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World Electric Vehicle Journal is published by MDPI from Volume 9 issue 1 (2018). Previous articles were published by The World Electric Vehicle Association (WEVA) and its member the European Association for e-Mobility (AVERE), the Electric Drive Transportation Association (EDTA), and the Electric Vehicle Association of Asia Pacific (EVAAP). They are hosted by MDPI on mdpi.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with AVERE.

World Electr. Veh. J., Volume 3, Issue 2 (June 2009) – 25 articles , Pages 209-431

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1232 KiB  
Article
U.S. Fuel Cell Vehicle Learning Demonstration: Status Update and Early Second-Generation Vehicle Results
by Keith Wipke, Sam Sprik, Jennifer Kurtz, Todd Ramsden and John Garbak
World Electr. Veh. J. 2009, 3(2), 420-431; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj3020420 - 26 Jun 2009
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 988
Abstract
The National Learning Demonstration is conducting an integrated field validation to examine the performance of fuel cell vehicles and their supporting hydrogen infrastructure. NREL has now analyzed data from over four years of the six-year project, including 140 vehicles and 20 refueling stations, [...] Read more.
The National Learning Demonstration is conducting an integrated field validation to examine the performance of fuel cell vehicles and their supporting hydrogen infrastructure. NREL has now analyzed data from over four years of the six-year project, including 140 vehicles and 20 refueling stations, resulting in over 346,000 vehicle trips across 1,900,000 miles and over 90,000 kg of hydrogen produced or dispensed. Public analytical results from this project are presented in the form of composite data products (CDPs), which aggregate individual performance to protect the intellectual property and the identity of each company, while still publishing overall status and progress. In the spring of 2009, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) published the latest set of CDPs, making a total of 60 individual results and many new analyses publicly available. Highlights from the vehicle results include meeting the 250-mile driving range program milestone with 700-bar hydrogen storage tanks, stacks that have demonstrated almost 2,000 hours without repair, maintenance categorization from the powertrain and fuel cell system, and fuel cell stack usage data on trips/hour and time at various voltage levels. Infrastructure results include well-to-wheel greenhouse gas emissions calculated using actual fuel economy and production efficiency and a deep-dive into refueling rates. The project is continuing into 2010, with a significant number of vehicles planned for daily use through the end of the project. Results will continue to be published by NREL every six months and a final report is planned at the end of the project. Full article
690 KiB  
Article
Data Acquisition System for Electric- and Hybrid-Electric Buses
by Mark E. Hairr, Paul Griffith, J. Ronald Bailey and Woodlyn Madden
World Electr. Veh. J. 2009, 3(2), 413-419; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj3020413 - 26 Jun 2009
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 822
Abstract
Electric- and hybrid-electric bus deployments have sometimes failed because the operating agencies did not have a clear understanding of how the performance capabilities of any particular bus match up with the requirements of the operational duty cycle. Batteries are frequently subjected to over-discharge [...] Read more.
Electric- and hybrid-electric bus deployments have sometimes failed because the operating agencies did not have a clear understanding of how the performance capabilities of any particular bus match up with the requirements of the operational duty cycle. Batteries are frequently subjected to over-discharge and overor under-charge and other operational conditions that progressively degrade the performance and durability of the battery. The Data Acquisition System (DAS) developed by the Center for Energy, Transportation and the Environment (CETE) at the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga (UTC) permits operating agencies to understand, in real time, the impact that an operator and/or service requirement has on the entire electric- or hybrid-electric propulsion system and, more specifically, the batteries. It can be used to increase the utility and successful implementation of a electric- or hybrid-electric bus fleet by providing data on driving techniques, energy consumption versus road/load conditions and the energy requirements of existing and potential routes. In essence, this operational mode of the DAS system performs the functions of a digital storage oscilloscope, thereby enabling sophisticated evaluation and diagnosis. Three prototype DAS units were developed, fabricated, and installed on battery-electric buses operating in Santa Barbara, California, and Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia, and on a hybrid-electric bus operating in Sevierville, Tennessee. The results of these installations will be presented. Full article
738 KiB  
Article
Performance Evaluation of Micro PEM Fuel Cell through the Numerical Analysis and Fabrication of Micro-Channel
by Injea Choi, Gisoo Shin, Kap-Seung Choi and Hyung-Man Kim
World Electr. Veh. J. 2009, 3(2), 408-412; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj3020408 - 26 Jun 2009
Viewed by 767
Abstract
A fuel cell is most interesting new power source because it solves not only the environment problem but also natural resource exhaustion problem. In this paper, hydrogen gas flow in micro-channel was numerically analyzed about various channel shapes to improve the efficiency of [...] Read more.
A fuel cell is most interesting new power source because it solves not only the environment problem but also natural resource exhaustion problem. In this paper, hydrogen gas flow in micro-channel was numerically analyzed about various channel shapes to improve the efficiency of micro fuel cell. Flow characteristics with the same boundary condition were simulated in six different shapes of micro-channels which have been already developed and newly designed as well. The result of analysis shows that characteristics of flow such as velocity, uniformity, and flow rate, depend highly upon the channel shape itself. That means it is expectable to increase the efficiency of micro fuel cell through optimal configuration of channel shape for hydrogen gas flow. Finally, actual micro flow channels were fabricated using SU-8 and the performance of PEM fuel cell was also carried out with these micro prototypes. Full article
935 KiB  
Article
Power bus control for series hybrid heavy-duty vehicles
by Jukka Halme, Matti Liukkonen, Matti Heiska and Jussi Suomela
World Electr. Veh. J. 2009, 3(2), 396-407; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj3020396 - 26 Jun 2009
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 848
Abstract
Heavy-duty vehicles OEMs have an increasing interest in alternative power train solutions. To gain benefits of hybrid power train, proper power bus control must be implemented. Control strategy refers to means necessary to meet duty cycle power demands while maintaining vehicle performance. Cascading [...] Read more.
Heavy-duty vehicles OEMs have an increasing interest in alternative power train solutions. To gain benefits of hybrid power train, proper power bus control must be implemented. Control strategy refers to means necessary to meet duty cycle power demands while maintaining vehicle performance. Cascading controlling strategy division is proposed. Control method layering proposition is presented and control methods are divided into two categories, reactive and predictive methods. Finally these methods are implemented in series hybrid energy system model. Implemented reactive methods are load-based control, voltage-based control, voltage/load hybrid control and peak shaving control. Load data is measured data from electrical power train straddle carrier. One vehicle state predictive control method is implemented. Results are evaluated and discussed. Full article
1234 KiB  
Article
Optimal size of PHEV batteries from a consumer perspective – estimation using car movement data and implications for data harvesting
by Sten Karlsson
World Electr. Veh. J. 2009, 3(2), 387-395; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj3020387 - 26 Jun 2009
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 947
Abstract
Due to expensiveness of PHEV batteries, the dimensioning of the batteries is very important. We derive the marginally optimal size from a consumer economics perspective and show that a crucial factor for optimal size and profitability is the marginal annual recharging frequency. We [...] Read more.
Due to expensiveness of PHEV batteries, the dimensioning of the batteries is very important. We derive the marginally optimal size from a consumer economics perspective and show that a crucial factor for optimal size and profitability is the marginal annual recharging frequency. We apply the analysis to a small set of Swedish vehicle movement data and demonstrate that the resulting optimal battery is highly dependent on the specific movement pattern of the individual car. We conclude that it is now urgent for the continued development, planning, and estimates of proliferation and impact of PHEVs, that statistical data, today mostly lacking, for the movement patterns of individual vehicles are assembled. Full article
1319 KiB  
Article
Development of a Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle as Low-Floor City Transit Bus
by Uk-Don Choi, Se-Jin Oh, Chang-Hee Lee and Se-Hyun Lee
World Electr. Veh. J. 2009, 3(2), 379-386; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj3020379 - 26 Jun 2009
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 772
Abstract
In this paper, simulation and test results of a low floor Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle running in BUSAN city driving mode are presented. Hyundai Heavy Industries Company and Daewoo Bus Corporation have jointly developed a prototype Series Hybrid Electric Bus (SHEB) to evaluate [...] Read more.
In this paper, simulation and test results of a low floor Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle running in BUSAN city driving mode are presented. Hyundai Heavy Industries Company and Daewoo Bus Corporation have jointly developed a prototype Series Hybrid Electric Bus (SHEB) to evaluate vehicle performance together with fuel economy as a part of feasibility study on hybrid bus operation. It is found that the fuel efficiency of SHEB is 22% higher than that of a conventional internal combustion engine bus and our GENSET control method is quite effective in maintaining that battery’s State of Charge (SOC) during bus driving. Full article
762 KiB  
Article
Development of Power Capacitors for New Model Battery Forklift
by Makoto Shimizu, Yuichi Tanaka, Yoshihiro Fujita, Shuichi Kitagawa, Toshiaki Nagase and Kazuyoshi Kontani
World Electr. Veh. J. 2009, 3(2), 370-378; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj3020370 - 26 Jun 2009
Viewed by 746
Abstract
Forklift for industrial field is mostly used in closed area like warehouses or factories. Therefore, the emission issue of forklift is more serious than that of usual vehicles outdoors. And forklift is required the compact size and high power driven system for the [...] Read more.
Forklift for industrial field is mostly used in closed area like warehouses or factories. Therefore, the emission issue of forklift is more serious than that of usual vehicles outdoors. And forklift is required the compact size and high power driven system for the efficient work in a limited area. In EVS20 at Long Beach, we presented a paper about the power capacitors for battery forklift for the first time. This time, we will present our latest development for new model Battery Forklift which is far superior to the conventional type. AC motor driven system newly developed by TOYOTA INDUSTRIES CORP. provides higher performance and smaller size than the conventional system by installing higher quality and smaller AC controller and AC motor driver. NIPPON CHEMI-CON CORP. developed Power Capacitors in the inverter circuit. The total volume of new capacitors reached nearly half (↑47%) compared with the conventional type by reducing the internal resistance and adopting optimized cooling structure. In this paper, we will describe the upgrade of TOYOTA 48V Battery Forklift, AC motor driven system and the development of Power Capacitors for the inverter use. Full article
572 KiB  
Article
Cogging Torque Analysis of the PMSM for High Performance Electrical Motor Considering Magnetic Anisotropy of Electrical Steel
by Jeong-Jong Lee, Soon-O Kwon, Jung-Pyo Hong and Kyung-Ho Ha
World Electr. Veh. J. 2009, 3(2), 365-369; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj3020365 - 26 Jun 2009
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 953
Abstract
This paper deals with torque and cogging torque analysis of interior permanent magnet (IPM) motor considering anisotropy of electrical steel sheets. Generally, cogging torque is caused by tooth and slot structure in permanent magnet motor. But, magnetizing direction of iron core is changed [...] Read more.
This paper deals with torque and cogging torque analysis of interior permanent magnet (IPM) motor considering anisotropy of electrical steel sheets. Generally, cogging torque is caused by tooth and slot structure in permanent magnet motor. But, magnetizing direction of iron core is changed by each rolling position in the manufacturing process of iron core. In this paper, analysis of cogging torque presents effects of not tooth and slot structures but rolling direction of iron core. It is useful to apply precise electrical motor as EPS. Full article
1128 KiB  
Article
Parameter Prediction and Modelling Methods for Traction Motor of Hybrid Electric Vehicle
by Tao Sun, Soon-O Kwon, Geun-Ho Lee and Jung-Pyo Hong
World Electr. Veh. J. 2009, 3(2), 359-364; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj3020359 - 26 Jun 2009
Viewed by 875
Abstract
This paper introduces the parameter prediction and modelling methods for the traction motor of hybrid electric vehicle (HEV). In the general HEV simulation, the traction motor is mainly defined by efficiency map and torque/speed curve. Therefore, this paper will focus on the prediction [...] Read more.
This paper introduces the parameter prediction and modelling methods for the traction motor of hybrid electric vehicle (HEV). In the general HEV simulation, the traction motor is mainly defined by efficiency map and torque/speed curve. Therefore, this paper will focus on the prediction of these parameters, which involves the numerical analysis on the motor inductances calculation, iron-loss resistance calculation, and characteristic estimation algorithm and so on. The modelling method is split into tow major parts: configuration of model and composing graphic user interface (GUI). An experiment result will be used to compare with the calculated efficiency map to verify the validity of these methods. In addition, the model construction will be explained by flowcharts. Considering popularity, the MATLAB/Simulink will be used to construct the simulation program. And a GUI will be designed and used to show the simulation results. With the other models of vehicle components, the simulation will be processed in a parallel-type HEV model in an urban road condition (FTP72), and the simulation results will be shown in the end of this paper. Full article
1125 KiB  
Article
Heuristic Design of Advanced Drives: Analysis of Tradeoffs in Powertrain Electrification
by E.J. Wilhelm and W.W. Schenler
World Electr. Veh. J. 2009, 3(2), 352-358; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj3020352 - 26 Jun 2009
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 732
Abstract
Consumer demand for fuel efficient, low-emission vehicles is growing. This trend is motivated on one hand by the increasing fuel cost and on the other by government incentives and increased awareness. By hybridizing and electrifying powertrains, fuel use may be reduced without a [...] Read more.
Consumer demand for fuel efficient, low-emission vehicles is growing. This trend is motivated on one hand by the increasing fuel cost and on the other by government incentives and increased awareness. By hybridizing and electrifying powertrains, fuel use may be reduced without a sacrificing drive quality or functionality. Manufacturers are introducing powertrain concepts that avoid asking drivers to compromise, other than with perhaps a slight increase in purchase price. Heuristic design methods are useful for quantifying trade-offs between key stakeholder criteria, particularly for new technologies. Full article
1029 KiB  
Article
Electrochemical and thermal modeling of lithium-ion cells for use in HEV or EV application
by Ralf Benger, Heinz Wenzl, Hans-Peter Beck, Meina Jiang, Detlef Ohms and Gunter Schaedlich
World Electr. Veh. J. 2009, 3(2), 342-351; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj3020342 - 26 Jun 2009
Cited by 32 | Viewed by 2460
Abstract
To build a lithium battery system from single cells for use in an electric drive system the coupled electrochemical and thermal characteristics of these cells have to be well-known. Otherwise it is not possible to find the best cell for a given application [...] Read more.
To build a lithium battery system from single cells for use in an electric drive system the coupled electrochemical and thermal characteristics of these cells have to be well-known. Otherwise it is not possible to find the best cell for a given application considering capacity, power, thermal and electric management, housing, monitoring, etc. In the presented work an easy to parameterize Simulink model regarding the electrochemical and thermal properties was developed to simulate different cell types for an electric drive system. The model is based on an equivalent circuit diagram which is parameterized by means of impedance spectroscopy as well as of current pulse techniques. Differences of these methods are discussed briefly. By comparing simulation results and measurements it is shown that the coupled electrochemical-thermal model can predict the current - voltage behaviour and the temperature development of the different cells very exactly for both constant current profiles and load profiles appropriate for an electric forklift application. Full article
1477 KiB  
Article
Flexibility of Contactless Power Transfer using Magnetic Resonance Coupling to Air Gap and Misalignment for EV
by Takehiro Imura, Toshiyuki Uchida and Yoichi Hori
World Electr. Veh. J. 2009, 3(2), 332-341; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj3020332 - 26 Jun 2009
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 1257
Abstract
Nowadays, the establishment of the technologies of contactless power transfer (CPT) for electric vehicles (EVs) are needed. The system can provide people with a convenient charging system which can powers their EVs wirelessly and automatically when they park. Traditional CPT solutions have the [...] Read more.
Nowadays, the establishment of the technologies of contactless power transfer (CPT) for electric vehicles (EVs) are needed. The system can provide people with a convenient charging system which can powers their EVs wirelessly and automatically when they park. Traditional CPT solutions have the problem of distance between transmitting antennas and receiving antennas (air gap), as well as from the misalignment of the antennas. Those systems cannot power at a great distance and the efficiency is very low. In this paper, CPT by magnetic resonance couplings and small antennas are proposed. These techniques more easily span air gaps and are more forgiving to antennas misalignments than traditional solutions. The Efficiencies are still high when the air gaps are longer than the diameter of the antennas. As well, the efficiencies are over 90% when the antennas are half a diameter out of alignment. For example, when the air gap and the displacement is 150mm, the efficiency is about 96%. The magnetic resonant couplings can power wirelessly even if there is a weak connection. Thus, a large air gaps with high efficiency are possible. The relation between two resonant frequencies and the coupling coefficient are described using the method of equivalent circuits. As well, the relation between resonant frequencies and the efficiencies, especially the moment of decreasing, are described. Full article
766 KiB  
Article
Possibilities of reduction of the on-board energy for an innovative subway
by A-L. Allègre, P. Barrade, P. Delarue, A. Bouscayrol, E. Chattot and S. El-Fassi
World Electr. Veh. J. 2009, 3(2), 323-331; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj3020323 - 26 Jun 2009
Viewed by 769
Abstract
An innovative subway has been proposed using supercapacitors as energy source. In this paper, are presented different possibilities to reduce on-board stored energy in order to downsize the on-board energy storage subsystem. Special attention is paid to the influence of a feeding rail [...] Read more.
An innovative subway has been proposed using supercapacitors as energy source. In this paper, are presented different possibilities to reduce on-board stored energy in order to downsize the on-board energy storage subsystem. Special attention is paid to the influence of a feeding rail extension or a downward slope at the beginning of the interstation on the on-board stored energy. A map is built to facilitate the selection of the solution which leads to reduce the on-board energy. Full article
901 KiB  
Article
Production and use of Hydrogen – Regional Energy Systems Analysis of Oslo, Telemark and Rogaland
by Kari Aamodt Espegren, Eva Rosenberg, Audun Fidje and Christoph Stiller
World Electr. Veh. J. 2009, 3(2), 311-322; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj3020311 - 26 Jun 2009
Viewed by 762
Abstract
The transportation sector in Norway represents approximately 30 % of the CO2-emissions. In order to significantly reduce CO2-emissions, measures towards the transportation sector have to be addressed. This includes both efficiency and new vehicle fuels. The NorWays project has been aiming at providing [...] Read more.
The transportation sector in Norway represents approximately 30 % of the CO2-emissions. In order to significantly reduce CO2-emissions, measures towards the transportation sector have to be addressed. This includes both efficiency and new vehicle fuels. The NorWays project has been aiming at providing decision support for introduction of hydrogen as an energy carrier in the Norwegian energy system. Important objectives have been to analyze and evaluate scenarios, market segments as well as geographical regions for introduction of hydrogen. Regional MARKAL models were developed for the counties Oslo, Telemark and Rogaland. The MARKAL models have been used in order to analyze the entire energy system and compare hydrogen technologies to other possibilities, such as bio fuels, plug-in hybrids etc. The analysis focuses on how taxes, restrictions and energy prices have an impact on the production and use of hydrogen towards 2050. The main scenarios analyzed have been a scenario based on assumptions from the EU hydrogen roadmap project HyWays, a scenario with no taxes on transport energy and a scenario with 75 % reduction in CO2-emissions by 2050. In the HyWays scenario all cars in Rogaland and Telemark use hydrogen in 2050. In Oslo, there are no hydrogen cars in this scenario, due to more expensive hydrogen in Oslo than in the other regions. Plug-in hybrids are introduced in Oslo from 2020, and in 2050 all cars are plug-in hybrids. Full article
1227 KiB  
Article
Hybrid buses: defining the power flow management strategy and energy storage system needs
by R. Barrero, T. Coosemans and J. Van Mierlo
World Electr. Veh. J. 2009, 3(2), 299-310; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj3020299 - 26 Jun 2009
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 949
Abstract
The following article will analyze the benefits of retrofitting a diesel-electric bus by hybridizing its drive train with a supercapacitor based energy storage system (ESS). Several power flow management strategies will be proposed and compared; and their respective ESSs will be sized and [...] Read more.
The following article will analyze the benefits of retrofitting a diesel-electric bus by hybridizing its drive train with a supercapacitor based energy storage system (ESS). Several power flow management strategies will be proposed and compared; and their respective ESSs will be sized and designed accordingly. The energy savings achieved range between 32 % and 40%, due to braking energy recovery and an improved ICE efficiency, and show the importance of the power flow strategy. Results are obtained by means of a quasi-static ‘backwards/forward looking’ simulation program, developed for this purpose, which includes a dynamic model of the ICE. Performance of the conventional bus and the hybrid bus is also compared. Full article
554 KiB  
Article
Experimental Validation of a Battery Dynamic Model for EV Applications
by Olivier Tremblay and Louis-A. Dessaint
World Electr. Veh. J. 2009, 3(2), 289-298; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj3020289 - 26 Jun 2009
Cited by 907 | Viewed by 14860
Abstract
This paper presents an improved and easy-to-use battery dynamic model. The charge and the discharge dynamics of the battery model are validated experimentally with four batteries types. An interesting feature of this model is the simplicity to extract the dynamic model parameters from [...] Read more.
This paper presents an improved and easy-to-use battery dynamic model. The charge and the discharge dynamics of the battery model are validated experimentally with four batteries types. An interesting feature of this model is the simplicity to extract the dynamic model parameters from batteries datasheets. Only three points on the manufacturer’s discharge curve in steady state are required to obtain the parameters. Finally, the battery model is included in the SimPowerSystems simulation software and used in a detailed simulation of an electric vehicle based on a hybrid fuel cell-battery power source. The results show that the model can accurately represent the dynamic behaviour of the battery. Full article
809 KiB  
Article
A Novel Traction Control without Chassis Velocity for Electric Vehicles
by Dejun Yin and Yoichi Hori
World Electr. Veh. J. 2009, 3(2), 282-288; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj3020282 - 26 Jun 2009
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1095
Abstract
Research on motion control of electric vehicles has progressed considerably, but traction control has not been so sophisticated and practical because the velocity of vehicles and the friction force are immeasurable. This work takes advantage of the features of driving motors to estimate [...] Read more.
Research on motion control of electric vehicles has progressed considerably, but traction control has not been so sophisticated and practical because the velocity of vehicles and the friction force are immeasurable. This work takes advantage of the features of driving motors to estimate the maximum transmissible torque output in real time based on a purely kinematic relationship, and then proposes an innovative controller to follow the estimated value directly and constrain the torque reference for slip prevention. By comparison with prior control methods, the resulting control design approach is shown to be more effective and robust on an experimental electric vehicle. In addition, a new architecture for a two-dimensional vehicle stability control system is introduced based on the proposed traction control. Full article
914 KiB  
Article
Design and Implementation of a Thermoelectric- Photovoltaic Hybrid Energy Source for Hybrid Electric Vehicles
by Xiaodong Zhang, K. T. Chau and C. C. Chan
World Electr. Veh. J. 2009, 3(2), 271-281; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj3020271 - 26 Jun 2009
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1162
Abstract
With ever-increasing demand on energy conservation, there is fast growing interest in the technologies to improve the fuel economy for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), especially the exhaust gas waste heat energy recovery. Meanwhile, the use of solar energy in HEVs is also proposed [...] Read more.
With ever-increasing demand on energy conservation, there is fast growing interest in the technologies to improve the fuel economy for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), especially the exhaust gas waste heat energy recovery. Meanwhile, the use of solar energy in HEVs is also proposed to promote on-board renewable energy and hence improve their fuel economy. In this paper, an overview of on-board renewable energy sources is first presented. Then, a new thermoelectric-photovoltaic hybrid energy source is designed and implemented for HEVs. Finally, experimental results are given to verify the validity of the proposed system. Full article
1414 KiB  
Article
Life cycle cost analysis of alternative vehicles and fuels in Belgium
by Laurence Turcksin, Cathy Macharis, Nele Sergeant and Joeri Van Mierlo
World Electr. Veh. J. 2009, 3(2), 255-270; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj3020255 - 26 Jun 2009
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 925
Abstract
This paper investigates whether the vehicle taxation system in Belgium is stimulating the demand of clean vehicle technologies. A life cycle cost analysis will be performed to evaluate the cost-efficiency of several vehicle technologies within the current fiscal system. This life cycle cost [...] Read more.
This paper investigates whether the vehicle taxation system in Belgium is stimulating the demand of clean vehicle technologies. A life cycle cost analysis will be performed to evaluate the cost-efficiency of several vehicle technologies within the current fiscal system. This life cycle cost will be weighted against the environmental performance of each vehicle to discover the market potential of environmental friendly vehicles and to define necessary fiscal regulations. Additionally, the yearly taxes and external costs (environmental, congestion, accident costs) of each vehicle will be compared, identifying the strenghts and distortions of the Belgian fiscal system with respect to the promotion of clean vehicles. Moreover, it will be examined whether a new vehicle taxation system, based on the environmental performance of vehicles, would be effective in tackling the current distortions while keeping the good incentives for stimulating the demand of clean vehicle technologies. This new vehicle taxation system will be based on a environmental rating tool, the so-called Ecoscore. The Ecoscore enables a comparison of the environmental burden caused by vehicles with different drive trains and using different fuels and is in this respect a very appropriate instrument to introduce a technology neutral reform of the fiscal system. By calculating the tax burden of several vehicles within the current and new fiscal system, it will be assessed whether this new fiscal system is able to evoke a shift in the composition of the vehicle fleet towards a more environmental friendly one. Full article
1828 KiB  
Article
SANERI 2010 Green Transport Demonstration Project
by Carel Snyman
World Electr. Veh. J. 2009, 3(2), 246-254; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj3020246 - 26 Jun 2009
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 768
Abstract
To lead up to and coincide with FIFA World Cup to be hosted by South Africa in 2010, SANERI is implementing a Green Transport Demonstration Project. The purpose is to showcase clean energy and green transport technologies in order to confirm seriousness in [...] Read more.
To lead up to and coincide with FIFA World Cup to be hosted by South Africa in 2010, SANERI is implementing a Green Transport Demonstration Project. The purpose is to showcase clean energy and green transport technologies in order to confirm seriousness in promoting environmentally friendly transport technologies and to some extent, offset the CO2 that will be emitted through travel associated with the event. The intent is to star the Joule electric vehicle manufactured in South Africa by Optimal Energy. A Green Transport Centre has been established for the exhibition of green transport technologies and vehicles. Electric vehicles that have been part of Eskom′s project will also be used in this demonstration. The invitation is out to parties who could contribute to the success of the project and want to take part in the exhibition and vehicle demonstrations. Full article
1119 KiB  
Article
Environmental Performance Evaluation of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles
by Yusuke WADA, Sho SHIMADA, Wu JIBIN, Yushi KAMIYA, Yasuhiro DAISHO and Kenji MORITA
World Electr. Veh. J. 2009, 3(2), 238-245; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj3020238 - 26 Jun 2009
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 904
Abstract
This paper describes a dynamic simulation model built to assess Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) performance and lithium-ion battery performance installed in PHEVs. First, we examine vehicle performance. In particular, the effects of engine on/off controls and the effects of drive distance are [...] Read more.
This paper describes a dynamic simulation model built to assess Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) performance and lithium-ion battery performance installed in PHEVs. First, we examine vehicle performance. In particular, the effects of engine on/off controls and the effects of drive distance are evaluated, because they have significant impact on PHEVs environmentally friendly performance. A study of cycle life test methods for batteries installed in PHEVs is also examined. Here, we discuss the establishment of a common PHEV battery charge/discharge test profile for Japan, the US, and Europe. Full article
563 KiB  
Article
Capacitors for Internal Combustion Engine Starting with Green Technology DLCAPTM
by Toshihiko Furukawa
World Electr. Veh. J. 2009, 3(2), 233-237; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj3020233 - 26 Jun 2009
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 792
Abstract
In the past internal combustion engines in commercial trucks, buses, and automobiles were often allowed to idle during stops, whether short or extended. This practice mitigated engine non-starts but increased fuel usage along with air emissions and accelerated engine wear. Engine starting can [...] Read more.
In the past internal combustion engines in commercial trucks, buses, and automobiles were often allowed to idle during stops, whether short or extended. This practice mitigated engine non-starts but increased fuel usage along with air emissions and accelerated engine wear. Engine starting can be performed more reliability by electrochemical capacitors rather than by batteries, especially at low temperatures. Capacitor modules are now available to start engines of all sizes. This paper will discuss the starting requirements of large diesel engines and present low-temperature engine cranking results using Nippon Chemi-Con DLCAP non-toxic-electrolyte electrochemical capacitor. Full article
823 KiB  
Article
Design Parameters Calculation of a Novel Driveline for Electric Vehicles
by J. Santiago, J. G. Oliveira, J. Lundin, J. Abrahamsson, A. Larsson and H. Bernhoff
World Electr. Veh. J. 2009, 3(2), 225-232; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj3020225 - 26 Jun 2009
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1217
Abstract
A driveline for electric vehicles is presented. The propulsion system is operated at a higher voltage than the primary energy source. The batteries selected as the primary energy source deliver power to the vehicle through a motor-generator wounded with two electrically isolated sets [...] Read more.
A driveline for electric vehicles is presented. The propulsion system is operated at a higher voltage than the primary energy source. The batteries selected as the primary energy source deliver power to the vehicle through a motor-generator wounded with two electrically isolated sets of windings, named Two Voltage Level Machine (TVLM). The dynamic behaviour of a vehicle operating according to a standard drive cycle is studied. Parameters of the driveline such as power rates and size of the flywheel are obtained by optimization. A description of the performance of a TVLM is also presented through its equivalent circuit and the control of the machine. Special attention to the system losses is presented. A scale prototype has been constructed and tested under a drive cycle, demonstrating the system performance of the system. Full article
574 KiB  
Article
Analysis of the Impact of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles on Residential Distribution Grids by using Quadratic and Dynamic Programming
by Kristien Clement-Nyns, Edwin Haesen and Johan Driesen
World Electr. Veh. J. 2009, 3(2), 214-224; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj3020214 - 26 Jun 2009
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1028
Abstract
The charging of batteries of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles at home at standard outlets has an impact on the distribution grid which may require serious investments in grid expansion. The coordination of the charging gives an improvement of the grid exploitation in terms [...] Read more.
The charging of batteries of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles at home at standard outlets has an impact on the distribution grid which may require serious investments in grid expansion. The coordination of the charging gives an improvement of the grid exploitation in terms of reduced power losses and voltage deviations with respect to uncoordinated charging. The vehicles must be dispatchable to achieve the most efficient solution. As the exact forecasting of household loads is not possible, stochastic programming is introduced. Two main techniques are analyzed in this paper: quadratic and dynamic programming. Both techniques are compared in results and storage requirements. The charging can be coordinated directly or indirectly by the grid utility or an aggregator who will sell the aggregated demand of PHEVs at the utility. PHEVs can also discharge and so inject energy in the grid to restrict voltage drops. The amount of energy that is injected in the grid depends on the price tariffs, the charging and discharging efficiencies and the battery energy content. The impact of a voltage controller embedded in a PHEV charger is regarded in this paper. A day and night tariff are applied. The charging and discharging of vehicles can respond to real-time pricing or on a price-schedule as well. Voltage control is the first step in the utilization of distributed resources like PHEVs for ancillary services. Full article
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Article
Next Generation Fuel Cell Technology for Passenger Cars and Buses
by Dr. Christian Mohrdieck
World Electr. Veh. J. 2009, 3(2), 209-213; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj3020209 - 26 Jun 2009
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1075
Abstract
Daimler is presenting its latest fuel cell vehicle, the Mercedes-Benz B-Class F-CELL in 2009. Being one of the first series-produced fuel cell vehicles so far, the B-Class F-CELL will be a milestone on the road to commercialization of hydrogen-powered fuel cell vehicles. Equipped [...] Read more.
Daimler is presenting its latest fuel cell vehicle, the Mercedes-Benz B-Class F-CELL in 2009. Being one of the first series-produced fuel cell vehicles so far, the B-Class F-CELL will be a milestone on the road to commercialization of hydrogen-powered fuel cell vehicles. Equipped with advanced fuel cell technology it is suited for everyday operation and designed to fully meet customers´ expectations. From 2010 onwards, this zero emission vehicle is going to be operated by selected customers in different countries. In addition, a new generation of fuel cell buses, the Mercedes-Benz Citaro FuelCELL–Hybrid is presented in 2009. Full article
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