Nineteen CVA9 isolates were obtained between 2010 and 2019 from six provinces of mainland China, using the HFMD surveillance network established in China. Nucleotide sequencing revealed that the full-length VP1 of 19 CVA9 isolates was 906 bases encoding 302 amino acids. The combination
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Nineteen CVA9 isolates were obtained between 2010 and 2019 from six provinces of mainland China, using the HFMD surveillance network established in China. Nucleotide sequencing revealed that the full-length VP1 of 19 CVA9 isolates was 906 bases encoding 302 amino acids. The combination of the thresholds of the phylogenetic tree and nucleotide divergence of different genotypes within the same serotype led to a value of 15–25%, and enabled CVA9 worldwide to be categorized into ten genotypes: A–J. The phylogenetic tree showed that the prototype strain was included in genotype A, and that the B, C, D, E, H, and J genotypes disappeared during virus evolution, whereas the F, I, and G genotypes showed co-circulation. Lineage G was the dominant genotype of CVA9 and included most of the strains from nine countries in Asia, North America, Oceania, and Europe. Most Chinese strains belonged to the G genotype, suggesting that the molecular epidemiology of China is consistent with that observed worldwide. The 165 partial VP1 strains (723 nt) showed a mean substitution rate of 3.27 × 10−3
substitution/site/year (95% HPD range 2.93–3.6 × 10−3
), dating the tMRCA of CVA9 back to approximately 1922 (1911–1932). The spatiotemporal dynamics of CVA9 showed the spread of CVA9 obviously increased in recent years. Most CVA9 isolates originated in USA, but the epidemic areas of CVA9 are now concentrated in the Asia–Pacific region, European countries, and North America. Recombination analysis within the enterovirus B specie (59 serotypes) revealed eight recombination patterns in China at present, CVB4, CVB5, E30, CVB2, E11, HEV106, HEV85, and HEV75. E14, and E6 may act as recombinant donors in multiple regions. Comparison of temperature sensitivity revealed that temperature-insensitive strains have more amino acid substitutions in the RGD motif of the VP1 region, and the sites T283S, V284M, and R288K in the VP1 region may be related to the temperature tolerance of CVA9.