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World Electr. Veh. J., Volume 14, Issue 3 (March 2023) – 22 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Maximizing the usage of electric vehicle batteries is crucial for achieving efficient material use, reducing environmental impact and increasing economic profit. In line with circular economy principles, actions focused on the initial stages of the battery's lifecycle should take priority. These actions may include reducing the battery capacity to the minimum required to meet driving needs, extending battery life through vehicle-to-grid technology while simultaneously providing value to the grid, or prolonging the battery's use in the vehicle for as long as possible. Indeed, cost analysis shows that these strategies are more profitable than relying on second-life applications. Therefore, investment efforts and regulatory measures should be directed towards maximizing the first life of the battery. View this paper
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Article
Sector Coupling through Vehicle to Grid: A Case Study for Electric Vehicles and Households in Berlin, Germany
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(3), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14030077 - 22 Mar 2023
Viewed by 852
Abstract
A key factor in limiting global warming is the conversion of conventional electricity generation to renewable energy sources. However, a major obstacle is that renewable energy generation and energy demand often do not coincide in time, and energy must therefore be stored temporarily. [...] Read more.
A key factor in limiting global warming is the conversion of conventional electricity generation to renewable energy sources. However, a major obstacle is that renewable energy generation and energy demand often do not coincide in time, and energy must therefore be stored temporarily. Vehicle to grid (V2G) can be used to store excess renewable energy in battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and feed it back into the electric grid when needed. For effective V2G operation, the grid may have to be expanded, as the energy needs to be transported to BEVs. However, the grid should only be strengthened where renewable energy demand exceeds current grid capacity due to high grid expansion costs. This requires a method that determines the spatial distribution of V2G potential at a high resolution. Since such a method has not yet been reported in the existing literature, and so is developed in this paper. The method is demonstrated for the city of Berlin and its 448 sub-districts. For each sub-district, the method allows determining the percentage of residential and BEV energy demand that can be met by renewables if V2G is deployed, and answers the question of whether a full renewable supply is possible. The results show that BEVs can be effectively used as intermediate storage for renewable energy. If 30% of the BEVs participate in V2G, more than 99% of the energy demand of households and BEVs in Berlin can be covered by renewables on certain days. On the other hand, V2G deployment increases the average peak load in the districts by up to 100% and results in a nearly double load on vehicle batteries. High shares of renewable energy can be observed in districts with a high degree of motorization, which are predominantly found in the outskirts of the city. Full article
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Article
Optimizing Structural Parameters of PEMFC Based on Taguchi Method
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(3), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14030076 - 20 Mar 2023
Viewed by 764
Abstract
Proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) has become one of the new energy vehicle powertrains due to its special advantages, such as no pollution to the environment, high energy efficiency and power density. In order to improve the performance, a three-dimensional simulation model [...] Read more.
Proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) has become one of the new energy vehicle powertrains due to its special advantages, such as no pollution to the environment, high energy efficiency and power density. In order to improve the performance, a three-dimensional simulation model of the actual PEMFC is constructed. Combined with the mathematical models such as the electrochemical model and current conservation model, the model is calibrated by experiments. When the working voltage is 0.64 V, the error of the simulation results is 0.73%, compared with the experimental data. Then, the Taguchi method is used to design a multi-factor and multi-level orthogonal experimental scheme of PEMFC. Based on the orthogonal experimental table, the effects of different anode wave channel distortion, gas diffusion layer thickness and gas diffusion layer porosity on the current density are studied with a simulation experiment. The influence of the above factors on the orthogonal experiment results is analyzed by the signal-to-noise ratio. The regression equation is obtained by calculating the orthogonal experimental data. The t-test results are greater than 3.49, which indicates that each independent variable in the regression equation is important. R2 test is 0.915, and the F test is 53.508, indicating that the regression equation is significant and the optimal and worst structural parameter combinations are predicted. The current density reaches 14,190.18 A/m2 under the optimal structure combination, which is 6.14% higher than the calibrated model. Single factor experiments are carried out on these three different structural parameters to verify the effectiveness of the Taguchi method, and the best combination of structural parameters is obtained. Full article
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Article
Flicker-Free LED Driver Based on Cuk Converter with Integrated Magnetics
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(3), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14030075 - 19 Mar 2023
Viewed by 791
Abstract
Electric vehicles contain various types of light emitting diode (LED) devices. A significant twice-line-frequency ripple current is usually produced in a conventional offline LED driver with a high power factor. In this paper, a flicker-free LED driver based on isolated Cuk converter with [...] Read more.
Electric vehicles contain various types of light emitting diode (LED) devices. A significant twice-line-frequency ripple current is usually produced in a conventional offline LED driver with a high power factor. In this paper, a flicker-free LED driver based on isolated Cuk converter with integrated magnetic technique is proposed. Two inductors and power transformer are combined into one magnetic core to eliminate the wave current as much as possible. With time domain analysis in electrical circuit and magnetic circuit, the operation principle, operational waveforms, and transfer function are analyzed in detail. Finally, experimental results from a 30 W laboratory prototype supplied by a 220 V grid validate the effectiveness of proposed LED driver. Full article
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Article
TD3-Based EMS Using Action Mask and Considering Battery Aging for Hybrid Electric Dump Trucks
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(3), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14030074 - 17 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 645
Abstract
The hybrid electric dump truck is equipped with multiple power sources, and each powertrain component is controlled by an energy management strategy (EMS) to split the demanded power. This study proposes an EMS based on deep reinforcement learning (DRL) algorithm to extend the [...] Read more.
The hybrid electric dump truck is equipped with multiple power sources, and each powertrain component is controlled by an energy management strategy (EMS) to split the demanded power. This study proposes an EMS based on deep reinforcement learning (DRL) algorithm to extend the battery life and reduced total usage cost for the vehicle, namely the twin delayed deep deterministic policy gradient (TD3) based EMS. Firstly, the vehicle model is constructed and the optimization objective function, including battery aging cost and fuel consumption cost, is designed. Secondly, the TD3-based EMS is used for continuous action control of ICE power based on vehicle state, and the action mask is applied to filter out invalid actions. Thirdly, the simulations of the EMSs are trained under the CHTC-D driving cycle and C-WTVC driving cycle. The results show that the action mask improves the convergence efficiency of the strategies, and the proposed TD3-based EMS outperforms the deep deterministic policy gradient (DDPG) based EMS. Meanwhile, the battery life is extended by 36.17% under CHTC-D and 35.49% under C-WTVC, and the total usage cost is reduced by 4.30% and 2.49% when the EMS considers battery aging. In summary, the proposed TD3-based EMS can extend the battery life and reduce usage cost, and provides a method to solve the optimization problem for the EMS of hybrid power systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Electric Vehicles Energy Management)
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Article
Exploring Factors Affecting People’s Willingness to Use a Voice-Based In-Car Assistant in Electric Cars: An Empirical Study
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(3), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14030073 - 14 Mar 2023
Viewed by 993
Abstract
Voice-based digital assistants are growing in popularity and have been acknowledged as a crucial part of in-car interaction. Currently, academic attention is being paid to various voice assistant scenarios. However, sparse literature focuses on the adoption of voice assistants within the in-vehicle context. [...] Read more.
Voice-based digital assistants are growing in popularity and have been acknowledged as a crucial part of in-car interaction. Currently, academic attention is being paid to various voice assistant scenarios. However, sparse literature focuses on the adoption of voice assistants within the in-vehicle context. The objective of this paper is to examine key factors influencing people’s willingness to use voice assistance in electric cars. First, eight general variables were identified based on the literature review, as well as four demographic variables. These factors were then integrated to construct a hypothetical research model. After that, we carried out an empirical study to examine the structural relationships in the model based on the questionnaire survey results (N = 427). The hypothesis testing results indicated that most path relationships among variables were validated. Finally, we discussed the research findings and developed corresponding design strategies to enhance user acceptance towards in-car voice assistants, both from designers’ and car enterprises’ viewpoints. This article offers valuable theoretical and practical implications for the development of such technologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advanced Electric Vehicle Technology)
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Article
Pricing Strategy for a Virtual Power Plant Operator with Electric Vehicle Users Based on the Stackelberg Game
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(3), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14030072 - 14 Mar 2023
Viewed by 791
Abstract
With the popularity and promotion of electric vehicles (EVs), virtual power plants (VPPs) provide a new means for the orderly charging management of decentralized EVs. How to set the price of electricity sales for VPP operators to achieve a win–win situation with EV [...] Read more.
With the popularity and promotion of electric vehicles (EVs), virtual power plants (VPPs) provide a new means for the orderly charging management of decentralized EVs. How to set the price of electricity sales for VPP operators to achieve a win–win situation with EV users is a hot topic of current research. Based on this, this paper first proposes a Stackelberg game model in which the VPP participates in the orderly charging management of EVs as a power sales operator, where the operator guides the EV users to charge in an orderly manner by setting a reasonable power sales price and coordinates various distributed resources to jointly participate in the power market. Furthermore, taking into account the impact of wind power output uncertainty on VPP operation, a robust optimization method is used to extend the deterministic Stackelberg game pricing model into a robust optimization model, and a robust adjustment factor is introduced to flexibly adjust the conservativeness of the VPP operator’s bidding scheme in the energy market. The model is then transformed into a robust mixed-integer linear programming (RMILP) problem solved by Karush–Kuhn–Tucker (KKT) conditions and strong dyadic theory. Finally, the effectiveness of the solution method is verified in the calculation example, which gives the optimal pricing strategy for the VPP operator, the optimal charging scheme for EV users, and the remaining internal resources’ contribution plan, providing an important idea for the VPP to centrally manage the charging behavior of EVs and improve its own operating revenue. Full article
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Article
Academic and Corporate Vehicle Electrification Research
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(3), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14030071 - 10 Mar 2023
Viewed by 723
Abstract
We developed and used methodology to analyze scientific publications in Scopus relating to vehicle electrification and associated key enabling technologies: batteries, fuel cells and electric machines with power electronics. The global research landscape was mapped, and an analysis of the 16 most active [...] Read more.
We developed and used methodology to analyze scientific publications in Scopus relating to vehicle electrification and associated key enabling technologies: batteries, fuel cells and electric machines with power electronics. The global research landscape was mapped, and an analysis of the 16 most active countries was carried out. Vehicle electrification publications are rewarded with a high citation impact, and they include corporate actors to a great extent. China dominates in vehicle electrification research as well as in the enabling technologies, and China’s position is set to become even more dominating. Battery research has grown rapidly with a high citation impact, whereas the volume of research for the other enabling technologies was more constant during 2017–2021. Automakers’ research that has led to scientific publications was specifically studied. Ford Motor Company was the automaker with the highest number of vehicle electrification publications during 2017–2021. A large share of the automakers’ publications was co-authored with academic actors, and such publications were rewarded with a higher citation impact than those without. However, the share of international co-publications among the automakers was meager. It is concluded that the analysis of vehicle electrification publications gives an overview of the rapidly developing field. Moreover, the analysis of automakers’ involvement in such research is one way of obtaining one perspective on their strategies and priorities. Full article
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Article
Effect of Directional Auditory Takeover Request on Takeover Behavior and Eye Movement in Conditionally Automated Driving
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(3), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14030070 - 09 Mar 2023
Viewed by 564
Abstract
Conditionally automated driving (CAD) systems allow the driver to temporarily disengage from driving tasks. The significant concern of CAD is to ensure a safe and timely transition to the manual driving mode when the system exceeds its limits and issues a takeover request [...] Read more.
Conditionally automated driving (CAD) systems allow the driver to temporarily disengage from driving tasks. The significant concern of CAD is to ensure a safe and timely transition to the manual driving mode when the system exceeds its limits and issues a takeover request (TOR). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of directional auditory TOR on the driver takeover process. A within-subject experimental design was used: twenty-four participants drove four times in an automated driving simulation scenario and received two non-directional auditory TORs and two directional auditory TORs (TOR directions corresponding to the orientation of potential hazards). The takeover behavior and eye movement characteristics relevant to the takeover process were collected. The results showed that directional auditory TOR enabled drivers to shift their visual attention to the hazards’ area faster than non-directional auditory TOR, accelerating the driver’s understanding of the road environment and improving takeover behavior. The study may provide a reference for the design of takeover requests for conditionally automated driving. Full article
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Article
Sensorless Control Method of High-Speed Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Based on Discrete Current Error
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(3), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14030069 - 09 Mar 2023
Viewed by 833
Abstract
When the Surface-Mounted Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (SPMSM) is in the condition of high-speed and low carrier-wave ratio, the performance of sensorless control is more affected by digital control delay, parameter inaccuracy, and other factors. This paper presents a sensorless control method based [...] Read more.
When the Surface-Mounted Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (SPMSM) is in the condition of high-speed and low carrier-wave ratio, the performance of sensorless control is more affected by digital control delay, parameter inaccuracy, and other factors. This paper presents a sensorless control method based on the static error between the discrete d-axis current and the corresponding reference value. If there is no error in position angle, the discrete d-axis current should have no static error approximately. In addition, the static error of the d-axis current is related to the speed, so the PI controller with a variable proportional integral coefficient is used to ensure a stable error compensation performance in a wide speed range. The proposed method can accurately compensate the estimated rotor position of the motor under high-speed and low carrier ratio conditions and improve the accuracy of sensorless control. It provides an effective measure for the stable and reliable acceleration of electric vehicles and has specific practical significance for the development of electric vehicle control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrical Machines Design and Control in Electric Vehicles)
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Article
GridShield—Optimizing the Use of Grid Capacity during Increased EV Adoption
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(3), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14030068 - 07 Mar 2023
Viewed by 791
Abstract
With the increasing adoption rate of electric vehicles, power peaks caused by many cars simultaneously charging on the same low-voltage grid can cause local overloading and power outages. Smart charging solutions should spread this load, but there is a residual risk of incidental [...] Read more.
With the increasing adoption rate of electric vehicles, power peaks caused by many cars simultaneously charging on the same low-voltage grid can cause local overloading and power outages. Smart charging solutions should spread this load, but there is a residual risk of incidental peaks. A decentralized and autonomous technology called GridShield is being developed to reduce the likelihood of a transformer’s fuse blowing when other congestion solutions have failed. It serves as a measure of last resort to protect the grid against local power failures from unpredicted congestion by temporarily limiting the virtual capacity of charging stations. This paper describes the technical development and demonstrates how GridShield can keep a transformer load below a critical limit using simulations and real-world tests. It optimizes grid capacity while ensuring grid reliability. Full article
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Article
Charging after Lockdown: The Aftermath of COVID-19 Policies on Electric Vehicle Charging Behaviour in The Netherlands
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(3), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14030067 - 07 Mar 2023
Viewed by 877
Abstract
During the COVID-19—related lockdowns (2020–2022), mobility patterns and charging needs were substantially affected. Policies such as work from home, lockdowns, and curfews reduced traffic and commuting significantly. This global pandemic may have also substantially changed mobility patterns on the long term and therefore [...] Read more.
During the COVID-19—related lockdowns (2020–2022), mobility patterns and charging needs were substantially affected. Policies such as work from home, lockdowns, and curfews reduced traffic and commuting significantly. This global pandemic may have also substantially changed mobility patterns on the long term and therefore the need for electric vehicle charging infrastructure. This paper analyzes changes in electric charging in the Netherlands for different user groups during different phases of the COVID-19 lockdown to assess the effects on EV charging needs. Charging needs dropped significantly during this period, which also changed the distribution of the load on the electricity grid throughout the day. Curfews affected the start times of charging sessions during peak hours of grid consumption. Infrastructure dedicated to commuters was used less intensively, and the charging needs of professional taxi drivers were drastically reduced during lockdown periods. These trends were partially observed during a post–lockdown measuring period of roughly 8 months, indicating a longer shift in mobility and charging patterns. Full article
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Article
Circular Economy-Based Alternatives beyond Second-Life Applications: Maximizing the Electric Vehicle Battery First Life
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(3), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14030066 - 05 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1112
Abstract
Electric vehicle battery second-life applications are gaining attention as a way to minimize the environmental impact and increase economic profits. However, the demand for stationary energy storage is expected to be saturated in the near future with these second-life batteries. This fact, in [...] Read more.
Electric vehicle battery second-life applications are gaining attention as a way to minimize the environmental impact and increase economic profits. However, the demand for stationary energy storage is expected to be saturated in the near future with these second-life batteries. This fact, in addition to the several technical and economic challenges of second-life batteries, promotes exploring other alternatives. This work analyses and compares these possible approaches in terms of battery degradation and economic profit. The results show that for large batteries, intensive Vehicle to Grid does not cause an early retirement of the battery and allows reducing the underuse of the battery. In addition, for the same battery size, Vehicle to Grid provides more economic profit than second-life applications. Nevertheless, only in a few cases does this appear to be more profitable than simply utilizing the battery for driving. Importantly, this study has shown how the assessment of the second-life tends to be too optimistic as a consequence of assuming a fixed End of Life threshold for the batteries. Full article
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Article
A Parameter-Free Method for Estimating the Stator Resistance of a Wound Rotor Synchronous Machine
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(3), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14030065 - 04 Mar 2023
Viewed by 820
Abstract
This paper presents a new online method based on low frequency signal injection to estimate the stator resistance of a Wound Rotor Synchronous Machine (WRSM). The proposed estimator provides a parameter-free method for estimating the stator resistance, in which there is no need [...] Read more.
This paper presents a new online method based on low frequency signal injection to estimate the stator resistance of a Wound Rotor Synchronous Machine (WRSM). The proposed estimator provides a parameter-free method for estimating the stator resistance, in which there is no need to know the values of the parameters of the machine model, such as the stator and rotor inductances or the rotor flux linkage. In this method, a low frequency sinusoidal current is injected in the d axis of the stator current to produce a sinusoidal flux in the stator. In this paper, it is shown that the phase difference between the generated sinusoidal flux and the injected sinusoidal current is related to the stator resistance mismatch. Using this phase difference, the stator resistance is estimated. To validate the proposed model-free estimator, simulations were performed with Matlab Simulink and the results were compared with the extended Kalman filter observer. Finally, experimental tests, under different conditions, were performed to estimate the stator resistance of a WRSM. Full article
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Article
Variable Switching Frequency Deadbeat Predictive Current Control for PMSM with High-Speed and Low-Carrier Ratio
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(3), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14030064 - 03 Mar 2023
Viewed by 657
Abstract
The predictive current control method of permanent magnet synchronous motor has the advantages of fast dynamic response and easy digital implementation, so more attention has been paid to it. When the motor operates in a high-speed condition, the switching frequency is relatively low, [...] Read more.
The predictive current control method of permanent magnet synchronous motor has the advantages of fast dynamic response and easy digital implementation, so more attention has been paid to it. When the motor operates in a high-speed condition, the switching frequency is relatively low, the carrier ratio is low, and the rotor angle varies greatly within a control cycle, resulting in a large error in the traditional liner approximation prediction model and inaccuracy of the voltage control quantity calculation, which leads to the deterioration of the predictive current control effect. At the same time, the output harmonic of the three-phase current increases, which affects the stable operation of the motor. In this paper, we study the causes of the large errors in the prediction model based on the traditional linear approximation and phase current fluctuation of the permanent magnet synchronous motor under high speed and low carrier-ratio conditions. Based on the improvement of the prediction model and modulation, a new control strategy of variable switching frequency deadbeat predictive current control is proposed. The control method proposed in this paper improves the dynamic and steady-state performance of the motor, under the condition that the carrier ratio does not increase and reduces the fluctuation of the output current of the motor. Finally, the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed method are verified by an experiment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrical Machines Design and Control in Electric Vehicles)
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Article
Driving System Design and Power Source Parameter Optimization of Tractor with Dual-Motor Coupling Drive
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(3), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14030063 - 02 Mar 2023
Viewed by 543
Abstract
For the poor working conditions of tractors, single-motor drive tractors usually choose a motor with large parameters, which leads to the lower efficiency of the motor under low-load conditions. Taking a wheeled tractor of YTO as the research object, a driving scheme of [...] Read more.
For the poor working conditions of tractors, single-motor drive tractors usually choose a motor with large parameters, which leads to the lower efficiency of the motor under low-load conditions. Taking a wheeled tractor of YTO as the research object, a driving scheme of a dual-motor electric tractor was proposed, and the main components of the tractor electric drive system were matched. Based on MATLAB/Simulink, the electric tractor drive system model was established. On the premise of meeting the dynamic needs of the tractor, an optimization model was established with the tractor power consumption as the optimization goal and the power distribution coefficient of dual motors as the decision variable. The optimization model was solved by a genetic algorithm. The driving characteristics of the optimized electric tractor and the original tractor, as well as the instantaneous power consumption and total power consumption of the tractor before and after optimization, are compared and analyzed. The results show that the traction efficiency of the optimized electric tractor is about 2.7% higher than that of the original tractor, and the total power consumption of the electric tractor before and after optimization is reduced by 8.2%. The power performance and economy of the tractor after parameter matching and optimization are significantly improved. Full article
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Article
Smooth Switching Method for Multi-Mode Synchronous Space Vector Modulation of NPC Three-Level Inverter
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(3), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14030062 - 01 Mar 2023
Viewed by 597
Abstract
To meet the requirements of output harmonic distortion of neutral point clamped (NPC) three-level inverter under low switching frequency conditions, multi-mode synchronous space vector modulation is usually adopted. When switching between different pulse patterns, there will be oscillation in the output current. This [...] Read more.
To meet the requirements of output harmonic distortion of neutral point clamped (NPC) three-level inverter under low switching frequency conditions, multi-mode synchronous space vector modulation is usually adopted. When switching between different pulse patterns, there will be oscillation in the output current. This paper proposes a smooth switching method for synchronous space vector modulation. This method compensates the phase angle of the reference voltage vector, in order to make the flux trajectories continuous before and after switching. Multi-position smooth switching can be realized in the fundamental period, and there is no delay in switching. Compared with direct switching, the total harmonic distortion rate of current during switching is reduced. The calculation of the phase angle compensation value of the reference voltage vector is not affected by the specific parameters and operating conditions of the motor, and can be carried out offline. Finally, experiments are carried out on a 7.5 kW induction motor fed by NPC three level inverter to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrical Machines Design and Control in Electric Vehicles)
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Article
E-Mobility and Batteries—A Business Case for Flexibility in the Arctic Region
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(3), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14030061 - 28 Feb 2023
Viewed by 719
Abstract
This paper provides a method for determining the economic incentives and limitations for a battery used for peak clipping, with the goal of finding an optimal mix between the battery’s power density and energy density. A ratio called the R-factor has been introduced, [...] Read more.
This paper provides a method for determining the economic incentives and limitations for a battery used for peak clipping, with the goal of finding an optimal mix between the battery’s power density and energy density. A ratio called the R-factor has been introduced, which helps determine the energy demand to curb the peak. The paper’s results embrace different investment scenarios showing what battery capacity can be expected, dependent on interest rates, payback time and potential savings in power tariffs due to curtailment. In addition, the paper introduces the “wrench and cut” concept, which can help improve the investment case for batteries by combining battery operations with standard demand response operations. In particular, the effect of using a limited form of demand response-based load deactivation together with a battery has been analyzed. The investigation provided raises a point that battery degradation must be taken into account to prevent the reduction of battery life and possibly the needed payback period. The ultimate target of the presented research refers to vehicle-to-grid/vehicle-to-building developments in the Arctic region, where a vehicle is considered a mobile battery and where flexibility can be delivered in a cost-efficient way. Full article
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Article
Battery Pack Prospects for Long-Haul Transport Trucks Considering Electrified Highways and Megawatt Charging
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(3), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14030060 - 28 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1063
Abstract
The economics of long haul trucking on both continuous and intermittent Electric Highways were evaluated from a technical perspective as alternatives to using conventional megawatt chargers. The study revealed complex and sensitive interplay between the various technical factors related to the vehicle, its [...] Read more.
The economics of long haul trucking on both continuous and intermittent Electric Highways were evaluated from a technical perspective as alternatives to using conventional megawatt chargers. The study revealed complex and sensitive interplay between the various technical factors related to the vehicle, its battery pack and the configuration and construction of the electrified highway. Key preliminary outcomes showed that a 250 kW highway power supply level allows a 36 tonne truck to drive continuously without requiring off-road recharging, and it can operate with a battery pack of about 50% of the size required for a truck only using megawatt charging. For now, while there is no overwhelming case in favour of any particular technology, the study serves to highlight the relevant factors impacting anticipated design criteria for the electrification of highways. Full article
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Article
A Game-Theoretic Approach to Solve Competition between Multi-Type Electric Vehicle Charging and Parking Facilities
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(3), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14030059 - 27 Feb 2023
Viewed by 958
Abstract
This paper investigates the competition problem between electric vehicle charging and parking desks for different owners using a non-cooperative Bertrand game. There is growing attention on electric vehicles from both policy makers and the public charging service provider, as well as the electric [...] Read more.
This paper investigates the competition problem between electric vehicle charging and parking desks for different owners using a non-cooperative Bertrand game. There is growing attention on electric vehicles from both policy makers and the public charging service provider, as well as the electric vehicle owners. The interaction between different entities forms a competition (game), especially between multi-type electric vehicle charging and parking facilities. Most of the existing studies on charging platforms are about the optimization of the charging platform scheduling strategy or the game relationship between charging platforms and EV users, but there is a lack of exploration on the revenue game between charging platforms. In this paper, the competitive interactions between different charging decks are studied and analyzed using a general game-theoretic framework, specifically the Nikaido–Isoda solution. In the pricing competition model, the pricing strategies of all players and physical constraints, such as distribution line capacity, are taken into consideration. Through the case studies, it is clearly indicated that the game played between different electric vehicle charging/parking decks will always converge to a Nash equilibrium point. Both charging service providers and customers could benefit from such an open and fully competitive energy service ecosystem, which enhances the overall social welfare. Full article
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Article
Coordinated Control of Unmanned Electric Formula Car
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(3), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14030058 - 24 Feb 2023
Viewed by 778
Abstract
The coordinated control method of Unmanned Electric Formula Racing (UEFC) was studied to improve the handling stability of UEFC. The UEFC’s mechanical structure, which is based on the driving system and transmission system, was designed. In accordance with mechanical structure of the designed [...] Read more.
The coordinated control method of Unmanned Electric Formula Racing (UEFC) was studied to improve the handling stability of UEFC. The UEFC’s mechanical structure, which is based on the driving system and transmission system, was designed. In accordance with mechanical structure of the designed racing car, a seven-degree of freedom mathematical model of the UEFC was established. In accordance with the built mathematical model of racing car, the lateral controller of racing car was designed by using a fuzzy neural network method. The longitudinal controller of the racing car was designed by using the method of incremental PID control, and the coordination controller of the racing car was designed by combining the lateral controller and the longitudinal controller so as to realize the lateral and longitudinal coordination control of the UEFC. The experimental results showed that the output parameters such as yaw rate, vehicle speed and heading angle were slightly different from the expected output. It was confirmed that the research method can enhance the handling stability of the UEFC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advance in Intelligent Vehicle)
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Article
An Energy Management Strategy for Hybrid Energy Storage System Based on Reinforcement Learning
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(3), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14030057 - 24 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1026
Abstract
Due to the continuous high traction power impact on the energy storage medium, it is easy to cause many safety risks during the driving process, such as triggering the aging mechanism, causing rapid deterioration of the battery performance during the driving process and [...] Read more.
Due to the continuous high traction power impact on the energy storage medium, it is easy to cause many safety risks during the driving process, such as triggering the aging mechanism, causing rapid deterioration of the battery performance during the driving process and even triggering thermal runaway. Hybrid energy storage is an effective way to solve this problem. The ultracapacitor is an energy storage device that has high power density, which can withstand high instantaneous currents and can be charged and discharged quickly. By combining batteries and ultracapacitors in a hybrid energy storage system, energy sources with different characteristics can be combined to take advantage of their respective strengths and increase the efficiency and lifetime of the system. The energy management strategy plays an important role in the performance of hybrid energy storage systems. Traditional optimization algorithms have difficulty improving the flexibility and practicality of applications. In this paper, an energy management strategy based on reinforcement learning is proposed. The results indicate that the proposed reinforcement method can effectively distribute the charging and discharging conditions of the power supply and maintain the SOC of the battery and, at the same time, meet the power demand of working conditions at the cost of less energy loss and effectively realize the goal of optimizing the overall efficiency and effective energy management strategy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lithium-Ion Batteries for Electric Vehicle)
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Review
Locating Charging Infrastructure for Shared Autonomous Electric Vehicles and for Vehicle-to-Grid Strategy: A Systematic Review and Research Agenda from an Energy and Mobility Perspective
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(3), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14030056 - 23 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 930
Abstract
A shared autonomous electric vehicle (SAEV) fleet and the vehicle-to-grid (V2G) strategy both have great potential to reduce GHG emissions. As these concepts have complementary value, they are even more promising combined. However, to the best of our knowledge, no research has yet [...] Read more.
A shared autonomous electric vehicle (SAEV) fleet and the vehicle-to-grid (V2G) strategy both have great potential to reduce GHG emissions. As these concepts have complementary value, they are even more promising combined. However, to the best of our knowledge, no research has yet been conducted on locating charging infrastructure for SAEVs with V2G feasibility. For this construction, the challenge lies in the fact that both mobility demand (mainly for SAEVs) and energy (for any installation of charging infrastructure) have a major influence on this problem. To find the optimal charging infrastructure (CI) allocation for SAEVs with V2G operations, both mobility requirements and grid constraints must be considered. In this paper, we find that optimization models are the most frequently used method to solve the CI allocation problem. We conduct separate examinations of the V2G and SAEVs location optimization models that have been formulated in the literature, for which objective functions are used, and which constraints are considered (with respect to mobility and the electric grid). We find that SAEV and V2G models have overlapping elements, but remain disjunct in their respective perspectives. CI allocation for SAEVs mainly takes mobility into account, but tends to ignore grid constraints or impacts. On the other hand, CI allocation for V2G focuses on the distribution network and the grid, forgetting about mobility demand. To take advantage of the SAEV-V2G potential, future research should combine mobility and grid aspects to find the optimal CI locations for SAEVs with V2G feasibility. Full article
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