Next Issue
Volume 14, May
Previous Issue
Volume 14, March
 
 

World Electr. Veh. J., Volume 14, Issue 4 (April 2023) – 37 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Minimizing material use and reducing the environmental impact of batteries are major challenges to ensure the sustainable and economically viable development of electric vehicles. Developing a reliable charging infrastructure is necessary to enable the downsizing of batteries and electric vehicles, which is the most preferable action to be taken to minimize the environmental impact according to the principles of a circular economy. Extending the life of batteries and reusing them after their automotive life is another important action to must be taken to minimize their environmental footprint. View this paper
  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Reader to open them.
Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
21 pages, 6556 KiB  
Review
Designing High-Power-Density Electric Motors for Electric Vehicles with Advanced Magnetic Materials
by Youguang Guo, Lin Liu, Xin Ba, Haiyan Lu, Gang Lei, Wenliang Yin and Jianguo Zhu
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(4), 114; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14040114 - 18 Apr 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 4609
Abstract
As we face issues of fossil fuel depletion and environmental pollution, it is becoming increasingly important to transition towards clean renewable energies and electric vehicles (EVs). However, designing electric motors with high power density for EVs can be challenging due to space and [...] Read more.
As we face issues of fossil fuel depletion and environmental pollution, it is becoming increasingly important to transition towards clean renewable energies and electric vehicles (EVs). However, designing electric motors with high power density for EVs can be challenging due to space and weight constraints, as well as issues related to power loss and temperature rise. In order to overcome these challenges, a significant amount of research has been conducted on designing high-power-density electric motors with advanced materials, improved physical and mathematical modeling of materials and the motor system, and system-level multidisciplinary optimization of the entire drive system. These technologies aim to achieve high reliability and optimal performance at the system level. This paper provides an overview of the key technologies for designing high-power-density electric motors for EVs with high reliability and system-level optimal performance, with the focus on advanced magnetic materials and the proper modeling of core losses under two-dimensional or three-dimensional vectorial magnetizations. This paper will also discuss the major challenges associated with designing these motors and the possible future research directions in the field. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 6038 KiB  
Article
Study on the Influence of Air Inlet and Outlet on the Heat Dissipation Performance of Lithium Battery
by Haiyan Dai and Yuxing Wang
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(4), 113; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14040113 - 18 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1514
Abstract
The heat dissipation characteristics of the lithium-ion battery pack will have an effect on the overall performance of electric vehicles. To investigate the effects of the structural cooling system parameters on the heat dissipation properties, the electrochemical thermal coupling model of the lithium-ion [...] Read more.
The heat dissipation characteristics of the lithium-ion battery pack will have an effect on the overall performance of electric vehicles. To investigate the effects of the structural cooling system parameters on the heat dissipation properties, the electrochemical thermal coupling model of the lithium-ion power battery has been established, and the discharge experiment of the single battery has been designed. The voltage and temperature curves with time are similar to those obtained from the numerical model at various discharge rates, and the experimental results are relatively accurate. Based on this model, the height, angle, and number of different air inlets and outlets are designed, and the heat dissipation characteristics of different structural parameters are analyzed. The results show that the maximum temperature decreases by 3.9 K when the angle increases from 0° to 6°, the average temperature decreases by 2 K and the maximum temperature difference decreases by 2.9 K when the height increases from 12 mm to 16 mm, and the more the number of air inlets and outlets there are, the better the heat dissipation effect is. Therefore, the air vent of the battery cooling system has an important impact on the heat dissipation characteristics of the battery, which should be fully considered in the design. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Battery Design and Management)
Show Figures

Figure 1

10 pages, 3139 KiB  
Communication
Performance Comparison of Si IGBT and SiC MOSFET Power Module Driving IPMSM or IM under WLTC
by Hirokatsu Umegami, Toshikazu Harada and Ken Nakahara
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(4), 112; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14040112 - 17 Apr 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 4164
Abstract
The cumulative inverter losses and power consumption of a silicon insulated gate bipolar transistor (Si IGBT) and three types of silicon carbide metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (SiC MOSFETs) were evaluated on an electric motor test bench under a worldwide harmonized light vehicles test cycle [...] Read more.
The cumulative inverter losses and power consumption of a silicon insulated gate bipolar transistor (Si IGBT) and three types of silicon carbide metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (SiC MOSFETs) were evaluated on an electric motor test bench under a worldwide harmonized light vehicles test cycle (WLTC). SiC MOSFETs showed higher performance than Si IGBT regardless of the motor type and test vehicles. In the case of driving an interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM), the latest 4th generation SiC MOSFET (SiC-4G) in ROHM has the lowest inverter loss and energy consumption compared with the other generations. In the case of driving an induction motor (IM), on the other hand, the 2nd generation SiC MOSFET (SiC-2G) in ROHM has the best energy consumption despite the fact that the inverter losses of SiC-2G are slightly larger than the loss of SiC-4G. The latest or later generation power device does not necessarily contribute to better performance in a total system by simply replacing early power devices. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

23 pages, 4898 KiB  
Article
SPWM Inverter Control for Wireless Constant Current and Voltage Charging
by Kang Sun and Wangqiang Niu
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(4), 111; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14040111 - 14 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2937
Abstract
Constant current (CC) and constant voltage (CV) charging of batteries is a crucial research area in the practical implementation of wireless power transfer (WPT) systems. The typical charging process of a battery starts from the constant current mode. As the battery’s voltage increases, [...] Read more.
Constant current (CC) and constant voltage (CV) charging of batteries is a crucial research area in the practical implementation of wireless power transfer (WPT) systems. The typical charging process of a battery starts from the constant current mode. As the battery’s voltage increases, the charging mode switches to the constant voltage mode. During charging, the equivalent load resistance of the battery will vary with the charging time, and the equivalent load resistance will affect the charging current or voltage and system’s efficiency. In this study, an adaptive wireless charging method of CC-CV is proposed based on sinusoidal pulse width modulation (SPWM) inverter control. The proposed WPT circuit detects the load variation by measuring the parameters of load voltage and load current, and accurately controls the system output current or voltage by adjusting the modulation depth of the SPWM inverter on the primary side. When there is relative motion between the transmitting coil and the receiving coil, the sharp change in coupling coefficient directly affects the system’s output voltage and output current, leading to output fluctuations and instability. To solve this problem, a method for estimating the coupling coefficient is proposed which estimates the coupling coefficient during the charging process by measuring system parameters. Then, the controller on the primary side adjusts the modulation depth of the SPWM inverter circuit based on the estimated new coupling coefficient, so that the system can still achieve constant current and constant voltage charging under displacement or distance changes. In this study, the CC mode output current during battery charging was set to 0.75 A, and the CV mode output voltage was set to 12 V. Simulation and experimental results demonstrate the validity and accuracy of the proposed control method. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

25 pages, 4806 KiB  
Perspective
Cost-Benefit Analysis of Downstream Applications for Retired Electric Vehicle Batteries
by Achim Kampker, Heiner H. Heimes, Christian Offermanns, Moritz H. Frieges, Maximilian Graaf, Natalia Soldan Cattani and Benedikt Späth
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(4), 110; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14040110 - 14 Apr 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2994
Abstract
Mass transport conversion to an electrified powertrain requires suitable strategies for processing electric vehicle (EV) batteries after their intended first service life. Due to aging mechanisms, EV batteries lose capacity over their period of use and become unsuitable for their initial application at [...] Read more.
Mass transport conversion to an electrified powertrain requires suitable strategies for processing electric vehicle (EV) batteries after their intended first service life. Due to aging mechanisms, EV batteries lose capacity over their period of use and become unsuitable for their initial application at some point. However, to expand their lifetime and to meet the sustainability demand for EVs, the usage of these batteries in so-called Re-X applications is under intense discussion. Until now, downstream processing has been subject to high uncertainty regarding the expected advances. While many issues on the technical and ecological side have been at least partially resolved, the economics are still under assessment. For this reason, this paper intends to give a well-based outlook on the costs and benefits of three chosen scenarios: reuse, repurpose, and recycle. It is expected that under the given national policies and global market conditions, growing quantities of retired EV batteries will return from the transportation markets. Consequently, the market potential for retired batteries in downstream applications will significantly increase, as well as calls for stable solutions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Battery Production for Electric Vehicles)
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 7602 KiB  
Article
Supervised Learning Technique for First Order Multipaths Identification of V2V Scenario
by Yaser A. Bakhuraisa, Azlan B. Abd Aziz, Tan K. Geok, Norazhar B. Abu Bakar, Saifulnizan B. Jamian and Fajaruddin B. Mustakim
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(4), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14040109 - 13 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1441
Abstract
In geometrical localization techniques, the propagated signal’s first-order multipath (FOMP) characteristics are used to calculate the location based on geometrical relationships. Utilizing the characteristics of higher order multipath (HOMP) results in a significant localization error. Therefore, distinguishing between FOMPs and HOMPs is an [...] Read more.
In geometrical localization techniques, the propagated signal’s first-order multipath (FOMP) characteristics are used to calculate the location based on geometrical relationships. Utilizing the characteristics of higher order multipath (HOMP) results in a significant localization error. Therefore, distinguishing between FOMPs and HOMPs is an important task. The previous works used traditional methods based on a deterministic threshold to accomplish this task. Unfortunately, these methods are complicated and insufficiently accurate. This paper proposes an efficient method based on supervised learning to distinguish more accurately between the propagated FOMP and HOMP of millimeter-Wave Vehicle-to-Vehicle communication in an urban scenario. Ray tracing technique based on Shoot and Bounce Ray (SBR) is used to generate the dataset’s features including received power, propagation time, the azimuth angle of arrival (AAOA), and elevation angle of arrival (EAOA). A statistical analysis based on the probability distribution function (PDF) is presented first to study the selected features’ impact on the classification process. Then, six supervised classifiers, namely Decision Tree, Naive Bayes, Support Vector Machine, K-Nearest Neighbors, Random Forest, and artificial neural network, are trained and tested, and their performance is compared in terms of HOMP misclassification. The effect of the considered features on the classifiers’ performance is further investigated. Our results showed that all the proposed classifiers provided an acceptable classification performance. The proposed ANN showed the best performance, whereas the NB was the worst. In fact, the HOMP misclassification error varied between 2.3% and 16.7%. The EAOA exhibited the most significant influence on classification performance, while the AAOA was the least. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

23 pages, 4146 KiB  
Article
Concept for Digital Product Twins in Battery Cell Production
by Achim Kampker, Heiner Hans Heimes, Benjamin Dorn, Henning Clever, Robert Ludwigs, Ruiyan Li and Marcel Drescher
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(4), 108; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14040108 - 13 Apr 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3379
Abstract
This paper presents an approach for the design and derivation for establishing a digital product twin for battery cells. A digital product twin is a virtual replica of a physical battery cell and can be used to predict and optimize quality properties and [...] Read more.
This paper presents an approach for the design and derivation for establishing a digital product twin for battery cells. A digital product twin is a virtual replica of a physical battery cell and can be used to predict and optimize quality properties and performance in real-time. The study focuses on pouch cell manufacturing and aims to map the large amount and variety of process information down to purchased parts and interim products. The approach for this study was to collect and analyze data from the physical production process and use this information to structure a digital battery product twin based on its product architecture. The main findings of this study indicate that a digital product twin can be effectively structured and implemented in a digital interface based on its product architecture in combination with data from the physical production process. The results of this study show the potential of digital product twins, in which statements about material, design, and behavior can be made using real information from production. Further research will focus on the practical application and implementation of digital product twins in a battery cell pilot production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Battery Production for Electric Vehicles)
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 8423 KiB  
Article
Flux Weakening Controller Design for Series-Winding Three-Phase PMSM Drive Systems
by Senyi Liu, Zaixin Song, Bowen Zhang and Chunhua Liu
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(4), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14040107 - 13 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1905
Abstract
Series-winding three-phase PMSMs have a higher bus voltage utilization than the conventional three-phase PMSMs with star connection. This topology is suitable for applications with a limited bus voltage. However, the zero-sequence current controller will reduce the bus voltage utilization of the series-winding PMSMs, [...] Read more.
Series-winding three-phase PMSMs have a higher bus voltage utilization than the conventional three-phase PMSMs with star connection. This topology is suitable for applications with a limited bus voltage. However, the zero-sequence current controller will reduce the bus voltage utilization of the series-winding PMSMs, which causes problems in the flux-weakening controller design. The conventional flux-weakening control algorithms will cause the series-winding PMSMs to enter the overmodulation region early and degrade the performance of the zero-sequence current suppression algorithm. In this paper, a new flux-weakening controller with a dynamic fundamental voltage limit (FW-DFVL) is designed for the series-winding three-phase PMSM traction system. Firstly, the space vector modulation method combines the proposed virtual zero-sequence vectors to realize both the fundamental current generation and the zero-sequence current suppression. The accurate bus voltage utilization in the fundamental current subspace can be derived from the proposed modulation method. Secondly, the gradient descent method generates the flux-weakening d-axis reference current with the dynamic fundamental voltage, which will converge faster than the conventional PI-based flux-weakening control scheme. Thirdly, the flux-weakening controller in the overmodulation region is also designed where the zero-sequence current will no longer be suppressed. The bus voltage utilization is Vdc in this operation mode. Finally, both the simulation and experimental results are utilized to verify the effectiveness of the proposed FW-DFVL, where faster dynamic performance and higher bus utilization are observed. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 10017 KiB  
Article
A Circulating Current Suppression Strategy for MMC Based on the 2N+1 PWM Approach
by Guozheng Zhang, Jiahui Song, Chen Li and Xin Gu
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(4), 106; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14040106 - 12 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1648
Abstract
Compared with other topologies, the modular multilevel converter (MMC) has the advantages of higher scalability and lower harmonic distortion. When carrier-based pulse-width modulation approaches are used for the MMC, the number of carriers increases for more sub-modules, and the complexity of the control [...] Read more.
Compared with other topologies, the modular multilevel converter (MMC) has the advantages of higher scalability and lower harmonic distortion. When carrier-based pulse-width modulation approaches are used for the MMC, the number of carriers increases for more sub-modules, and the complexity of the control and the memory required increases as a result. In addition, the synchronization of several carriers is another issue. Due to the unique constructional characteristics of the MMC, circulating currents will be generated internally, causing distortions in the arm currents and, thus, unnecessary converter losses. In this paper, an improved 2N+1 pulse-width modulation approach with low control complexity and a circulating current suppression strategy are proposed. Firstly, the conventional carrier phase-shifted 2N+1 pulse-width modulation approach is improved so that the number of carrier signals adopted in each arm is always two. Secondly, the redundant switching states are used to suppress the circulating current. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed strategy is verified experimentally. The results show that the proposed method reduces the control complexity while retaining the output performance. Meanwhile, the circulating current can be suppressed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrical Machines Design and Control in Electric Vehicles)
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 7474 KiB  
Article
Energy and Environmental National Assessment of Alternative Fuel Buses in Morocco
by Hamza El Hafdaoui, Faissal Jelti, Ahmed Khallaayoun and Kamar Ouazzani
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(4), 105; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14040105 - 12 Apr 2023
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3573
Abstract
The heavy reliance on petroleum-based fuels in the road transport industry, especially public transportation, results in substantial emissions of greenhouse gases. A significant obstacle on the path to a more sustainable public transportation sector is the employment of alternative fuels with lower environmental [...] Read more.
The heavy reliance on petroleum-based fuels in the road transport industry, especially public transportation, results in substantial emissions of greenhouse gases. A significant obstacle on the path to a more sustainable public transportation sector is the employment of alternative fuels with lower environmental implications. Although there are several in-depth well-to-wheel studies for developed countries, extrapolating those results to gasoline markets in developing countries presents challenges because of significant differences in local fuel conditions and vehicle engine technologies. Notably, this study provides a national-level environmental life cycle assessment of alternative buses in Morocco and compares current diesel buses to potential hybrid diesel-electric buses, battery-electric buses, and fuel-cell buses from a well-to-wheel perspective. The model and approach used in this study applies to other countries with developing economies. Total energy consumption broken out by fuel type, greenhouse gas emissions, and criterion air pollutants is the primary outcome of this investigation. Findings highlight an energy cut of 44.7% from battery-electric buses, 36.3% from fuel-cell buses, and 31.7% from hybrid buses with regard to the current diesel buses. Additionally, alternative fuel buses proved to be less polluting in terms of greenhouse gas emissions with 50.8% less from battery-electric buses, 46.7% less from fuel-cell buses, and 26.8% less from hybrid buses; consequently, this would lead to reduced climate change, air pollution, acidification, and eutrophication, given the Egalitarian Environmental Impact Assessment. Ultimately, Morocco will have to tackle technological, financial, and institutional barriers to fully implement the change by 2030. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

28 pages, 9662 KiB  
Article
Optimal Planning of Electric Vehicle Charging Stations Considering Traffic Load for Smart Cities
by Miguel Campaña and Esteban Inga
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(4), 104; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14040104 - 11 Apr 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2547
Abstract
The massive introduction of electric vehicles as a mobility alternative requires deploying an infrastructure of charging stations for electric cars (ICSEC). This new mobility concept will mitigate the environmental harm caused by the emission of CO2 generated by conventional internal combustion mobility methods. [...] Read more.
The massive introduction of electric vehicles as a mobility alternative requires deploying an infrastructure of charging stations for electric cars (ICSEC). This new mobility concept will mitigate the environmental harm caused by the emission of CO2 generated by conventional internal combustion mobility methods. The sustainability of the ICSEC depends not only on the capacity to meet the demand for charging batteries for electric vehicles (EV) but also on an adequate number of public/private charging stations (CS) distributed in a geolocalized area. It is noted that the distribution of CS must respond to a set of real mobility constraints, such as vehicular flow capacity, road capacity, and trajectories. The planning, intelligent location of public charging stations (PCS), and contingency analysis will enable us to study the increase in demand for electrical distribution substations (EDS). Therefore, the present model explains the need to plan the massive introduction of EVs by observing the user’s conditions at the trajectory level through finite resource allocation processes, segmentation, and minimum spanning trees, by observing heterogeneous vehicular flow criteria through microscopic analysis, to understand the space–time relationship of vehicular flow in georeferenced scenarios. Consequently, the computational complexity of the model is of the combinatorial type, and it is defined as NP-Hard given the multiple variables and constraints within the transportation problem. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 1120 KiB  
Article
Simplified Python Models for Photovoltaic-Based Charging Stations for Electric Vehicles Considering Technical, Economic, and Environmental Aspects
by Rezeq Direya and Tamer Khatib
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(4), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14040103 - 10 Apr 2023
Viewed by 2853
Abstract
This paper proposes Python models for a photovoltaic-based charging station for electric vehicles considering technical, economic, and environmental aspects. The proposed models consider two main cases of photovoltaic-based charging systems, which are photovoltaic/grid-charging systems and photovoltaic/grid/battery-charging systems. Moreover, additional operational options, such as [...] Read more.
This paper proposes Python models for a photovoltaic-based charging station for electric vehicles considering technical, economic, and environmental aspects. The proposed models consider two main cases of photovoltaic-based charging systems, which are photovoltaic/grid-charging systems and photovoltaic/grid/battery-charging systems. Moreover, additional operational options, such as exporting energy to the grid and zero-export, are added to the proposed models. The proposed techno-economic models can be used to evaluate the location of the electric vehicle charging station and the financial and environmental benefits of the electric vehicle charging station that is installed in a residential, commercial, or industrial context. The models are tested by proposing a simulation based on load demand, and then different cases, including the actual size case and additional trading cases, are investigated. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 5636 KiB  
Article
A Multi-Disciplinary Approach for the Electrical and Thermal Characterization of Battery Packs—Case Study for an Electric Race Car
by Claudio Santarelli, Christopher Helbig, An Li, Benoit Honel, Thomas Nyhues and Fabian Böhm
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(4), 102; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14040102 - 10 Apr 2023
Viewed by 2478
Abstract
A novel, multi-disciplinary approach is presented where experiments, system simulation and Computational Fluid Dynamics are combined for the electrical and thermal characterization of an air-cooled battery pack. As a case study, a Formula Student race car is considered and the procedure proposed consists [...] Read more.
A novel, multi-disciplinary approach is presented where experiments, system simulation and Computational Fluid Dynamics are combined for the electrical and thermal characterization of an air-cooled battery pack. As a case study, a Formula Student race car is considered and the procedure proposed consists of three steps: (1) experimental characterization of the battery cells under several thermal conditions; (2) thermal and electrical modeling of the battery stack with system simulation; (3) three-dimensional, time-dependent Conjugate Heat Transfer simulation of the whole battery pack to investigate the cooling performance of the chosen design, and to access fundamental quantities of the batteries, such as state of charge, temperature and ohmic heating. Future improvements of the current work are discussed, including the extension to a liquid-cooled design, battery aging consideration and model integration into a full vehicle system model. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 4899 KiB  
Article
A Smart Battery Management System for Electric Vehicles Using Deep Learning-Based Sensor Fault Detection
by Venkata Satya Rahul Kosuru and Ashwin Kavasseri Venkitaraman
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(4), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14040101 - 10 Apr 2023
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 8374
Abstract
Battery sensor data collection and transmission are essential for battery management systems (BMS). Since inaccurate battery data brought on by sensor faults, communication issues, or even cyber-attacks can impose serious harm on BMS and adversely impact the overall dependability of BMS-based applications, such [...] Read more.
Battery sensor data collection and transmission are essential for battery management systems (BMS). Since inaccurate battery data brought on by sensor faults, communication issues, or even cyber-attacks can impose serious harm on BMS and adversely impact the overall dependability of BMS-based applications, such as electric vehicles, it is critical to assess the durability of battery sensor and communication data in BMS. Sensor data are necessary for a BMS to perform every operation. Effective sensor fault detection is crucial for the sustainability and security of electric vehicle battery systems. This research suggests a system for battery data, especially lithium ion batteries, that allows deep learning-based detection and the classification of faulty battery sensor and transmission information. Initially, we collected the sensor data, and preprocessing was carried out using z-score normalization. The features were extracted using sparse principal component analysis (SPCA), and enhanced marine predators algorithm (EMPA) was used for feature selection. The BMS’s safety and dependability may be enhanced by the suggested incipient bat-optimized deep residual network (IB-DRN)-based false battery data identification and classification system. Simulations using MATLAB (2021a), along with statistics, machine learning, and a deep learning toolbox, along with experimental research, were used to show and assess how well the suggested strategy performs. It is shown to be superior to traditional approaches. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 7893 KiB  
Article
Study of Winding Structure to Reduce Harmonic Currents in Dual Three-Phase Motor
by Akito Yoshida and Kan Akatsu
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(4), 100; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14040100 - 7 Apr 2023
Viewed by 2047
Abstract
Dual three-phase motors have the problem of a large generation of harmonic currents while driving due to small inductance for certain harmonics. The purpose of this paper is to theoretically clarify the effect of the winding structure of dual three-phase motors on harmonic [...] Read more.
Dual three-phase motors have the problem of a large generation of harmonic currents while driving due to small inductance for certain harmonics. The purpose of this paper is to theoretically clarify the effect of the winding structure of dual three-phase motors on harmonic currents. Analytical calculations considering the spatial harmonics of the magnetomotive force are used to formulate the inductance that depends on the winding structure and the harmonic order. The validity of the formulated theoretical expression of the inductance is confirmed by finite element analysis. In addition, drive simulations of the coil pitch 5/6 dual 3-phase motor and the coil pitch 1 dual 3-phase motor are performed, and it is found that the magnitude of the generated harmonic currents can be explained using the formulated inductance values. In conclusion, it is found that dual three-phase motors with large winding factors for fifth and seventh order spatial harmonics can reduce the harmonic currents. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 3734 KiB  
Article
Fuzzy Logic Control of External Heating System for Electric Vehicle Batteries at Low Temperature
by Shupeng Zhang, Tao Li and Liqun Chen
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(4), 99; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14040099 - 6 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1670
Abstract
The reduction in driving range and the degradation of vehicle performance in cold weather has become one of the challenges in vehicle electrification in recent years. The root cause of this phenomenon is the property of lithium-ion batteries with capacity and power capability [...] Read more.
The reduction in driving range and the degradation of vehicle performance in cold weather has become one of the challenges in vehicle electrification in recent years. The root cause of this phenomenon is the property of lithium-ion batteries with capacity and power capability reduction at low temperatures. In this study, an external battery heating system was developed by employing an electrothermal film affixed to the surface of each cell, and the heating process was performed during driving. An equivalent circuit model combined with a thermal model was established for the simulation and control design. A fuzzy logic control strategy was developed to optimize the external heating power provided by the battery pack, and to achieve the maximum range by the end of discharge. A global optimal control strategy obtained by dynamic programming and a constant maximum power heating strategy were used for comparison. Simulation and experimental validations show that the proposed fuzzy logic control algorithm can achieve a 3.6% to 5.3% improvement in driving range than the maximum power heating method, and has close performance to the global optimal solution. Furthermore, the vehicle equipped with the proposed heating system can have up to 150.4% of the range recovery under different driving conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Technologies in Electrification of Urban Mobility)
Show Figures

Figure 1

21 pages, 10854 KiB  
Article
Accelerated and Refined Lane-Level Route-Planning Method Based on a New Road Network Model for Autonomous Vehicle Navigation
by Ke He, Haitao Ding, Nan Xu and Konghui Guo
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(4), 98; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14040098 - 6 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1815
Abstract
Lane-level route planning is a critical issue for a lane-level navigation system for autonomous vehicles. Current route-planning methods mainly focus on the road level and applying them directly to search for lane-level routes results in a reduction in search efficiency. In addition, previously [...] Read more.
Lane-level route planning is a critical issue for a lane-level navigation system for autonomous vehicles. Current route-planning methods mainly focus on the road level and applying them directly to search for lane-level routes results in a reduction in search efficiency. In addition, previously developed lane-level methods lack consideration for vehicle characteristics and adaptability to multiple road network structures. To solve this issue, this study proposes an accelerated and refined lane-level route-planning algorithm based on a new lane-level road network model. First, five sub-layers are designed to refine the internal structure of the divided road and intersection areas so that the model can express multiple variations in road network structures. Then, a multi-level route-planning algorithm is designed for sequential planning at the road level, lane group level, lane section level, and lane level to reduce the search space and significantly improve routing efficiency. Last, an optimal lane determination algorithm considering traffic rules, vehicle characteristics, and optimization objectives is developed at the lane level to find the optimal lanes on roads with different configurations, including those with a constant or variable number of lanes while satisfying traffic rules and vehicle characteristics. Tests were performed on simulated road networks and a real road network. The results demonstrate the algorithm’s better adaptability to changing road network structures and vehicle characteristics compared with past hierarchical route planning, and its higher efficiency compared with direct route planning, past hierarchical route planning, and the Apollo route-planning method, which can better support autonomous vehicle navigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advance in Intelligent Vehicle)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 5030 KiB  
Article
Research on Hierarchical Control Strategy of Automatic Emergency Braking System
by Zhi Wang, Liguo Zang, Jing Jiao and Yulin Mao
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(4), 97; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14040097 - 5 Apr 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2121
Abstract
In order to improve the active safety of vehicles, the control strategy of the vehicle automatic emergency braking system is studied. The hierarchical control idea is used to model the control strategy. The upper controller is a collision time model for the decision-making [...] Read more.
In order to improve the active safety of vehicles, the control strategy of the vehicle automatic emergency braking system is studied. The hierarchical control idea is used to model the control strategy. The upper controller is a collision time model for the decision-making of vehicle braking deceleration, and the collision time threshold is determined under the condition of considering comfort. According to the braking deceleration output by the upper controller, the lower controller controls the vehicle by adjusting the throttle opening and braking pipeline pressure through PID control. Based on the typical test conditions of C-NCAP, a joint simulation test of CarSim and Matlab/Simulink for hierarchical control strategy is carried out. In order to achieve further verification, several groups of test conditions are conducted, and finally its effectiveness is verified, which can ensure the safety of drivers. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

26 pages, 4329 KiB  
Review
Optimizing the Cell Finishing Process: An Overview of Steps, Technologies, and Trends
by Achim Kampker, Heiner Heimes, Christian Offermanns, Sarah Wennemar, Tobias Robben and Nikolaus Lackner
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(4), 96; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14040096 - 4 Apr 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 6360
Abstract
The cell finishing process is the final stage in the production of a battery cell. Almost one third of the production costs of a battery cell are related to this part of the production. It includes a series of steps and technologies aimed [...] Read more.
The cell finishing process is the final stage in the production of a battery cell. Almost one third of the production costs of a battery cell are related to this part of the production. It includes a series of steps and technologies aimed at optimizing the battery cell’s performance, quality, and safety. The process is divided into three categories: pre-treatment, formation procedure, and quality testing. The order of the processes and the time required for each step can vary depending on the manufacturer and the cell format. Recent trends in optimizing the cell finishing process include the integration of a second filling process for larger prismatic cells and the optimization of the formation protocol or Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) as possible methods for quality inspection. Efforts are also being made to reduce the pre-treatment time and improve the degassing process to ensure cell performance, quality, and safety. In this paper, all process steps of the cell finishing process are presented, and their function and technological implementation in the industry are explained. Future innovations are analyzed in terms of time to market and the potential to optimize the process in terms of quality, time, and cost. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Battery Production for Electric Vehicles)
Show Figures

Figure 1

21 pages, 1378 KiB  
Review
Energy Management and Optimization of Large-Scale Electric Vehicle Charging on the Grid
by Raymond O. Kene and Thomas O. Olwal
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(4), 95; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14040095 - 3 Apr 2023
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 4506
Abstract
The sustainability of a clean energy transition for electric vehicle transportation is clearly affected by increased energy consumption cost, which is associated with large-scale electric vehicles (EVs) charging on a fossil-fuel dependent electricity grid. This places a potential threat on the safe operations [...] Read more.
The sustainability of a clean energy transition for electric vehicle transportation is clearly affected by increased energy consumption cost, which is associated with large-scale electric vehicles (EVs) charging on a fossil-fuel dependent electricity grid. This places a potential threat on the safe operations and stability of the grid and increases the emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) from the power stations that generate the electricity. Furthermore, the uncontrolled large-scale integration of EVs charging on the grid will increase exponentially in the coming years. Because of this, new peaks on the grid will be generated due to the EV charging load variance, and a significant impact on the transformer limit and substation capacity violation will occur. To mitigate the significant impact of the high cost of energy consumption by large-scale EVs charging on the grid, and to reduce the emissions of GHGs, there is a need to provide a multi-level optimization approach that is robust and dynamic to solve the uncontrolled charging problem of large-scale integration of EVs to the grid. This paper investigates the grid energy consumption by EVs and reviews recent applications of EV charging controls and optimization approaches used for the energy management of large-scale EVs charging on the grid. Energy management in this context is not trivial. It implies that the objectives such as load shifting, peak shaving, and minimizing the high cost of electricity consumption with a stable grid operation can be achieved. In the context of this study, EVs charging on the grid includes both battery electric vehicles (BEVs), which have larger battery banks with a longer charging duration and higher energy consumption capacity, and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) which have smaller battery capacities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Electric Vehicles Energy Management)
Show Figures

Figure 1

21 pages, 2409 KiB  
Article
Second-Life Batteries Modeling for Performance Tracking in a Mobile Charging Station
by Marwan Hassini, Eduardo Redondo-Iglesias and Pascal Venet
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(4), 94; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14040094 - 3 Apr 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2649
Abstract
Lithium-ion batteries are seen as a key element in reducing global greenhouse gas emissions from the transport and energy sectors. However, efforts are still needed to minimize their environmental impact. This article presents a path towards a circular economy and more sustainable batteries, [...] Read more.
Lithium-ion batteries are seen as a key element in reducing global greenhouse gas emissions from the transport and energy sectors. However, efforts are still needed to minimize their environmental impact. This article presents a path towards a circular economy and more sustainable batteries, thanks to their reuse in mobile charging stations for electric vehicles. This work presents the results of characterization tests and modeling of second life batteries. The presented characterization test and electrical models can be used as references to evaluate the performance of aged batteries after their first life. Detailed test procedures and data results are provided in an open-access data paper. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 2962 KiB  
Article
A Method for Electric Tractor Molding Based on Terminal Sliding Mode Control Algorithm
by Shanshan Yin, Pengjun Mao and Wenjun Li
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(4), 93; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14040093 - 3 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1440
Abstract
Smart transformation and green development are the core research directions of electric vehicles. An electric tractor is powered by the vehicle battery. The motor converts electric energy into mechanical energy and drives the wheels through the drive train. Therefore, the electric tractor model [...] Read more.
Smart transformation and green development are the core research directions of electric vehicles. An electric tractor is powered by the vehicle battery. The motor converts electric energy into mechanical energy and drives the wheels through the drive train. Therefore, the electric tractor model is a modular mathematical model for the battery, motor, drive train, and drive wheel. A class of high-order terminal sliding mode control strategies is adopted to establish the relative rotational angles of drive wheels, driving angular speeds, and motor angular speeds as input, and driving angular speeds and motor angular speeds as output. This process ensures stable operating speed and good working quality under the operating conditions and achieves small-scale unattended driving. The output is a nonlinear system state equation. An n-order derivative continuous function is introduced to design the terminal sliding surface of the sliding mode. A control function to reduce chattering is also designed to ensure that the output function converges at the finite time and the existing sliding stage achieves zero steady-state error. Simulation results of the whole electric tractor model show that the speed remains stable under the condition of outside interference, and experiments verify the feasibility of the control strategy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Vehicle System Dynamics and Control)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 5229 KiB  
Article
Smooth Speed Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine Using Back Propagation Neural Network
by Chenhao Zhao, Yuefei Zuo, Huanzhi Wang, Qiankang Hou and Christopher H. T. Lee
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(4), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14040092 - 1 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1451
Abstract
Torque ripple is one of the most critical problems in PMSM system. In this paper, a neural network (NN) torque compensator is combined with a conventional extended state observer (ESO)-based active disturbance rejection controller (ADRC) system to suppress the torque ripple at wide [...] Read more.
Torque ripple is one of the most critical problems in PMSM system. In this paper, a neural network (NN) torque compensator is combined with a conventional extended state observer (ESO)-based active disturbance rejection controller (ADRC) system to suppress the torque ripple at wide machine operation speed range by generating the optimal current reference. The ESO is able to estimate and reject the low-frequency component in the torque ripple, while the remaining disturbances can be learned and compensated by the neural network. Compared with commonly used schemes, the proposed method does not need to analyze the influence of various sources of the torque ripple, such as the cogging torque, non-sinusoidal back-EMF, parameter variations, and unmodeled disturbances. In addition, the simple structure of the neural network helps reduce the computation time and save computer memory. The effectiveness of the proposed neural network compensator with both the rotor position and mechanical angular velocity as inputs is verified in the experiment under different operation speeds. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 3160 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Different Scenarios to Switch the Whole Regional Bus Fleet of an Italian Alpine Region to Zero-Emission Buses
by Wolfram Sparber, Andrea Grotto, Pietro Zambelli, Roberto Vaccaro and Alyona Zubaryeva
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(4), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14040091 - 1 Apr 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2158
Abstract
Public bus decarbonization is increasingly important to address the global issue of climate change. There are several challenges associated with large-scale introduction of zero-emission technologies in public fleets. This is especially the case in an extra-urban context, of mountain regions with challenging weather [...] Read more.
Public bus decarbonization is increasingly important to address the global issue of climate change. There are several challenges associated with large-scale introduction of zero-emission technologies in public fleets. This is especially the case in an extra-urban context, of mountain regions with challenging weather conditions. In this work the analysis of the state-of-the-art ZEBs, local bus lines, and timetables was performed to understand the best fit of technology—battery electric buses (BEBs) or fuel cell electric buses (FCEBs)—for each line in such a region. Further, a simulation tool was developed to calculate the compatibility of zero-emission technologies with the current needs of the public transportation considering distance, altitude difference, and climate conditions. The results show that a complete switch of the fleet is possible with a slight increase in the number of buses and that there is no clear difference in the distance covered in mountainous areas by BEBs versus FCEBs, but that both technologies can cover similar distances. The tool developed is not limited to bus fleets but can be applied to all kinds of fleets that cover clearly defined daily routes. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 1031 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Charging Infrastructure on Local Emissions of Nitrogen Oxides
by Karsten Hager and Alexandra Graf
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(4), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14040090 - 31 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1205
Abstract
Benefits from EV (Electric vehicles) and e-mobility include the reduction of local emissions of pollutants from particulate matter (PM0.5, PM5, and PM10) and nitrogen oxides (NOx and NO2). Cities and urban agglomerations benefit the most [...] Read more.
Benefits from EV (Electric vehicles) and e-mobility include the reduction of local emissions of pollutants from particulate matter (PM0.5, PM5, and PM10) and nitrogen oxides (NOx and NO2). Cities and urban agglomerations benefit the most from potential emission reductions from EVs due to the large number of cars utilized in most urban traffic systems. This abstract presents results from a corporate research and funding project in Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany (LINOx BW) which facilitates the installation of 2358 charging points within 178 different sub-projects in 23 different cities, spanning a period of four years. Utilizing several different survey waves, data about outgoing currents from these publicly funded charging points are gathered. Converting this data utilizing car classifications and emission classes (HBEFA), the reduction of local nitrogen oxides is derived. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 7019 KiB  
Article
Direct Power Control of a Bipolar Output Active Rectifier for More Electric Aircraft Based on an Optimized Sector Division
by Yajun Zhao, Wenxin Huang and Feifei Bu
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(4), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14040089 - 30 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1290
Abstract
This paper presents a novel direct power control (DPC) strategy based on an optimized sector division for a three-phase coupled inductor-based bipolar output active rectifier (TCIBAR) applied in more electric aircraft (MEA). First, based on the instantaneous power theory, the power model of [...] Read more.
This paper presents a novel direct power control (DPC) strategy based on an optimized sector division for a three-phase coupled inductor-based bipolar output active rectifier (TCIBAR) applied in more electric aircraft (MEA). First, based on the instantaneous power theory, the power model of the TCIBAR is built in the synchronous rotating coordinate system. Second, to implement the hysteresis power control of TCIBAR without causing the runaway of the zero-sequence current in the three-phase coupled inductor (TCI), a set of new voltage vectors that have the same zero-sequence voltage (ZSV) component are synthesized and adopted in the proposed DPC strategy. Third, by quantitatively analyzing the effect of the new synthesized voltage vectors on the power variation of TCIBAR, an optimized sector division method is proposed to improve the accuracy of power control and reduce the phase current harmonics in TCIBAR. Finally, to maintain the voltage balance of the bipolar dc ports in TCIBAR, voltage balance control is studied in the proposed DPC strategy. The proposed DPC strategy is researched on an experimental platform of TCIBAR, and the results show that the proposed DPC strategy is feasible and has good static and dynamic performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Power Electronics for Electric Vehicles)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 1676 KiB  
Article
Framework and Classification of Battery System Architectures
by Achim Kampker, Heiner Hans Heimes, Christian Offermanns, Janis Vienenkötter and Tobias Robben
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(4), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14040088 - 30 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 4875
Abstract
In this paper, battery system architectures are methodologically derived in order to find the key type differences. In a first step, the system levels are identified and distinguished. In order to be able to completely cover the solution space of battery system architectures, [...] Read more.
In this paper, battery system architectures are methodologically derived in order to find the key type differences. In a first step, the system levels are identified and distinguished. In order to be able to completely cover the solution space of battery system architectures, a distinction is also made between mono- and multifunctional materials. Based on the system levels, a framework for possible architectures is derived. Four system architecture generations with a total of eight different types are identified and analyzed in the dimensions “Nomenclature”, “Approach”, “Omitted Components” and “Industry Examples”. In this way, upcoming system architectures, such as cell-to-pack and cell-to-chassis, can be clearly differentiated. Finally, fundamental product characteristics for the four system generations are derived and compared. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Battery Production for Electric Vehicles)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 3284 KiB  
Article
Process and Material Analysis of Laser- and Convection-Dried Silicon–Graphite Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries
by Sebastian Wolf, Laura Garbade, Vinzenz Göken, Rebekka Tien, Markus Börner, Daniel Neb and Heiner Hans Heimes
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(4), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14040087 - 29 Mar 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2925
Abstract
Drying electrodes is very cost-intensive as it is characterized by high energy and space consumption. Laser drying is considered a promising alternative process due to direct energy input and lower operating costs. However, it is unclear whether the same product and process quality [...] Read more.
Drying electrodes is very cost-intensive as it is characterized by high energy and space consumption. Laser drying is considered a promising alternative process due to direct energy input and lower operating costs. However, it is unclear whether the same product and process quality can be achieved with laser drying. Silicon–graphite anodes with different silicon contents were processed using either a high-power diode laser or a convection oven. The laser-drying process was investigated using thermography, and the effect of laser drying on the electrode quality was examined using adhesion and residual moisture measurements. Furthermore, thermogravimetric analysis, SEM images and electrical conductivity were used to analyse the laser- and convection-dried anodes. It was shown that silicon–graphite anodes can also be manufactured using laser drying, with a significant reduction in drying time of over 80%. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 1599 KiB  
Article
Bi-Directional Cuk Equalizer-Based Li-Ion Battery Pack Equalization Control Strategy Research
by Xiaolu Wang, Zefu Tan, Li Cai, Guoping Lei and Nina Dai
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(4), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14040086 - 28 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1586
Abstract
For the secure usage of battery charging and discharging within electric vehicles, the study of cell pack equalization technology is essential. Therefore, in this paper, an improved Bidirectional Cuk equalizer (BCEQ) structure based on a variable-domain fuzzy PID (VFPID) control equalization strategy is [...] Read more.
For the secure usage of battery charging and discharging within electric vehicles, the study of cell pack equalization technology is essential. Therefore, in this paper, an improved Bidirectional Cuk equalizer (BCEQ) structure based on a variable-domain fuzzy PID (VFPID) control equalization strategy is recommended in stages. With the new equalization topology, only half of the capacitive and inductive components are needed to transfer energy between any two individual cells in the power supply. In addition, the proposed VFPID control strategy further improves the efficiency of the equalization model by dynamically adjusting the magnitude of the equalization current parameters. Through simulation experiments, the improved topology was capable of substantially lessening the equalization time and increasing energy utilization by more than 4%. In comparison with the fuzzy PID (FPID) algorithm, around 27.3% faster equalization times can be achieved with the VFPID algorithm; the VFPID algorithm also performed well under the Dynamic Stress Test (DST) condition, demonstrating that the topology and equalization strategy suggested in this paper can successfully address the inconsistency of the FPID algorithm. It has been revealed that the topology and equalization methodology offered in this paper is effective in solving the battery pack inconsistency. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

24 pages, 7688 KiB  
Article
High-Frequency Signal Injection-Based Sensorless Control for Dual-Armature Flux-Switching Permanent Magnet Machine
by Lijian Wu, Jiali Yi, Zekai Lyu, Zhengxiang Zhang and Sideng Hu
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(4), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14040085 - 27 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1467
Abstract
The new topology of the dual-armature flux-switching permanent magnet machine (DA-FSPM) leads to new characteristics and issues in the control of the machine, of which the mutual inductance of the two sets of armature windings is the most important one. This paper proposes [...] Read more.
The new topology of the dual-armature flux-switching permanent magnet machine (DA-FSPM) leads to new characteristics and issues in the control of the machine, of which the mutual inductance of the two sets of armature windings is the most important one. This paper proposes a novel position–sensorless control method based on high-frequency injection (HFI) for DA-FSPM. The high-frequency model of the machine is derived, and the theory of the position estimation method is proposed. Different from the conventional HFI-based position estimation method, the proposed method utilizes the mutual inductance of the DA-FSPM rather than the machine saliency. Meanwhile, because the extracted position information based on the mutual inductance is more obvious, the proposed method also has better steady and dynamic performance. Then, the position observer based on the phase lock loop and the initial position detection method for the DA-FSPM is proposed. The experiments are executed on a DA-FSPM prototype with three-phase stator windings and five-phase rotor windings to prove the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed method. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop