Prediction of the Bending Strength of a Composite Steel Beam–Slab Member Filled with Recycled Concrete
2. Experimental Work
2.1. Specimens Preparation
2.2. Material Properties
2.3. Test Setup
3. Discussion of Test Results
3.1. Typical Failure Mode
3.2. Bending Behavior and Strength
3.3. Relationships of the Moment vs. Longitudinal Strain
3.4. Ductility Index
4. Theoretical Model Development
- This model is limited to the concrete-filled composite CBPDS specimens prepared with rectangular steel tube beams and PSS deck slabs covered with dry board (DB) sheet subjected to static bending loads.
- The concrete cores achieved full interaction with the steel tube beams and PSS deck slabs, as no slip failures were recorded for the tested specimens (see Section 3.1).
- The steel tube beams achieved full interaction with the PSS slabs, as no horizontal/vertical separations were recorded for the tested specimens (see Section 3.1).
- The effects of C-Purlins lips were ignored.
- The effects of the infill concrete section below the NA was ignored, as it was subjected to tension stress and faced cracking failure .
- As both the steel tube beam and PSS slab are slender sections, a pure elastic behavior has been assumed for these sections, which is limited to fy-CB at the C-Purlins’ bottom flange (maximum tension stress) , as the tensile strain values shown in Figure 14 (SG5). Furthermore, the PSSs’ top flange (maximum compression stress) is limited to the buckling stress (fs-pss), as it has not reached the yield limit (see SG2 in Figure 14). Thus, the stress value of fs-pss is estimated via liner interpolation with the value of fy-CB.
- A lower compression stress equal to 0.8fcu and 0.8fu-DB is adopted for the concrete-filled PSS slab and DB sheet, respectively, as no crush failures were recorded for these two sections until the end of specimen tests (as previously discussed in Section 3.1 and shown in Figure 9).
- To simplify this model, the position of NA (yn) is assumed to be located at the beam–slab connection level (connection level of C-Purlins with PSS), as previously discussed in Section 3.3, based on the readings of strain gauge SG3, as highlighted in Figure 14.
- Lastly, for design purposes, reduction factors (Ø) equal to 0.8 and 0.7 are suggested for predicting the Mn values of CBPDS specimens with double face-to-face C-Purlins beam and double separate beams, respectively.
|FCB-flange||= fy-CB . A CB-flange||= fy-CB . (tCB . WCB)||(only the bottom flange area)|
|FCB-web||= fy-CB . A CB-wed||= fy-CB . (2 . tCB . DCB) . 0.5|
|FPSS||= fs-pss. A PSS||= (fy-CB/DCB .DPSS) . A PSS (excluded the bottom flanges area)|
|Fcon||= 0.8fcu . A con||= 0.8fcu . (3. (Wpss-t + Wpss-b)/2 . DPSS) . 0.5|
|FDB||= 0.8fu-DB . A DB||= 0.8fu-DB . (beff .tDB)|
|YCB-flange||= the distance of FCB-flange from the N.A||= DCB − 1/2.tCB|
|YCB-web||= the distance of FCB-web from the N.A||= 2/3.DCB|
|YPSS||= the distance of FPSS from the N.A||= 2/3.DPSS|
|Ycon||= the distance of Fcon from the N.A||= 2/3.DPSS|
|YDB||= the distance of FDB from the N.A||= DPSS + 1/2.tDB|
|Ø||= 0.8 for CBPDS specimens (double face-to-face C-purlins beam)|
|0.7 for CBPDS specimens (double separate C-purlins beam)|
- Filling CBPDS specimens with infill material containing 50% and 100% of recycled aggregate had little effect on their flexural behavior. Thus, using a combination of different recycled aggregates (EPS, CCA, CRA, and FGA) in the specimens’ concrete cores achieved a sufficient contribution, by reducing their self-weight approximately 15–18% and using less raw aggregate, which was considered an environmental improvement.
- Increasing the recycled aggregate content of the CBPDS specimens’ concrete materials to 50% and 100% reduced their ultimate bending strength by approximately 7–11% compared to the control specimen, due to reductions in their concrete compressive strengths. However, the specimen beams with double separate C-Purlins sections had slightly lower bending capacities than those with face-to-face connections. For example, the specimen with face-to-face C-Purlins beam and filled with 100% recycled concrete materials (CBPDS-DF100) achieved bending capacity equal to 46.1 kN.m, where this capacity reduced to 43 kN.m only when the C-Purlins beams were separated (CBPDS-DS100).
- Accordingly, the CBPDS specimens’ ductility indexes were reduced with increases of recycled aggregate content in their concrete cores; this is due to the reduction in their bending capacities. For example, the CBPDS-DF specimen filled with normal concrete (0% recycled aggregates) achieved a ductility index equal to 4.4, and this value reduced to 4.1 and 3.4 when the same specimen was filled with concrete mixture content 50% and 100%, respectively, of recycled aggregate.
- Based on the available experimental results, the newly developed theoretical model reasonably predicted the nominal bending capacity of the composite CBPDS with an acceptable mean value (0.970) and standard deviation (3.6%).
- Notably, further investigations are required for these composite CBPDS specimens concerning the influence of varied parameters and loading scenarios that have not yet been studied. The developed theoretical model needs further validation with more empirical and numerical data for improvement, in order to make it generally applicable to this type of composite beam–slab system (CFST beam carrying PDS slab system).
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Double C-Purlins |
|Materials||Yield Strength |
|Ultimate Strength |
|Profiled Steel Sheet (Peva 50)||434.0||464.0||213.0|
|Dry board (Primaflex)||22.0||8.0|
|MC0 (0% recycled aggregates)||20.1||21.0|
|MC50 (50% recycled aggregates)||17.2||19.5|
|MC100 (100% recycled aggregates)||11.2||15.7|
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Liejy, M.C.; Al Zand, A.W.; Mutalib, A.A.; Abdulhameed, A.A.; Kaish, A.B.M.A.; Tawfeeq, W.M.; Baharom, S.; Al-Attar, A.A.; Hanoon, A.N.; Yaseen, Z.M. Prediction of the Bending Strength of a Composite Steel Beam–Slab Member Filled with Recycled Concrete. Materials 2023, 16, 2748. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16072748
Liejy MC, Al Zand AW, Mutalib AA, Abdulhameed AA, Kaish ABMA, Tawfeeq WM, Baharom S, Al-Attar AA, Hanoon AN, Yaseen ZM. Prediction of the Bending Strength of a Composite Steel Beam–Slab Member Filled with Recycled Concrete. Materials. 2023; 16(7):2748. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16072748Chicago/Turabian Style
Liejy, Mohammed Chyad, Ahmed W. Al Zand, Azrul A. Mutalib, Ali A. Abdulhameed, A. B. M. A. Kaish, Wadhah M. Tawfeeq, Shahrizan Baharom, Alyaa A. Al-Attar, Ammar N. Hanoon, and Zaher Mundher Yaseen. 2023. "Prediction of the Bending Strength of a Composite Steel Beam–Slab Member Filled with Recycled Concrete" Materials 16, no. 7: 2748. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16072748