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World Electr. Veh. J., Volume 14, Issue 1 (January 2023) – 25 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The development of autonomous battery electric vehicle concepts poses new challenges for the thermal management system. The computational power needed to enable autonomous vehicle operation results in high thermal loads. New interior designs with unconventional passenger arrangement and diverse use cases require changes to the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system. Possible solutions include modified cooling system topologies, HVAC systems with novel sensors and control strategies, thermal comfort simulations, and thermoelectric heat pumps. These measures were implemented in the thermal management system of the collaboration project UNICARagil and are discussed in this paper. In the project funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research of Germany (BMBF), four autonomous battery electric vehicles are developed and built. View this paper
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13 pages, 2184 KiB  
Article
Review on Smart Charging of Electric Vehicles via Market-Based Incentives, Grid-Friendly and Grid-Compatible Measures
by Doris Johnsen, Lars Ostendorf, Mischa Bechberger and Daniel Strommenger
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14010025 - 16 Jan 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3366
Abstract
Smart charging of electric vehicles is a promising concept for solving the current challenges faced by connecting mobility and electricity within the context of the ongoing sustainable energy transition. It allows cost savings for the expansion and operation of the power grid and [...] Read more.
Smart charging of electric vehicles is a promising concept for solving the current challenges faced by connecting mobility and electricity within the context of the ongoing sustainable energy transition. It allows cost savings for the expansion and operation of the power grid and a more efficient use of renewable energies. However, wide implementation of smart charging requires further work on technical and regulatory issues and further development of standards, especially an end-to-end consistency of the control signals. A fully automated process, as well as customisable services and flexible tariffs, would also facilitate wider market penetration. The novelty of this paper is the consensus of German pilot projects funded within the German programme “Elektro-Mobil” on the communication channel between all stakeholders for the use cases of smart charging based on market price incentives. Within this consensus, the projects have illustrated how specific standards can facilitate the communication between smart charging stakeholders, become a reality in the pilot projects and should be applied to further use cases in the low-voltage network. This consensus results in a white paper. On this basis, the adjustment of the standards can be made to ensure the consistency of the control signals from the beginning of the control process up to the end. In an advanced Edition, solutions for the prioritisation and orchestration of the different control signals could be designed. Full article
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20 pages, 2978 KiB  
Article
Fuel-Efficiency Improvement by Component-Size Optimization in Hybrid Electric Vehicles
by Swapnil Srivastava, Sanjay Kumar Maurya and Rajeev Kumar Chauhan
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14010024 - 15 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1656
Abstract
Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) play an important role in sustainable transportation systems. The component size of HEV plays a vital role in the fuel efficiency of vehicles. This paper presents a divided rectangle (DIRECT) method for component sizing of vehicles to ensure better [...] Read more.
Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) play an important role in sustainable transportation systems. The component size of HEV plays a vital role in the fuel efficiency of vehicles. This paper presents a divided rectangle (DIRECT) method for component sizing of vehicles to ensure better fuel efficiency and satisfying drivability. A state–space model was used to represent the design problem. A constraint multi-input multi-output optimization problem was solved by our DIRECT optimization algorithm. Efficacy of the algorithm was tested with standard drive cycles, including drive cycles for Indian urban and highway conditions representing various driving scenarios in the country. The simulation results illustrated the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. Full article
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19 pages, 4507 KiB  
Article
The Role of Attitude, Travel-Related, and Socioeconomic Characteristics in Modal Shift to Shared Autonomous Vehicles with Ride Sharing
by Mahsa Aboutorabi Kashani, Mohammadhossein Abbasi, Amir Reza Mamdoohi and Grzegorz Sierpiński
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14010023 - 14 Jan 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2547
Abstract
The integration of automation and shared mobility services would significantly affect transportation demand, especially mode choice. However, little is known about how attitudes, travel attributes, and demographic factors affect the modal shift to shared autonomous vehicles (SAVs). A stated preference survey was designed [...] Read more.
The integration of automation and shared mobility services would significantly affect transportation demand, especially mode choice. However, little is known about how attitudes, travel attributes, and demographic factors affect the modal shift to shared autonomous vehicles (SAVs). A stated preference survey was designed to determine the preferences of car and transit users in relation to a modal shift to SAVs. The binary logit models’ results revealed distinct behavior patterns and systematic heterogeneity among transit and private car users based on a representative sample of 607 individuals in 2021. The shifting behavior of both users is positively affected by attitudinal factors, including consumer innovativeness, perceived usefulness, sharing intention, and ecological awareness, while negatively affected by privacy concerns. In terms of travel-related attributes of SAVs, car users are eight times more sensitive to waiting times compared to transit users, who are three times more concerned with travel costs. Further, privacy concerns, the number of passengers sharing a trip, and the ratio of waiting time to travel time of SAVs were the major barriers to shifting the likelihood of car users’ behavior. In light of these findings, based on the likely effects of SAVs on shifting behavior, a number of practical implications are suggested for more effective policy making. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in World Electric Vehicle Journal in 2022)
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6 pages, 205 KiB  
Editorial
Acknowledgment to the Reviewers of World Electric Vehicle Journal in 2022
by WEVJ Editorial Office
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14010022 - 13 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1300
Abstract
High-quality academic publishing is built on rigorous peer review [...] Full article
12 pages, 2377 KiB  
Article
Optimal Mileage of Electric Vehicles Considering Range Anxiety and Charging Times
by Xiuhong He and Yingying Hu
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14010021 - 11 Jan 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2507
Abstract
This paper aims to find out the optimal mileage of battery electric vehicles (BEVs) by considering the trade-off between range anxiety and charging times, since frequent charging is a customary way to ease range anxiety for BEV drivers in practice, but declines the [...] Read more.
This paper aims to find out the optimal mileage of battery electric vehicles (BEVs) by considering the trade-off between range anxiety and charging times, since frequent charging is a customary way to ease range anxiety for BEV drivers in practice, but declines the life cycle of battery and increases the charging cost. We propose a power function to measure the range anxiety and then solve two types of optimal mileages. The results show that the increment of BEVs’ cruising range increases the optimal absolute mileage but decreases the optimal relative mileage, while the improvement of the driver’s tolerance to range anxiety increases both. It is concluded that improving the driver’s tolerance, such as by expanding charging infrastructures and raising drivers’ practical experience with BEVs, is more effective than the increment of BEVs’ cruising range. The findings help to understand the optimal mileage of EVs and provide recommendations on the design of BEVs’ cruising range. Full article
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17 pages, 3008 KiB  
Article
Fault Alarms and Power Performance in Hybrid Electric Vehicles Based on Hydraulic Technology
by Zhuan You
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14010020 - 10 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1315
Abstract
In order to improve the fault alarm effect on the power performance of hydraulic hybrid electric vehicles (HEV), this paper proposes a fault alarm method for hybrid electric vehicle power performance based on hydraulic technology, builds a hybrid electric vehicle power system model, [...] Read more.
In order to improve the fault alarm effect on the power performance of hydraulic hybrid electric vehicles (HEV), this paper proposes a fault alarm method for hybrid electric vehicle power performance based on hydraulic technology, builds a hybrid electric vehicle power system model, uses hydraulic technology to extract the characteristic signals of key components, uses support vector mechanisms to build a hybrid electric vehicle classifier, and obtains the fault alarm results for dynamic performance based on hydraulic technology. The results show that the proposed method can improve real-time diagnosis and alarm for engine faults in HEV, and the fault can be diagnosed after 5 s of injection, thus ensuring the dynamic stability of HEV. Full article
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13 pages, 10966 KiB  
Article
Regenerative Braking Strategy of Dual-Motor EV Considering Energy Recovery and Brake Stability
by Tonglie Wu, Feng Wang and Peng Ye
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14010019 - 9 Jan 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2617
Abstract
The dual-motor EV (Electric Vehicle) is increasingly favored by manufacturers for its excellent performance in terms of power and economy. How to further reduce its energy consumption and make full use of the dual-motor energy recovery is an important support to improve the [...] Read more.
The dual-motor EV (Electric Vehicle) is increasingly favored by manufacturers for its excellent performance in terms of power and economy. How to further reduce its energy consumption and make full use of the dual-motor energy recovery is an important support to improve the overall vehicle economy and realize the “dual carbon” strategy. For the dual-motor EV architecture, the motor model, power battery loss model and vehicle longitudinal braking force model are established and the energy recovery-dominated regenerative braking torque distribution (RBD) rule of the dual motors is designed. Based on genetic algorithm (GA) theory and taking into account SOC, vehicle speed and braking intensity, a regenerative-braking torque optimization method is proposed that integrates energy recovery and braking stability. The braking intensity of 0.3 and the initial vehicle speed of 90 km/h are selected for verification. Compared with the rule method, the energy recovery and stability are improved by 22.8% and 4.8%, respectively, under the genetic algorithm-based and energy recovery-dominated regenerative-braking torque distribution (GA-RBD) strategy. A variety of conditions are selected for further strategy validation and the result shows that compared with the rule-based method, both energy recovery and braking stability are improved as braking speed and braking intensity increase under the GA-RBD strategy. Full article
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17 pages, 2458 KiB  
Article
Profitability Evaluation of Vehicle-to-Grid-Enabled Frequency Containment Reserve Services into the Business Models of the Core Participants of Electric Vehicle Charging Business Ecosystem
by Andrei Goncearuc, Nikolaos Sapountzoglou, Cedric De Cauwer, Thierry Coosemans, Maarten Messagie and Thomas Crispeels
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14010018 - 6 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2630
Abstract
The current paper defines a framework for the introduction of frequency containment reserve (FCR) services, enabled by vehicle-to-grid (V2G) technology, into the business model of an entity owning and operating electric vehicle (EV) charging infrastructure. Moreover, the defined framework can also be extrapolated, [...] Read more.
The current paper defines a framework for the introduction of frequency containment reserve (FCR) services, enabled by vehicle-to-grid (V2G) technology, into the business model of an entity owning and operating electric vehicle (EV) charging infrastructure. Moreover, the defined framework can also be extrapolated, with minor adjustments, to the business models of different core participants of the EV charging business ecosystem. This study also investigates the financial factors impacted by this introduction, eventually evaluating its financial profitability under given assumptions and comparing it to the profitability of the traditional business model of an entity owning and operating a unidirectional EV charging infrastructure. The current research shows that offering additional V2G-enabled FCR services can be potentially more profitable than the existing unidirectional approach if the V2G technology reaches its maturity phase with mass market adoption and economies of scale. Full article
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17 pages, 5419 KiB  
Article
The Suppression of Modular Multi-Level Converter Circulation Based on the PIR Virtual Impedance Strategy
by Chun Wang, Wenxu Yan, Wenyuan Wang, Hongyu Ni and Jie Chu
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14010017 - 5 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1626
Abstract
In recent years, with the rise of the electric vehicle industry, there has been significant research on charging and power supply vehicle technologies for electric vehicles. In terms of the corresponding converter usage, modular multi-level converters (MMCs) are also increasingly used in the [...] Read more.
In recent years, with the rise of the electric vehicle industry, there has been significant research on charging and power supply vehicle technologies for electric vehicles. In terms of the corresponding converter usage, modular multi-level converters (MMCs) are also increasingly used in the field of electric vehicle power supply research because of their unique advantages. However, the circulating current problem of MMCs has not been effectively addressed in existing domestic and international studies. In this paper, we propose a proportional-integral resonant (PIR) control method combined with virtual impedance for the optimal suppression of the MMC internal circulating current problem based on the comparison and generalization of the existing methods. Based on the analysis of the working principle of MMCs, this paper proposes and adopts the control strategy of combining virtual impedance and proportional-integral resonance to suppress the circulating current and builds a simulation model in MATLAB to verify that the control strategy proposed in this paper is feasible. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Power Converters)
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15 pages, 3704 KiB  
Article
Research on Active Collision Avoidance and Hysteresis Reduction of Intelligent Vehicle Based on Multi-Agent Coordinated Control System
by Chaochun Yuan, Yongfeng Lin, Jie Shen, Long Chen, Yingfeng Cai, Youguo He, Shuofeng Weng, Xinkai Wu, Yuqi Yuan, Yuxuan Gong and Qiuye Yu
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14010016 - 5 Jan 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1935
Abstract
This paper provides a multi-agent coordinated control system to improve the real-time performance of intelligent vehicle active collision avoidance. At first, the functions and characteristics of longitudinal and lateral collision avoidance agents are analyzed, which are the main components of the multi-agent. Then, [...] Read more.
This paper provides a multi-agent coordinated control system to improve the real-time performance of intelligent vehicle active collision avoidance. At first, the functions and characteristics of longitudinal and lateral collision avoidance agents are analyzed, which are the main components of the multi-agent. Then, a coordinated solution mechanism of an intelligent vehicle collision avoidance system is established based on hierarchical control and blackboard model methods to provide a reasonable way to avoid collision in complex situations. The multi-agent coordinated control system can handle the conflict between the decisions of different agents according to the rules. Comparing with existing control strategies, the proposed system can realize multi decisions and planning at the same time; thus, it will reduce the operation time lag during active collision avoidance. Additionally, fuzzy sliding mode control theory is introduced to guarantee accurate path tracking in lateral collision avoidance. Finally, co-simulation of Carsim and Simulink are taken, and the results show that the real-time behavior of intelligent vehicle collision avoidance can be improved by 25% through the system proposed. Full article
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22 pages, 858 KiB  
Article
A Numerical Study of the Suitability of Phase-Change Materials for Battery Thermal Management in Flight Applications
by Daeyeun Kim, Saber Abdallahh, Gloria Bosi and Alastair Hales
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14010015 - 5 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1659
Abstract
Battery pack specific energy, which can be enhanced by minimising the mass of the battery thermal management system (BTMS), is a limit on electric fixed-wing flight applications. In this paper, the use of phase-change materials (PCMs) for BTMSs is numerically explored in the [...] Read more.
Battery pack specific energy, which can be enhanced by minimising the mass of the battery thermal management system (BTMS), is a limit on electric fixed-wing flight applications. In this paper, the use of phase-change materials (PCMs) for BTMSs is numerically explored in the 3D domain, including an equivalent circuit battery model. A parametric study of PCM properties for effective thermal management is conducted for a typical one-hour flight. PCMs maintain an ideal operating temperature (288.15 K–308.15 K) throughout the entire battery pack. The PCM absorbs heat generated during takeoff, which is subsequently used to maintain cell temperature during the cruise phase of flight. In the control case (no BTMS), battery pack temperatures fall below the ideal operating range. We conduct a parametric study highlighting the insignificance of PCM thermal conductivity on BTMS performance, with negligible enhancement observed across the tested window (0.1–10 W m−1 K−1). However, the PCM’s latent heat of fusion is critical. Developers of PCMs for battery-powered flight must focus on enhanced latent heat of fusion, regardless of the adverse effect on thermal conductivity. In long-haul flight, an elongated cruise phase and higher altitude exasperate this problem. The unique characteristics of PCM offer a passive low-mass solution that merits further investigation for flight applications. Full article
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12 pages, 1878 KiB  
Article
State of Health Estimation Method for Lithium-Ion Batteries via Generalized Additivity Model and Transfer Component Analysis
by Mingqiang Lin, Chenhao Yan and Xianping Zeng
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14010014 - 5 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2456
Abstract
Battery state of health (SOH) is a momentous indicator for aging severity recognition of lithium-ion batteries and is also an indispensable parameter of the battery management system. In this paper, an innovative SOH estimation algorithm based on feature transfer is proposed for lithium-ion [...] Read more.
Battery state of health (SOH) is a momentous indicator for aging severity recognition of lithium-ion batteries and is also an indispensable parameter of the battery management system. In this paper, an innovative SOH estimation algorithm based on feature transfer is proposed for lithium-ion batteries. Firstly, sequence features with battery aging information are sufficiently extracted based on the capacity increment curve. Secondly, transfer component analysis is employed to obtain the mapping that minimizes the data distribution difference between the training set and the test set in the shared feature space. Finally, the generalized additive model is investigated to estimate the battery health status. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is capable of forecasting the SOH for lithium-ion batteries, and the results are more outstanding than those of several comparison algorithms. The predictive error evaluation indicators for each battery are both less than 2.5%. In addition, satisfactory SOH estimation results can also be obtained by only relying on a small amount of data as the training set. The comparative experiments using traditional features and different machine learning methods also testify to the superiority of the proposed algorithm. Full article
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0 pages, 3610 KiB  
Article
Design and Application of the unIT-e2 Project Use Case Methodology
by Adrian Ostermann, Patrick Vollmuth and Valerie Ziemsky
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14010013 - 5 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1882
Abstract
The ramp-up of electromobility requires cross-industry holistic solutions. However, bringing together stakeholders from different branches holds challenges. One prerequisite for successful collaboration is a uniform understanding of roles, processes, and interfaces. Based on existing methods and experience from former projects, this paper describes [...] Read more.
The ramp-up of electromobility requires cross-industry holistic solutions. However, bringing together stakeholders from different branches holds challenges. One prerequisite for successful collaboration is a uniform understanding of roles, processes, and interfaces. Based on existing methods and experience from former projects, this paper describes a method for the systematic description of use cases for smart charging of electric vehicles. This method enables a uniform understanding of all actors involved and guarantees application-oriented usability. The unIT-e2 use case methodology consists of the business-use case level and the technical-use case level, which describe the use case in a structured layout. The method was applied in all so-called clusters of project unIT-e2. In total, we identify 25 higher-level business use cases and highlight similarities and differences between them. Further, this paper describes the business-use case regulatory-defined grid-serving flexibility in detail. Full article
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12 pages, 3850 KiB  
Article
Optimal Design of Fractional-Order Electrical Network for Vehicle Mechatronic ISD Suspension Using the Structure-Immittance Approach
by Jie Hua, Yujie Shen, Xiaofeng Yang, Ying Zhang and Yanling Liu
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14010012 - 4 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1552
Abstract
In order to more effectively design the structure of vehicle ISD (Inerter Spring Damper) suspension system using the inerter, this paper proposed a design method using a fractional-order electrical network structure of a mechatronic inerter for fractional-order electrical network components, according to the [...] Read more.
In order to more effectively design the structure of vehicle ISD (Inerter Spring Damper) suspension system using the inerter, this paper proposed a design method using a fractional-order electrical network structure of a mechatronic inerter for fractional-order electrical network components, according to the characteristics that the external electrical network of a mechatronic inerter can simulate the corresponding mechanical network structure equivalently. First, the 1/4 dynamic model of the suspension is constructed. The improved Oustaloup filtering algorithm is used to simulate fractional calculus, and the fractional order components are simulated. Then, the simulation model of the vehicle mechatronic ISD suspension is established. In order to simplify the electrical network, one resistance, one fractional inductance and one fractional capacitance are limited in the design of the fractional electrical network at the outer end of the mechatronic inerter. The structure-immittance approach is used to obtain two general layouts of all possible structures of three elements. At the same time, the optimal fractional electrical network structure and parameters are obtained by combining the optimization algorithm. The simulation results verify the performance of the fractional ISD suspension with the optimized structure, which can provide a new idea for the structural design of a fractional-order electrical network applied in vehicle mechatronic ISD suspension. Full article
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15 pages, 2255 KiB  
Article
Adaptive Robust Path Tracking Control for Autonomous Vehicles Considering Multi-Dimensional System Uncertainty
by Mengyuan Chen, Yue Ren and Minghui Ou
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14010011 - 2 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1706
Abstract
As the bottom layer of the autonomous vehicle, path tracking control is a crucial element that provides accurate control command to the X-by-wire chassis and guarantees the vehicle safety. To overcome the deterioration of control performance for autonomous vehicle path-tracking controllers caused by [...] Read more.
As the bottom layer of the autonomous vehicle, path tracking control is a crucial element that provides accurate control command to the X-by-wire chassis and guarantees the vehicle safety. To overcome the deterioration of control performance for autonomous vehicle path-tracking controllers caused by modeling errors and parameter perturbation, an adaptive robust control framework is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the 2-DOF vehicle dynamic model is established and the non-singular fast terminal sliding mode control algorithm is adopted to formulate the control law. The unmeasured model disturbance and parameter perturbation is regarded as the system uncertainty. To enhance the control accuracy, the radial basis forward neural network is introduced to estimate such uncertainty in real time. Then, the dynamic model of an active front steering system is established. The model reference control algorithm is applied for the steering torque control considering model uncertainty brought by the dissipation of manufacturing and mechanical wear. Finally, the Simulink–CarSim co-simulation platform is used and the proposed control framework is validated in two test scenarios. The simulation results demonstrate the proposed adaptive robust control algorithm has satisfactory control performance and good robustness against the system uncertainty. Full article
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3 pages, 1131 KiB  
Editorial
The Road to Green Mobility in Hong Kong
by Tiande Mo, Fengxiang Chen, Yu Li and Yang Luo
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14010010 - 1 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1613
Abstract
Green mobility is in high demand in the 21st century [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends and Emerging Technologies in Electric Vehicles)
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20 pages, 3673 KiB  
Article
Integrated DC/DC Converter Topology Study for Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicles with Two Energy Sources
by Weijin Xie, Wenguang Luo and Yongxin Qin
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14010009 - 29 Dec 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2190
Abstract
Conventional hybrid vehicles with two energy sources require two separate on-board DC/DC converters to connect the battery and the fuel cell, which have the disadvantages of large size, high cost, high losses and few applicable operating conditions. To address this situation, this paper [...] Read more.
Conventional hybrid vehicles with two energy sources require two separate on-board DC/DC converters to connect the battery and the fuel cell, which have the disadvantages of large size, high cost, high losses and few applicable operating conditions. To address this situation, this paper proposes an optimized on-board integrated DC/DC converter with a non-isolated multi-port scheme that integrates a unidirectional port for the fuel cell and a bidirectional port for the battery and load. This can achieve a combined energy supply and recovery with a single integrated converter, effectively overcoming the above disadvantages. The optimized converter topology is relatively simple, and the magnetic losses of the transformer are removed. Furthermore, the switched capacitor is introduced as a voltage doubling unit to achieve high-gain output, so the fuel cell and battery voltage demand levels are reduced under the same load conditions. In addition, it has superior performance in system energy management for hybrid vehicles, which can distribute power and switch operating states by controlling the on/off of switching devices to make it suitable for five driving conditions. This paper discusses in detail the operating principles of the converter and analyzes its steady-state performance under five operating modes, derives its dynamic model, and proposes a proportional-integral control scheme. Finally, the simulation model of the topology is built by Matlab/Simulink software to verify the converter operation in each driving state, and the simulation experimental results verify the applicability of the proposed integrated DC/DC converter topology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Power Electronics for Electric Vehicles)
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18 pages, 7951 KiB  
Article
State of Charge Estimation for Power Battery Base on Improved Particle Filter
by Xingtao Liu, Xiaojie Fan, Li Wang and Ji Wu
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14010008 - 28 Dec 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2058
Abstract
In this paper, an improved particle filter (Improved Particle Swarm Optimized Particle Filter, IPSO-PF) algorithm is proposed to estimate the state of charge (SOC) of lithium-ion batteries. It solves the problem of inaccurate posterior estimation due to particle degradation. The algorithm divides the [...] Read more.
In this paper, an improved particle filter (Improved Particle Swarm Optimized Particle Filter, IPSO-PF) algorithm is proposed to estimate the state of charge (SOC) of lithium-ion batteries. It solves the problem of inaccurate posterior estimation due to particle degradation. The algorithm divides the particle population into three parts and designs different updating methods to realize self-variation and mutual learning of particles, which effectively promotes global development and avoids falling into local optimum. Firstly, a second-order RC equivalent circuit model is established. Secondly, the model parameters are identified by the particle swarm optimization algorithm. Finally, the proposed algorithm is verified under four different driving conditions. The results show that the root mean square error (RMSE) of the proposed algorithm is within 0.4% under different driving conditions, and the maximum error (ME) is less than 1%, showing good generalization. Compared with the EKF, PF, and PSO-PF algorithms, the IPSO-PF algorithm significantly improves the estimation accuracy of SOC, which verifies the superiority of the proposed algorithm. Full article
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17 pages, 7484 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Interleaved Boost Converter and Two-Phase Boost Converter Characteristics for Three-Level Inverters
by Eiichi Sakasegawa, Rin Chishiki, Rintarou Sedutsu, Takumi Soeda, Hitoshi Haga and Ralph Mario Kennel
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14010007 - 28 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2576
Abstract
A boost converter is used in various applications to obtain a higher voltage than the input voltage. One of the current main circuit systems for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) is a combination of a two-phase boost converter (parallel circuit) and a three-phase two-level [...] Read more.
A boost converter is used in various applications to obtain a higher voltage than the input voltage. One of the current main circuit systems for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) is a combination of a two-phase boost converter (parallel circuit) and a three-phase two-level inverter. In this study, we focus on the boost converter to achieve even higher efficiency and propose an interleaving scheme for a boost converter suitable for a three-level inverter (series circuit). The series circuit has two capacitors connected in series and makes it suitable as a power supply for a three-level inverter. We analyze the input current ripple of the series and parallel circuit in order to show the superiority of the series circuit. Furthermore, we propose a novel output voltage control strategy using an optimal regulator, namely a Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR), for the series circuit. As a result, we found the input current ripple of the series circuit is smaller than the parallel circuit and demonstrated the superiority of the series circuit. The simulation and experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed interleaving scheme and optimal regulator. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Power Converters and Electric Motor Drives)
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20 pages, 3829 KiB  
Article
Thermal Management System of the UNICARagil Vehicles—A Comprehensive Overview
by Daniel Gehringer, Timo Kuthada and Andreas Wagner
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14010006 - 28 Dec 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2785
Abstract
The collaboration project UNICARagil aiming to develop new autonomous battery electric vehicle concepts has progressed and the four vehicle prototypes have been built up. All seven universities and six industrial partners have worked towards this milestone. At the time of writing the four [...] Read more.
The collaboration project UNICARagil aiming to develop new autonomous battery electric vehicle concepts has progressed and the four vehicle prototypes have been built up. All seven universities and six industrial partners have worked towards this milestone. At the time of writing the four vehicles are operational and can be driven by a safety driver using a sidestick. The automated driving functions are being applied on the test track and first demonstrations are carried out. This paper gives an overview of the results, which have been achieved within the work package of the thermal onboard network. The thermal management system including the heating, ventilation and air conditioning system and its development process is explained in detail. Furthermore, climate chamber measurements with prototype hardware of a sensor data processing computer and the integration of the air conditioning control unit into the vehicle’s automotive service-oriented architecture framework are described. A coupled simulation approach to predict occupant thermal comfort in one vehicle variant is presented. Simulation results using environmental conditions typical for a European summer show a comfortable environment for all six occupants. In addition, the simulation and development process of a thermoelectric heat pump is shown. First measurement results with the heat pump on a test bench are highlighted which show an achievable coefficient of performance greater than two. Full article
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16 pages, 5212 KiB  
Article
Development of a Personnel Management and Position and Energy Tracking System for Electric Vehicles
by Olugbenga Kayode Ogidan, Celestine Aghaukwu, Oluwagbotemi Oluwapelumi, Success Jeremiah, Edesemi Adokeme and Omowunmi Mary Longe
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14010005 - 25 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1777
Abstract
The challenges faced by managers of transportation systems in developing nations such as Nigeria are numerous. These include driver scheduling, which, in many cases, is still being done manually; diversion of vehicles to unauthorized routes by drivers for selfish reasons results in illegal [...] Read more.
The challenges faced by managers of transportation systems in developing nations such as Nigeria are numerous. These include driver scheduling, which, in many cases, is still being done manually; diversion of vehicles to unauthorized routes by drivers for selfish reasons results in illegal use of fuel meant for official duties, causing the organization lose considerable revenue. In its drive to reduce its carbon footprint, Elizade University, Nigeria, is embarking on the development and use of electric vehicles (EV) as a means of transportation within the university campus. This research is geared towards supporting this initiative by developing an EV tracking system that combines tracking of EV drivers with vehicle position and battery power (energy) tracking in order to mitigate the challenges outlined above. Personnel tracking was achieved using an RFID-enabled staff identity card that authenticates authorized drivers before activating the vehicle ignition system, position tracking was achieved using a geographical positioning system (GPS), and current and voltage sensors were used for tracking of electric vehicle power. Tests revealed that the EV system administrator operated through a personal computer was able to track the EV driver, position and power through a web interface/Google Maps and e-mail in real time. Whereas previous studies either considered tracking of vehicle position or power without personnel, others tracked personnel with less emphasis on the vehicle position or energy. In this study, we combined different technologies such as RFID, GPS and power sensors to consider EV administration in a holistic manner, thereby providing intervention in an infrastructurally deficient setting. Full article
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21 pages, 7577 KiB  
Article
Design Optimization of a New Hybrid Excitation Drive Motor for New Energy Vehicles
by Shilong Yan, Xueyi Zhang, Zhidong Gao, Aichuan Wang, Yufeng Zhang, Mingjun Xu and Sizhan Hua
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14010004 - 23 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1573
Abstract
In this paper, a new hybrid excitation drive motor (HEDM) was proposed to solve the problem of an uncontrollable magnetic field of a permanent magnet motor. The rotor part of the motor was composed of a combined magnetic pole permanent magnet rotor and [...] Read more.
In this paper, a new hybrid excitation drive motor (HEDM) was proposed to solve the problem of an uncontrollable magnetic field of a permanent magnet motor. The rotor part of the motor was composed of a combined magnetic pole permanent magnet rotor and a brushless electric claw rotor, in which the combined magnetic pole permanent magnet rotor has a parallel magnetic circuit structure. According to the characteristics of the parallel rotor structure, the equivalent magnetic circuit model was established, and the no-load leakage flux coefficient of the claw pole rotor was calculated. The Taguchi method was used for objective optimization of the permanent magnet rotor structure. The distortion rate of no-load back electromotive force (EMF) was taken as the first optimization goal; the cogging torque and the average torque were taken as the second optimization goal; and the torque fluctuation coefficient was a constraint condition. The optimal parameter matching under the mixed horizontal matrix was obtained. The parameters of the claw pole were optimized by using the method of uniform variables, and the dimension parameters of the motor were obtained. Finite element analysis and prototype tests were carried out for the optimized motor structure. The rationality and feasibility of the new HEDM as a vehicle motor were verified, which provided a possibility for the application of the new energy vehicle drive motor field. Full article
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24 pages, 6631 KiB  
Review
Research on the Application and Control Strategy of Energy Storage in Rail Transportation
by Dixi Xin, Jianlin Li and Chang’an Liu
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14010003 - 23 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1785
Abstract
With the development of the global economy and the increase in environmental awareness, energy technology in transportation, especially the application of energy storage technology in rail transportation, has become a key area of research. Rail transportation systems are characterized by high energy consumption [...] Read more.
With the development of the global economy and the increase in environmental awareness, energy technology in transportation, especially the application of energy storage technology in rail transportation, has become a key area of research. Rail transportation systems are characterized by high energy consumption and poor power quality due to the more flexible regulation capability of energy storage technology in these aspects. This paper summarizes the latest research results on energy storage in rail transportation systems, matches the characteristics of energy storage technologies with the energy storage needs of rail transportation, and analyzes the operation of energy storage systems in different scenarios. The adaptability of batteries, supercapacitors, and flywheels as energy storage systems for rail transportation is summarized and compared. The topologies and integration methods of various energy storage systems are studied. The control strategies under each control of rail transportation are summarized and proposed. The future development direction of energy storage system for rail transportation prospects and the corresponding reference is provided for the engineering of energy storage technology in the field of rail transportation. Full article
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14 pages, 5051 KiB  
Article
Current Control Method of Vehicle Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Based on Active Disturbance Rejection Control
by Jinyu Wang, Qiang Miao, Xiaomin Zhou, Lipeng Sun, Dawei Gao and Haifeng Lu
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14010002 - 23 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2035
Abstract
Due to the frequently changing working conditions and complex operating environment of electric vehicle permanent magnet synchronous motor(PMSM), the motor parameters change dramatically. However, the performance of the PI current regulator, which is the most widely used, is sensitive to motor parameters and [...] Read more.
Due to the frequently changing working conditions and complex operating environment of electric vehicle permanent magnet synchronous motor(PMSM), the motor parameters change dramatically. However, the performance of the PI current regulator, which is the most widely used, is sensitive to motor parameters and has weak robustness, which will lead to the deterioration of motor control system performance. To address this problem, active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) technology is applied to the PMSM current loop control. Firstly, the traditional ADRC current regulator is designed, and the performance and parameter tuning laws of the extended state observer are analyzed by the method of frequency domain analysis. Then, the traditional ADRC algorithm is improved in three aspects: observation error compensation, utilization of model information and anti-windup. After that, simulations and bench test validation are performed. The simulation results show that the improved ADRC current regulator is more robust in the face of parameter changes. The torque step test results show that the improved ADRC current regulator has fast dynamic response without overshoot and has high robustness when the motor parameters change. The dynamic test results show that the improved ADRC current regulator has high robustness when the load, speed and motor parameters change, and the anti-windup measures designed can effectively overcome the integral saturation phenomenon. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Electric Motor Drives for Electrified Mobility)
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12 pages, 7557 KiB  
Article
A Discontinuous Modulation Method with Variable Clamping Interval Width of the Modular Multilevel Converter
by Xin Gu, Langang Ma, Guozheng Zhang and Xuefeng Jin
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14010001 - 22 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1282
Abstract
The modular multilevel converter (MMC) has been widely used because of the advantages of easier expansion, lower harmonic distortion and higher output voltage level. If the MMC is adapted to high voltage application, more submodules need to be connected in series in each [...] Read more.
The modular multilevel converter (MMC) has been widely used because of the advantages of easier expansion, lower harmonic distortion and higher output voltage level. If the MMC is adapted to high voltage application, more submodules need to be connected in series in each arm. Thus, the switching loss needs to be considered a key issue. A discontinuous modulation method with variable clamping interval width is proposed in this paper in order to reduce the switching loss under variable power factor conditions. Different widths of the clamping interval can be selected according to the requirements of the system. Meanwhile, the capacitor voltage ripple of the submodules can also be reduced. The feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed modulation method are verified under a RT-LAB rapid control prototype based MMC system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrical Machines Design and Control in Electric Vehicles)
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