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World Electr. Veh. J., Volume 14, Issue 5 (May 2023) – 19 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The market for electric vehicles (EVs) is considered a potential solution for addressing issues related to gas emissions and noise pollution. Due to the limited driving range of EV battery packs, the charging process must be fast and safe for EV drivers. Wireless charging technology is a promising option that offers several advantages over traditional conductive charging systems. Within the realm of wireless charging, the design of the coupling pad in EV wireless chargers is crucial for efficient power transfer. This paper aims to introduce a novel design approach for a serial–serial (SS) topology used in electric vehicle charging.  A clear methodology based on FEA software is presented to provide optimized pad dimensions. Additionally, the study incorporates circuit analysis to confirm the identified dimensions and enhance the efficiency of the system. View this paper
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14 pages, 374 KiB  
Article
Perceptions of Autonomous Vehicles: A Case Study of Jordan
by Dana Abudayyeh, Malek Almomani, Omar Almomani, Hadeel Alsoud and Farah Alsalman
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(5), 133; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14050133 - 22 May 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3308
Abstract
Technologies for automated driving have advanced rapidly in recent years. Autonomous Vehicles (AVs) are one example of these recent technologies that deploy elements such as sensors or processing units to assist the driver. The effective integration of these vehicles into public roads depends [...] Read more.
Technologies for automated driving have advanced rapidly in recent years. Autonomous Vehicles (AVs) are one example of these recent technologies that deploy elements such as sensors or processing units to assist the driver. The effective integration of these vehicles into public roads depends on the drivers’ acceptance and how they adjust to this new generation of vehicles. This study investigated the acceptance and willingness of Jordanians to purchase AVs in Jordan. The ordinal logit model was deployed to determine the factors attributed to individual acceptance of AVs, such as the cost, security, privacy, along with the environmental impact, among others. The findings of a national survey conducted on 582 Jordanians to assess their perception about AVs revealed that Jordanians were generally interested in using AVs. However, their decisions about purchasing AVs are influenced by several factors. The results indicated that the cost of AVs greatly influences purchasing decisions, though if the cost is affordable, respondents were more interested in using AVs. The findings also revealed that there is a substantial relationship between the level of security and the likelihood of buying a self-driving car, as respondents are concerned about the level of security and privacy. Furthermore, the results revealed that environmentally friendly AVs are more likely to be owned compared to conventional vehicles. This study helps to enhance the current understanding by highlighting road user perceptions, with practical implications for practitioners. Full article
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19 pages, 7947 KiB  
Article
Coordinated Control Strategy for Drive Mode Switching of Double Rotor In-Wheel Motor Based on MPC and Control Allocation
by Junmin Li, Junchang Wang, Jianhao Liu and Chongyang Ren
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(5), 132; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14050132 - 20 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1350
Abstract
To overcome the problems existing in the practical application of traditional in-wheel motors used for electric vehicles, an integrated double rotor in-wheel motor was proposed, which can realize three drive modes to meet variable operating condition requirements of the vehicle. The process of [...] Read more.
To overcome the problems existing in the practical application of traditional in-wheel motors used for electric vehicles, an integrated double rotor in-wheel motor was proposed, which can realize three drive modes to meet variable operating condition requirements of the vehicle. The process of switching between different drive modes affects the ride comfort of a vehicle. Taking the mode switching from a single inner motor drive to a dual-motor coupling drive as a research object, a dynamic modeling method of drive mode switching based on the switching system was proposed. According to the critical conditions of each state transition, the switching rules expressed by the segmental constant function were designed. At the engagement stage of electromagnetic clutch II, the torque coordination control strategy based on model predictive control (MPC) and control allocation was proposed. The simulation results show that the proposed strategy can effectively reduce the impact degree of a vehicle and the slipping-friction work of the clutch on the premise of ensuring the fast response of mode switching and the steady increase in vehicle speed. The switching quality of the mode-switching process is effectively improved. In addition, the drive mode switching control of the double rotor in-wheel motor prototype was tested, which proves its ability to operate in multi-drive mode. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advanced Electric Vehicle Technology)
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17 pages, 1800 KiB  
Article
Construction of Nitrogen Content Observer for Fuel Cell Hydrogen Circuit Based on Anode Recirculation Mode
by Weisong Li, Xuezhe Wei, Jiayuan Wang and Xueyuan Wang
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(5), 131; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14050131 - 20 May 2023
Viewed by 1609
Abstract
The anode recirculation mode is increasingly being adopted in today’s fuel cell systems. The recycling of hydrogen gas can effectively improve fuel utilization and the wider economy. However, using the purge strategy for the recirculation exhaust has a significant impact on the operational [...] Read more.
The anode recirculation mode is increasingly being adopted in today’s fuel cell systems. The recycling of hydrogen gas can effectively improve fuel utilization and the wider economy. However, using the purge strategy for the recirculation exhaust has a significant impact on the operational performance and economic efficiency of fuel cell systems.Experiments have shown that, when the purge interval increases from 6 s to 10 s, the recirculation pump power increases by about 20%, the nitrogen content in the exhaust gas increases, and the stack voltage shows a 10 V attenuation. The accumulation of nitrogen permeation in the anode circuit leads to the degradation of the fuel cell performance. Therefore, it is necessary to discharge the accumulated nitrogen through the purge valve in a timely manner. However, opening the exhaust valve with excessively high frequency can result in the unreacted hydrogen being discharged, which reduces the economic efficiency of the fuel cell. This paper is based on the principle of mass conservation and models each subsystem of the anode circuit in the recirculation pump mode of the fuel cell separately, including the proportional valve model, the hydrogen consumption model of the fuel cell, the nitrogen permeation model of the fuel cell, the neural network model of the circulating pump, and the purge valve model. These submodels are integrated to construct a nitrogen content observer for the hydrogen circuit, which can estimate the nitrogen content. The accuracy of the model is validated through experimental data. The estimation error is less than 5.5%. The nitrogen content in the anode circuit can be effectively estimated, providing a model reference for purge operations and improving hydrogen utilization. Full article
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17 pages, 8042 KiB  
Article
Thermal Analysis of a Flux-Switching Permanent Magnet Machine for Hybrid Electric Vehicles
by Wenfei Yu, Zhongze Wu and Wei Hua
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(5), 130; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14050130 - 19 May 2023
Viewed by 1345
Abstract
This paper investigates the loss and thermal characteristics of a three-phase 10 kW flux-switching permanent magnet (FSPM) machine, which is used as an integrated starter generator (ISG) for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). In this paper, an improved method considering both DC-bias component and [...] Read more.
This paper investigates the loss and thermal characteristics of a three-phase 10 kW flux-switching permanent magnet (FSPM) machine, which is used as an integrated starter generator (ISG) for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). In this paper, an improved method considering both DC-bias component and minor hysteresis loops in iron flux-density distribution is proposed to calculate core loss more precisely. Then, a lumped parameter thermal network (LPTN) model is constructed to predict transient thermal behavior of the FSPM machine, which takes into consideration various losses as heat sources determined from predictions and experiments. Meanwhile, a simplified one-dimensional (1D) steady heat conduction (1D-SHC) model with two heat sources in cylindrical coordinates is also proposed to predict the thermal behavior. To verify the two methods above, transient and steady thermal analyses of the FSPM machine were performed by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based on the losses mentioned above. Finally, the predicted results from both LPTN and 1D-SHC were verified by the experiments on a prototyped FSPM machine. Full article
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25 pages, 3824 KiB  
Article
Location of the Interurban Fast Charging Infrastructure for Electric Vehicles Using the Methodology for Calculating the Maximum Distance between Fast Charges (MDFC) and Simulation: A Case Study in Ecuador
by Luis Buenaño, Hugo Torres and Efrén Fernández
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(5), 129; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14050129 - 19 May 2023
Viewed by 1670
Abstract
This study determines the location of the minimum fast charging infrastructure for electric vehicles in the interurban route Riobamba–Quito in Ecuador using the methodology of the maximum distance between fast charges (MDFC). From the application of the method, a MDFC of 60 km [...] Read more.
This study determines the location of the minimum fast charging infrastructure for electric vehicles in the interurban route Riobamba–Quito in Ecuador using the methodology of the maximum distance between fast charges (MDFC). From the application of the method, a MDFC of 60 km and a basic highway charging infrastructure (BHCI) of six stations are obtained. The location is calculated by measuring the MDFC on the road using the desktop application Google Earth Pro. The proposal is validated by means of a mathematical model in Simulink, and two simulation scenarios are proposed. In the first one, the initial state of charge (SOC) is 95% and represents an EV with complete charging patterns, while in the second one, the initial SOC is 65% and represents incomplete charging patterns. The results indicate that for both simulation scenarios, the EV KIA SOUL 2016 can perform the specified round-trip routes using the proposed BHCI performing two fast charges of 20 min each way. In all cases, SOC values during operation remain above 20%. The results obtained allow us to establish that the proposed BHCI and its location are sufficient to allow the studied EV to complete the route. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advanced Electric Vehicle Technology)
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17 pages, 3614 KiB  
Article
Location of Electric Vehicle Charging Stations Based on Game Theory
by Hao Ma, Wenhui Pei, Qi Zhang, Di Xu and Yongjing Li
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(5), 128; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14050128 - 17 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1250
Abstract
In order to solve the design problem of electric vehicle charging station distribution, based on the consideration of user and investor costs, this paper establishes a mixed integer model for charging station site selection based on game theory ideas. Among them, the user [...] Read more.
In order to solve the design problem of electric vehicle charging station distribution, based on the consideration of user and investor costs, this paper establishes a mixed integer model for charging station site selection based on game theory ideas. Among them, the user cost is determined by two indicators, namely, the cost of time for users to reach the charging station and the cost of time for users to wait in line, while the cost of the charging station is determined by the construction cost and the daily operation and maintenance cost. In the established model, the hierarchical analysis is used to minimize the combined cost of users and charging stations as the objective. In addition, an improved artificial bee colony algorithm is designed to solve the model. The improved algorithm adds a neighborhood search method and a feasible decoding scheme to the honey bee harvesting and tracking process, thus solving the problems of low search accuracy, poor convergence, and inability to directly calculate the mixed integer model of the original algorithm. Simulation results show that the improved artificial bee colony algorithm can effectively solve the mixed integer model and has higher search accuracy and convergence speed compared with the traditional method. By applying the algorithm to solve the siting model, the location and number of charging stations can be clearly planned, thus improving charging efficiency and reliability. Full article
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18 pages, 5494 KiB  
Article
Research on Global Optimal Energy Management Strategy of Agricultural Hybrid Tractor Equipped with CVT
by Junjiang Zhang, Ganghui Feng, Mengnan Liu, Xianghai Yan, Liyou Xu and Chengyan Shang
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(5), 127; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14050127 - 17 May 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1200
Abstract
This paper presents a proposed global optimal energy management strategy based on dynamic programming to enhance the energy consumption efficiency of an agricultural hybrid tractor that is equipped with a continuously variable transmission (CVT). Firstly, using a diesel-electric parallel agricultural hybrid tractor as [...] Read more.
This paper presents a proposed global optimal energy management strategy based on dynamic programming to enhance the energy consumption efficiency of an agricultural hybrid tractor that is equipped with a continuously variable transmission (CVT). Firstly, using a diesel-electric parallel agricultural hybrid tractor as the research object, a tractor-rotary tillage coupling dynamics model is constructed. Secondly, with the torque and speed of the motor, the torque and speed of the diesel engine, and the CVT speed ratio as the control variables, the state of charge (SOC) of the power battery as the state variable, and the goal of minimizing the total energy consumption of the whole machine, a global optimal energy management model based on dynamic programming is established. Finally, the field operation measured data is injected into the MATLAB simulation model, and experiments are carried out to verify the effectiveness of the energy management strategy. The results show that compared with the power-following energy management strategy, the proposed energy management strategy can make the diesel engine and electric motor work in the optimal area, and effectively reduce the total cost of energy consumption of the tractor during field operations. Under the condition of rotary tillage, the total cost of energy consumption is decreased by 16.89%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Energy Special Vehicle, Tractor and Agricultural Machinery)
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10 pages, 1427 KiB  
Article
Analysis of the Specific Energy Consumption of Battery-Driven Electrical Buses for Heating and Cooling in Dependence on the Technical Equipment and Operating Conditions
by Louis Heß, Daniela Dimova, Jakub Wit Piechalski, Stefan Rusche, Pascal Best and Michael Sonnekalb
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(5), 126; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14050126 - 14 May 2023
Viewed by 1598
Abstract
This paper analyzes methods of heating battery-driven electrical buses. The examined buses were two identical airport transport buses and two buses used in local transportation. To heat the first buses, an electrical water heater with a heating capacity of 20 kW, and for [...] Read more.
This paper analyzes methods of heating battery-driven electrical buses. The examined buses were two identical airport transport buses and two buses used in local transportation. To heat the first buses, an electrical water heater with a heating capacity of 20 kW, and for air conditioning, a rooftop air conditioner with a cooling capacity of 20.6 kW was installed. Climate control in the city buses was achieved using an R744 heat pump with a cooling capacity of 25 kW and a heating capacity between 14 and 21 kW, along with an electrical water heater with a capacity of 32 kW. During the project, the measurement data of the buses described above were taken for a full year and evaluated. The analysis of the measurement data brought insights into the specific electrical energy consumption of climate control in the buses in real operating conditions at outdoor temperatures between 2 °C and 36 °C. The results of this project additionally provide information on the optimization potential for the climate control of buses. Full article
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15 pages, 1542 KiB  
Article
Heterogeneous Factors Influencing Electric Vehicle Acceptance: Application of Structural Equation Modeling
by Weishang Guo, Jian Huang, Wei Chen, Yihua Mao, Desire Wade Atchike and Munir Ahmad
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(5), 125; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14050125 - 11 May 2023
Viewed by 1589
Abstract
Since electric vehicle (ELV) deployment can contribute to overall renewable energy sources, exploration of the heterogeneous influence factors (HIFs) affecting the willingness to accept ELVs can assist in the realization of sustainable development goals, particularly universal access to affordable energy for all. [...] Read more.
Since electric vehicle (ELV) deployment can contribute to overall renewable energy sources, exploration of the heterogeneous influence factors (HIFs) affecting the willingness to accept ELVs can assist in the realization of sustainable development goals, particularly universal access to affordable energy for all. In this research, we explored the HIFs that influence the willingness of individuals to accept ELVs (WAELV) within an integrated decision-making (IDM) framework. We established the IDM conceptual framework through the incorporation of HIFs, notably including the environmental and health benefits of ELVs, knowledge about innovation, and the benefits regarding the built environment and creating a comprehensive structure. We analyzed data gathered through questionnaires from urban and peri-urban areas of the Shandong province (China) by employing the partial least square structural equation modeling technique, which is an appropriate tool for analyzing data measured on a Likert scale. The key findings were as follows. Firstly, the capital cost of ELVs was found to be a significant barrier to the WAELV of individuals. Secondly, among other factors, the societal aspect of ELVs and the environmental awareness aspect were drivers of the WAELV of individuals across all the data samples. However, benefits for the built environment, knowledge about innovation, and the environmental and health benefits of ELVs only positively drove the WAELV of individuals in the urban setting and for the overall sample. Thirdly, these three HIFs were identified as neutral factors in the peri-urban areas. Thus, a clear disparity was detected between the urban and peri-urban areas in terms of factors influencing the WAELV of individuals. Finally, the social aspect of ELVs was revealed as the strongest driver, while benefits for the built environment turned out to be the weakest factor. Based on these findings, some crucial policies are here extracted. Full article
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13 pages, 5990 KiB  
Article
Application of Simulation Analysis for Thermal Management Technology on Main Parts of Pouch Cells
by Bo Wang, Fang Ding, Qianbin Zhang, Mingyan Liu and Miaofa Tian
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(5), 124; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14050124 - 11 May 2023
Viewed by 1148
Abstract
The technology of large surface thermal management of pouch cells was studied and discussed by means of simulation. With thermal management, two cells are managed by a single cold plate. First, the pressure drop of the cold plate was simulated and the velocity [...] Read more.
The technology of large surface thermal management of pouch cells was studied and discussed by means of simulation. With thermal management, two cells are managed by a single cold plate. First, the pressure drop of the cold plate was simulated and the velocity distribution of the flow field was observed. The cooling performance of the cold plate to the cell was then studied, and the low-temperature heating ability of the cold plate to the cell was analyzed. Through analysis, it can be concluded that large surface thermal management technology can effectively and quickly control the temperature rise of the cell when the cell is charging and discharging and the temperature difference is less than 5 °C. Finally, a control strategy for low-temperature heating of the cell by the cold plate was proposed. Full article
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20 pages, 7750 KiB  
Article
Signal-Based Position Sensor Fault Diagnosis Applied to PMSM Drives for Fault-Tolerant Operation in Electric Vehicles
by Sankhadip Saha and Urmila Kar
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(5), 123; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14050123 - 9 May 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1657
Abstract
This paper presents a novel scheme for fast fault detection and isolation (FDI) of position sensors based on signal processing and fault-tolerant control (FTC) for speed tracking of an electric vehicle (EV) propelled by a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM). The fault is [...] Read more.
This paper presents a novel scheme for fast fault detection and isolation (FDI) of position sensors based on signal processing and fault-tolerant control (FTC) for speed tracking of an electric vehicle (EV) propelled by a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM). The fault is detected using a comparison algorithm between the measured and delayed rotor speed signals. The proposed scheme is more practical for diagnosing faults over a wide speed range since it does not use estimated speed value. In addition, to ensure continuous vehicle propulsion and to retain effective field-oriented control of the EV-PMSM in the event of a fault, a reconfiguration mechanism with back-EMF based position observer is employed. Rapid detection of position sensor failure is necessary for a seamless transition from sensored to sensorless control. Furthermore, a comparative analysis between sliding mode observer and flux observer for motor speed control is also presented in the context of EVs. The effectiveness of the position sensors for FDI and FTC is validated in the presence of typical vehicular disturbances, such as uneven road conditions and wind disturbance force. Finally, to validate the proposed approach experimentally in a real-world EV environment, this paper utilizes a scaled-down testbed with a TMS320F28379D DSP for the motor control of the EV. Full article
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17 pages, 22055 KiB  
Article
State of Health Estimation for Lithium-Ion Batteries Using IAO–SVR
by Likun Xing, Xiao Liu, Wenfei Luo and Long Wu
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(5), 122; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14050122 - 7 May 2023
Viewed by 1799
Abstract
The state of health (SOH) of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) needs to be accurately estimated to ensure the safety and stability of electric vehicles (EVs) while in operation. In this paper, we proposed a SOH estimation method based on Improved Aquila Optimizer (IAO) and [...] Read more.
The state of health (SOH) of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) needs to be accurately estimated to ensure the safety and stability of electric vehicles (EVs) while in operation. In this paper, we proposed a SOH estimation method based on Improved Aquila Optimizer (IAO) and Support Vector Regression (SVR) to achieve an accurate estimation of SOH. During the charging and discharging phases of the battery, we analyzed the trends in current, voltage, and energy, then extracted four features. We used the Kendall coefficient and gray relational grade to prove that features and SOH were highly correlated. On the other hand, IAO was used to optimize the penalty factor and kernel function parameters of the SVR to further improve the generalization and mapping ability. The proposed method was verified under different operating conditions using the CACLE battery data set; the results show that high accuracy can be achieved in SOH estimation via IAO–SVR, and the estimation error of mean MAE is remaining within 2%. Full article
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15 pages, 3943 KiB  
Article
Investigation and Development of Textile Lightweight Bodies for Urban Logistic Vehicles
by Fabian Edel, Corinna Pulkus, Sarah Kim, Juergen Erhardt and Sven Kuijpens
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(5), 121; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14050121 - 4 May 2023
Viewed by 1399
Abstract
The urban logistic sector is struggling with the following two problems: a particularly high level of traffic and air pollution. For those reasons, small electric vehicles are the perfect technical solution to cope sustainably with the increasing parcel volume in urban areas. To [...] Read more.
The urban logistic sector is struggling with the following two problems: a particularly high level of traffic and air pollution. For those reasons, small electric vehicles are the perfect technical solution to cope sustainably with the increasing parcel volume in urban areas. To compensate the weight disadvantage of electric drive, a textile lightweight solution for the body of logistics vehicles is examined in this study. Therefore, various textiles and mounting solutions are examined and developed, as well as tested by multiple testing procedures. The result of this work is an ideal combination of a textile and suitable mounting method for a textile lightweight body for last—mile logistic vehicles. Full article
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19 pages, 318 KiB  
Article
Evaluating the Factors Affecting Electric Vehicles Adoption Considering the Sustainable Development Level
by Ehsan Javanmardi, Mahmudul Hoque, Abdul Tauheed and Muhammad Umar
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(5), 120; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14050120 - 2 May 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 6036
Abstract
Electric vehicles are an important part of governments’ environmental policies, and therefore understanding the factors affecting their market share is very important. So, this research is designed to investigate the factors affecting electric vehicle adoption, considering the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and [...] Read more.
Electric vehicles are an important part of governments’ environmental policies, and therefore understanding the factors affecting their market share is very important. So, this research is designed to investigate the factors affecting electric vehicle adoption, considering the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and sustainable development level. Effective factors have been investigated in three categories. One is the characteristics of electric vehicles; the other is the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on demand for these vehicles; and finally, the impact of the level of sustainable development of countries on adopting electric vehicles. Our analysis method is based on grey econometric and grey regression methods. The results show that vehicle dimensions, battery warranty conditions, battery life, and charging facilities are effective factors in the field of vehicle characteristics that can increase the adoption of electric vehicles. Also, the analysis shows that the COVID-19 pandemic has reduced the adoption of electric vehicles. Finally, we have shown that the market share of electric vehicles is higher in countries with a higher sustainable development level because of better economic, social, and cultural infrastructures. Full article
16 pages, 2403 KiB  
Article
Slip Ratio Adaptive Control Based on Wheel Angular Velocity for Distributed Drive Electric Vehicles
by Sheng Kang, Junjie Chen, Guangqi Qiu and Hangkai Tong
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(5), 119; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14050119 - 1 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2043
Abstract
In order to solve the adaptability problem of acceleration slip regulation for distributed drive electric vehicles, a slip ratio adaptive control strategy based on wheel angular velocity is proposed. The principle of road estimation algorithm based on the Burckhardt tire model is analyzed, [...] Read more.
In order to solve the adaptability problem of acceleration slip regulation for distributed drive electric vehicles, a slip ratio adaptive control strategy based on wheel angular velocity is proposed. The principle of road estimation algorithm based on the Burckhardt tire model is analyzed, and an improved estimation principle for optimal slip ratio is designed to improve the speed and accuracy of optimal slip ratio estimation. A slip ratio control strategy based on a conditional integral sliding mode control is designed, and its stability is proven. To make the slip ratio control strategy have better practicability, the slip ratio control strategy is combined with the road estimation algorithm, and the control variable of the slip ratio adaptive control strategy based on a conditional integral sliding mode control is redesigned to obtain a faster vehicle dynamic response. Finally, the effectiveness of the designed road estimation algorithm and the slip ratio adaptive control strategy is verified by simulation of acceleration on joint road and split road. Results show that the designed road estimator can obtain the road adhesion coefficient and optimal slip ratio quickly and accurately; the slip ratio adaptive controller, based on a conditional integral sliding mode control, can maintain the wheel slip ratio near the optimal slip ratio and reduce the steady-state error of the wheel slip ratio. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Vehicle System Dynamics and Control)
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14 pages, 2783 KiB  
Article
Improved Kalman-Filter-Based Model-Predictive Control Method for Trajectory Tracking of Automatic Straddle Carriers
by Zonghe Ding, Shuang Lin, Wei Gu and Yilian Zhang
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(5), 118; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14050118 - 1 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1504
Abstract
This paper considers the trajectory tracking problem for a class of automatic straddle carriers (ASCs) with external interferences and the overturning constraints. First, the steering and the dynamics of the ASC are analyzed and the mathematical model of the ASC is established. Then, [...] Read more.
This paper considers the trajectory tracking problem for a class of automatic straddle carriers (ASCs) with external interferences and the overturning constraints. First, the steering and the dynamics of the ASC are analyzed and the mathematical model of the ASC is established. Then, considering the impact of external interferences on the trajectory tracking accuracy, an improved dynamic Kalman filter is designed in order to obtain the state estimation of the ASC. Based on the obtained state estimation, a model-predictive control method is proposed which takes the anti-overturning constraints into account. In addition, the improved Kalman-filter-based model-predictive control (iKFMPC) algorithm is summarized for the considered ASC to travel smoothly along the given trajectory while meeting the overturning resistance. Finally, simulation analyses demonstrate the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrical Machines Design and Control in Electric Vehicles)
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21 pages, 5853 KiB  
Article
Design Methodology and Circuit Analysis of Wireless Power Transfer Systems Applied to Electric Vehicles Wireless Chargers
by Tasnime Bouanou, Hassan El Fadil, Abdellah Lassioui, Issam Bentalhik, Mohamed Koundi and Sidina El Jeilani
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(5), 117; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14050117 - 1 May 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 5375
Abstract
In road transportation, the market for electric vehicles (EVs) is considered a potential solution for addressing issues related to gas emissions and noise pollution. Due to the limited driving range of the EV battery pack, the charging process must be fast and safe [...] Read more.
In road transportation, the market for electric vehicles (EVs) is considered a potential solution for addressing issues related to gas emissions and noise pollution. Due to the limited driving range of the EV battery pack, the charging process must be fast and safe for EV drivers. Wireless charging technology for EVs has gained attention in recent years, and in this research, the authors explore the analysis and design of a resonant magnetic wireless system for charging electric vehicles. The authors propose a design methodology for a serial–serial (SS) wireless system, which outlines how to determine the appropriate pad dimensions for transferring power to the EV battery. The design approach is crucial to attaining the best possible coupling performance and efficiency. Additionally, the magnetic design of the pad is validated using Ansys Maxwell software, and the proposed design is co-simulated using Ansys Simplorer to analyze the performance of the system. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed model can transfer over 3.7 kW of power with an efficiency of over 90.02%. The paper also discusses the bifurcation phenomenon at the resonance condition to ensure maximum efficiency. Full article
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26 pages, 10176 KiB  
Article
Adaptive Sliding Mode Control for Yaw Stability of Four-Wheel Independent-Drive EV Based on the Phase Plane
by Zhigang Zhou, Jie Zhang and Xiaofei Yin
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(5), 116; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14050116 - 23 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1692
Abstract
Aiming at the yaw stability problem of a four-wheel independent-drive electric vehicle (EV) during steering, this paper proposes an adaptive sliding mode control strategy (ASMC) for yaw stability based on the phase plane. The control strategy adopts hierarchical control. The upper layer is [...] Read more.
Aiming at the yaw stability problem of a four-wheel independent-drive electric vehicle (EV) during steering, this paper proposes an adaptive sliding mode control strategy (ASMC) for yaw stability based on the phase plane. The control strategy adopts hierarchical control. The upper layer is the ASMC controllers based on particle swarm optimization (PSO). Aiming at the chattering problem of sliding mode controller, the approach law is designed as the adaptive approach law, which changes with the change of system state by using the adaptive control principle; to minimize the response delay and tracking error, the control system is taken as the object to find a set of optimal parameters for a constant velocity approach rate based on PSO. The middle level is a joint controller, which uses the established ββ˙ phase plane stability region boundary model to control the upper-level controllers jointly. When the vehicle is in the stable region, the ASMC controller for the yaw rate is used to determine the yaw moment; when the vehicle is outside the stable region, the final yaw moment is determined by the ASMC controller for the yaw rate and the ASMC controller for the sideslip angle, to restore the stability of the vehicle. The lower layer is a torque optimal distribution controller, which converts the yaw moment into torque and optimally distributes it to four wheels. Finally, Simulink and CarSim platforms are used for joint simulation. The results prove that the proposed control strategy can effectively reduce the error between the actual and the ideal value of control parameters and improve the vehicle’s stability when steering. Full article
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18 pages, 8505 KiB  
Article
Quadruple-U Auxiliary Structure-Based Receiving Coil Positioning System for Electric Vehicle Wireless Charger
by Chuan Li, Yi Yang and Guimei Cao
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(5), 115; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14050115 - 23 Apr 2023
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Abstract
In order to strike a balance between economic development and green travel, electric vehicles with wireless charging have become one of the first choices for future transportation. Misalignment between the transmitting coil and receiving coil in wireless charging systems decreases power capacity and [...] Read more.
In order to strike a balance between economic development and green travel, electric vehicles with wireless charging have become one of the first choices for future transportation. Misalignment between the transmitting coil and receiving coil in wireless charging systems decreases power capacity and efficiency to a great extent. Hence, the detection of whether the electric vehicle enters the effective charging area is a hot issue in the current research. In this paper, a receiving coil positioning approach integrated with a quadruple-U auxiliary structure is proposed. The designed quadruple-U auxiliary structure with cruciform distribution consists of four U-shaped coils, which are inspired by the solenoid coil. Based on the symmetry of the auxiliary structure, a receiving coil positioning method is proposed by measuring the load voltages of each U-shaped coil working independently. Coordinates can be obtained by retrieving the measured results with the database established in advance. The positioning method has the advantages of wider positioning ranges, higher positioning accuracy, and not changing the structure of the receiving coil. Furthermore, the specific magnetic coupler is simulated by a three-dimensional finite element modeling tool and was verified by an experiment on a prototype. During the positioning process, the positions distributed throughout the ΔX ∈ [−300 mm, 0 mm]∩ΔY ∈ [−300 mm, 300 mm] positioning range were tested. The experimental results indicate that all of the tested positions are accurate to within 10 mm, with a 160 mm transfer distance. Meanwhile, combined with the symmetry of the auxiliary structure and the test results, it can be indicated that the positioning range can reach ΔX ∈ [−300 mm, 300 mm]∩ΔY ∈ [−300 mm, 300 mm]. Full article
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