# Analysis of Soil–Water Characteristics and Stability Evolution of Rainfall-Induced Landslide: A Case of the Siwan Village Landslide

^{1}

^{2}

^{3}

^{*}

## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Materials

#### 2.1. Landslide Events and Disaster-Causing Conditions

#### 2.1.1. Overview of the Landslide Events

#### 2.1.2. Conditioning and Triggering Factors

- Topography and Landform

^{2}. The original topography of the landslide area is a “saucer” type of negative landform, which is the primary channel for runoff and the discharge of the upper slope catchment. The upper part of the slope is relatively steep with a slope angle of 30–60°, while the lower part is relatively gentle with a slope angle of 10–20°. The rock–soil interface is the transfixion structural surface controlling the stability of the steep slope. Regarding space, it has good space conditions and gravity potential energy reserves, which provide a favorable landform and slip space for the formation and development of landslides.

- 2.
- Geological conditions

- 3.
- Meteorology and hydrology

#### 2.2. Characteristics and Failure Mechanism of Landslide Events

#### 2.2.1. Characteristics of Landslide Deformation and Failure

^{4}m

^{3}. The sliding body is tongue-shaped, the sliding direction is the same as the slope direction, about 150°, the sliding distance is about 20 m, and the sliding surface is the soft surface inside the soil layer. The sliding zone is still unstable, the creep process is continuing, and the trailing edge slope of the sliding zone is potentially sliding.

^{3}. The sliding direction is 125°, which is consistent with the slope direction of the original landform. The landslide slides along the soil–rock contact surface, and the angles of the slide surface area are between 30 ° and 50°. Under gravity, many high-sliding bodies slide at high speed, and the overburden of the lower slope body and the “7.31” landslide accumulated body slide along the rock–soil interface together. The topography controls the sliding direction; the sliding direction changes from 125° to 150–170° (the original slope direction), pushing the leading-edge soil to slide continuously. A fan-shaped accumulated body was formed at the foot of the slope, and a small amount of sliding body crossed the channel and blocked the front channel, forming a barrier lake locally. The total volume of the Siwan village landslide is about 11.7 × 10

^{4}m

^{3}. It is about 1.0 × 10

^{4}m

^{3}at the trailing edge and both sides of the landslide. The loose soil is in an under-unstable state.

#### 2.2.2. Analysis of Deformation and Failure Mechanism

## 3. Methodology

#### 3.1. SWCC and HCF

_{s}is the saturated water content, and θ

_{r}is the residual water content. Θ is the adequate saturation, α is the reciprocal of the intake pressure, and n is the aperture distribution parameter, m = 1−1/n. K

_{s}is the saturated water conductivity, K

_{r}is the relative hydraulic conductivity function, K is the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity function about Θ, and q is the empirical parameter of pore connectivity, usually assumed to be 0.5. The function F specified is a nonlinear function of soil moisture content (θ) used to describe the flow characteristics of water within the pores of soil.

#### 3.2. Seepage

_{r}—constants related to matrix suction corresponding to residual water content, θ

_{w}—volumetric water content, θ

_{s}—saturated volumetric water content, k

_{w}—Conductivity, k

_{s}—saturated conductivity, y—virtual integral variable, ${\theta}^{\prime}$—the first derivative of volumetric water content.

#### 3.3. Stability

_{L}and X

_{R}refer to the left and right regular forces of the strip respectively, and $f(x)$ is the interstrip force function; λ is the weight of interbar force function, ${c}^{\prime}$ is the effective cohesive force, ${\varphi}^{\prime}$ is the effective friction angle, ${u}_{\mathrm{w}}$ is the pore water pressure; ${u}_{\mathrm{a}}$ is pore gas pressure, ${\theta}_{\mathrm{w}}$ is volumetric water content, ${\theta}_{\mathrm{s}}$ is the saturated volumetric water content, ${\theta}_{\mathrm{r}}$ is the residual volumetric water content, S

_{m}is the sliding shear force acting on the bottom of each block, N is the normal force at the bottom of inter-strip soil, ${\sigma}_{n}$ is the everyday stress on the shear surface, W is the dead weight of soil strip, D is the load at the concentration point, and F is equal to the stability coefficient F

_{m}of the moment equilibrium or F

_{f}of force equilibrium, β is the length of the bottom surface of the strip, R is the radius of the arc sliding surface, x is the horizontal distance from the center line of each block to the center of rotation or torque, F is the distance from the normal force to the center of rotation, D is the vertical distance between the point load and the center of rotation or torque, α is the angle between the center tangent of the bottom surface of the strip and the horizontal surface, and ω is the angle between point load and horizontal surface.

## 4. Results

#### 4.1. Soil–Water Characteristics

#### 4.1.1. TRIM Experiment

#### 4.1.2. Analysis of SWCC and HCF

- (1)
- The matrix suction changes nonlinearly and reversely with the change of volumetric water content, and the change amplitude decreases with the increase of volumetric water content. The higher the water content is, the lesser the matrix suction, which leads to the decline of shear performance. In the case of the same volume of water content (for example, the water content of the natural state section marked 0.24 in the figure), the matric suction of the sliding zone is large, so the shear resistance of the sliding zone is vital. This is why the sliding body slides first with rainfall infiltration;
- (2)
- The hydraulic conductivity has a nonlinear positive change with the change of the volumetric water content, and it decreases with the increase of the volumetric water content. The change of the middle section (natural water content) is rapid. The hydraulic conductivity of both the sliding zone and the sliding body is the maximum in the dehumidification process, but the sliding body has a significant hydraulic conductivity. The extreme value is 0.43 m/d, while the extreme value of the sliding zone is 0.03 m/d. Therefore, the slip body has good permeability, which is caused by the rapid infiltration and seepage of rainwater;
- (3)
- The residual volumetric water content of dehumidification and hygroscopic sliding soil is 0.15, while the extreme value of saturated volumetric water content is 0.42. The residual volumetric water content of dehumidification and hygroscopic sliding soil is 0.098, while the extreme value of saturated volumetric water content is 0.39. The results indicate that the sliding body is saturated before the sliding zone, the shear resistance decreases first, and a landslide quickly occurs.

#### 4.2. Landslide Stability Evolution

#### 4.2.1. Parameters and Numerical Model

#### 4.2.2. Evolution Laws of Landslide Stability

- (1)
- At the early stage of rainfall, the unsaturated degree of soil on the shallow surface of the landslide was high, and the infiltration capacity and water retention capacity of the soil are strong. The rainfall intensity was less than the infiltration capacity of the landslide soil, and all the rainwater was infiltrated. As the rainfall continued, the water content of the soil gradually increased, and the infiltration capacity and water retention capacity of the soil gradually decreased. This reduced the water content and pore water pressure. Therefore, the stability coefficient of the soil body decreased to a small extent;
- (2)
- At the mid-period of the rainfall, the stability coefficient rose temporarily due to the release of sliding stress in the early stage, but with the continuous rainfall, the front, middle, and trailing edge of the soil were saturated; the pore pressure increased, and the soil bubble in the water led to a downward trend of stability coefficient again. When the rain stopped, the soil water in the front edge penetrated the river channel, the pore water in the trailing edge penetrated the soil, and the pore pressure and shear strength of the trailing edge decreased, resulting in shear creep. When rainfall causes soil supersaturation, slope erosion increases, and soil is most prone to landslides;
- (3)
- In the late rainfall period, the soil’s pore water was distributed at the front edge, the trailing edge was in a less stable state, and the shear strength and sliding resistance were reduced. When there was heavy rainfall in the later period, the weight of the soil front increased, and the sliding force increased under the limit equilibrium; however, the anti-sliding force decreased, the soil could not be balanced, and there was a mutation of shear displacement.

## 5. Discussion

## 6. Conclusions

- Siwan village landslide is in an understandable state under natural conditions, with its deformation primarily concentrated in the front part of the sliding body, and closely tied to the intensity of rainfall. The deformation of the first initial tension-cracks landslide exacerbates the subsequent loose landslide;
- During heavy rainfall, the stability of a landslide can suddenly decreases as the soil in the sliding zone becomes soaked and softened continuously. The infiltration of heavy rainfall through the cracks can also further damage the stability of the landslide. Therefore, it is essential to conduct a thorough investigation of the surface tension cracks of the landslide and implement appropriate sealing measures;
- There is an inherent hysteretic relationship between rainfall and stability coefficients, as demonstrated by experiments which show that the reduction in landslide stability coefficients is most significant after rainfall. Studying the hysteretic phenomenon of landslides is thus crucial and plays a vital role in the early warning systems for landslides;
- Numerical simulation based on the soil–water characteristics test results shows better agreement with the stability of the actual rainfall-induced landslide evolution than empirical soil–water characteristics obtained by the FX model. This highlights the importance of accurately reflecting the hysteretic effect on stability, which cannot be achieved through empirical soil–water characteristics alone.

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Institutional Review Board Statement

## Informed Consent Statement

## Data Availability Statement

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

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**Figure 2.**Remote sensing image of the landslide and surrounding damage (a UAV image is shown at the top-left).

**Figure 9.**Soil–water characteristic curve and hydraulic conductivity function: (

**a**) sliding body, (

**b**) sliding zone.

**Figure 11.**Nephogram showing the evolution of pore water pressure accompanied by rainfall. (

**a**) 2019-7-18 (

**b**) 2019-7-24 (

**c**) 2019-7-30 (

**d**) 2019-8-5 (

**e**) 2019-8-11 (

**f**) 2019-8-14.

**Figure 12.**Landslide stability evolution curve of the 2-2 profile under rainfall conditions: (

**a**) the first slide, (

**b**) the second slide.

Clay plate | 130 mm diameter | The thickness of 7.14 mm | Air intake value 500 kPa |

Balance | Measuring range ± 200 g | Precision is 0.01 g | |

The size of the cutting ring | R = 5 cm and h = 2 cm |

Natura Moisture Content % | Natural Density kN/m^{3} | Saturated Density kN/m ^{3} | Porosity % | Liquid Limit % | Plastic Limit % | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Sliding zone | 23.92 | 19.3 | 19.6 | 42.85 | 32.15 | 18.93 |

Sliding body | 15.1 | 20.00 | 20.50 | 27.66 | 25.5 | 18.2 |

**Table 3.**The operation flow of unsaturated soil transient in dehumidification and hygroscopic systems.

The system of saturated | The clay plate, water storage area under the clay plate, gas collection cylinder, pipeline, and attached rubber hose should be saturated. Apply a certain amount of pressure and wait for the water to drain slowly into the collection bottle. |

Water filling | Open the two valves of the pressure chamber; the water level of the liquid collecting bottle is higher than that of the gas collecting bottle, adjust the flushing valve to fill with water, and close the vent and flushing valve after filling with water. |

Sample saturated | Place the specimen directly into the pressure chamber. Applying a vacuum at the top of the pressure chamber allows the water flow to enter the specimen through the clay plate. |

Take off the wet | The pressure of 2 kPa (3 h) is first applied, and the water discharged at this stage is not counted. An additional pressure of 15 kPa (24 h) is applied, and the phase changes from saturated to unsaturated. Finally, 290 kPa pressure was applied to reach a stable state, and the Dehumidification process was completed. |

Hygroscopic | After the line is saturated, the pressure is set to 0. Under a particular head of water, it flows into the pressure chamber through the clay plate and gradually wets the soil. |

**Table 4.**Fredlund and Xing and Van Genuchten—Mualem model parameters of the Siwan Village landslide.

Part | a (kPa) | n | m | Mv (kPa) | Ksat (m/d) | Sat.WC (%) | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

FX model | Sliding body | 8 | 6.6 | 0.8 | 1 × 10^{−51} | 0.43 | 38.6 |

Sliding zone | 800 | 0.3 | 0.5 | 1 × 10^{−51} | 0.03 | 41.6 | |

VGM model | Sliding body | 5.6 | 3.5 | 0.7 | 1 × 10^{−51} | 0.43 | 39 |

Sliding zone | 12.5 | 1.95 | 0.5 | 1 × 10^{−51} | 0.03 | 42 |

**Table 5.**Physical and mechanical parameters of rock and soil mass in the Siwan village landslide of Profile 2-2.

Landslide Area | Bulk Density Gamma (kN/m^{3}) | Effective Cohesive Force of c’ (kPa) | Internal Friction Angle φ (°) |
---|---|---|---|

Sliding body (gravel soil) | 20.0 | 18.40 | 25.80 |

Sliding zone (silty clay) | 19.3 | 23.01 | 13.60 |

Sliding bed (sandstone) | 27.1 | 2949.00 | 41.84 |

Sliding bed (carbonaceous shale) | 26.3 | 1143.00 | 37.17 |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Wen, H.; Xiao, J.; Wang, X.; Xiang, X.; Zhou, X.
Analysis of Soil–Water Characteristics and Stability Evolution of Rainfall-Induced Landslide: A Case of the Siwan Village Landslide. *Forests* **2023**, *14*, 808.
https://doi.org/10.3390/f14040808

**AMA Style**

Wen H, Xiao J, Wang X, Xiang X, Zhou X.
Analysis of Soil–Water Characteristics and Stability Evolution of Rainfall-Induced Landslide: A Case of the Siwan Village Landslide. *Forests*. 2023; 14(4):808.
https://doi.org/10.3390/f14040808

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Wen, Haijia, Jiafeng Xiao, Xiongfeng Wang, Xuekun Xiang, and Xinzhi Zhou.
2023. "Analysis of Soil–Water Characteristics and Stability Evolution of Rainfall-Induced Landslide: A Case of the Siwan Village Landslide" *Forests* 14, no. 4: 808.
https://doi.org/10.3390/f14040808