological and laboratory characteristics were analyzed retrospectively from the medical files of all the patients admitted with the diagnoses of tuberculosis. Of 215 patients admitted with systemic tuberculosis, 64 (30%) had a neurological infection. Positive cultures were found in 54 (84%) cases, 18 (33%) in the CSF and the rest in other fluids or tissues. Adenosin deaminase (ADA) enzyme determination was more sensitive than M. tuberculosis PCR in the CSF for supporting an early diagnosis. In addition to a later clinical stage and treatment lag, positive CSF cultures (P=0.001) and the presence of M. bovis (P=0.020) were prognostic factors for a worse outcome. Neither older age, the presence of tuberculomas versus meningeal enhancement, or HIV co-infection, was associated to a worse prognosis. The isolation of M. bovis subspecies was more common that previously reported, and it was associated to the development of parenchymal lesions (P=0.032) when compared to M. tuberculosis. In this study, positive CSF cultures for M. tuberculosis and further identifying M. bovis species were additional prognostic factors for worse outcome. Positive cultures in systemic fluids other than CSF, even when the patient had no obvious systemic manifestations, and ADA determination in the CSF were noteworthy diagnostic tools for the diagnosis. Full article
274 KiB  
Article
Evoked Potentials in Pediatric Cerebral Malaria
by Minal Bhanushali, Terrie E. Taylor, Malcolm E. Molyneux, Monica Sapuwa, Eunice Mwandira and Gretchen L. Birbeck
Neurol. Int. 2011, 3(3), e14; https://doi.org/10.4081/ni.2011.e14 - 6 Dec 2011
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1
Abstract
Cortical evoked potentials (EP) provide localized data regarding brain function and may offer prognostic information and insights into the pathologic mechanisms of malariamediated cerebral injury. As part of a prospective cohort study, we obtained somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) and brainstem auditory EPs (AEPs) [...] Read more.
Cortical evoked potentials (EP) provide localized data regarding brain function and may offer prognostic information and insights into the pathologic mechanisms of malariamediated cerebral injury. As part of a prospective cohort study, we obtained somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) and brainstem auditory EPs (AEPs) within 24 hours of admission on 27 consecutive children admitted with cerebral malaria (CM). Children underwent follow-up for 12 months to determine if they had any long term neurologic sequelae. EPs were obtained in 27 pediatric CM admissions. Two children died. Among survivors followed an average of 514 days, 7/25 (28.0%) had at least one adverse neurologic outcome. Only a single subject had absent cortical EPs on admission and this child had a good neurologic outcome. Among pediatric CM survivors, cortical EPs are generally intact and do not predict adverse neurologic outcomes. Further study is needed to determine if alterations in cortical EPs can be used to predict a fatal outcome in CM. Full article
584 KiB  
Review
Obstructive Sleep Apnea
by Matthew L. Ho and Steven D. Brass
Neurol. Int. 2011, 3(3), e15; https://doi.org/10.4081/ni.2011.e15 - 2 Dec 2011
Cited by 82 | Viewed by 1
Abstract
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) affects millions of Americans and is estimated to be as prevalent as asthma and diabetes. Given the fact that obesity is a major risk factor for OSA, and given the current global rise in obesity, the prevalence of OSA [...] Read more.
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) affects millions of Americans and is estimated to be as prevalent as asthma and diabetes. Given the fact that obesity is a major risk factor for OSA, and given the current global rise in obesity, the prevalence of OSA will increase in the future. Individuals with sleep apnea are often unaware of their sleep disorder. It is usually first recognized as a problem by family members who witness the apneic episodes or is suspected by their primary care doctor because of the individual’s risk factors and symptoms. The vast majority remain undiagnosed and untreated, despite the fact that this serious disorder can have significant consequences. Individuals with untreated OSA can stop breathing hundreds of times a night during their sleep. These apneic events can lead to fragmented sleep that is of poor quality, as the brain arouses briefly in order for the body to resume breathing. Untreated, sleep apnea can have dire health consequences and can increase the risk of hypertension, diabetes, heart disease, and heart failure. OSA management has also become important in a number of comorbid neurological conditions, including epilepsy, stroke, multiple sclerosis, and headache. Diagnosis typically involves use of screening questionnaires, physical exam, and an overnight polysomnography or a portable home study. Treatment options include changes in lifestyle, positive airway pressure, surgery, and dental appliances. Full article
76 KiB  
Case Report
Subacute Neuronopathy in a Young Man: A Possible Association with Tetracycline Treatment
by Magnus Vrethem, Charlotte Dahle and Björn Lindvall
Neurol. Int. 2011, 3(3), e16; https://doi.org/10.4081/ni.2011.e16 - 29 Nov 2011
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1
Abstract
A young man with subacute neuronopathy following tetracycline treatment is described. The symptoms started as a sensory dorsal root affection but by time also involved motor nerves. He developed a severe sensory ataxia with pseudoathetotic movements. Other possible aetiologies were scrutinized and excluded. [...] Read more.
A young man with subacute neuronopathy following tetracycline treatment is described. The symptoms started as a sensory dorsal root affection but by time also involved motor nerves. He developed a severe sensory ataxia with pseudoathetotic movements. Other possible aetiologies were scrutinized and excluded. Tetracycline induced neuronopathy is hitherto not reported in the literature. We propose a possible association between treatment with tetracycline and the development of sensory neuronopathy in this patient. Full article
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