# Effect of Vibration Direction on Two-Dimensional Ultrasonic Assisted Grinding-Electrolysis-Discharge Generating Machining Mechanism of SiCp/Al

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## Abstract

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_{p}/Al composites. Simulation analysis of a single abrasive particle verified the test results. The results of machining tests at different amplitudes showed that as the workpiece and tool amplitude increased, the grinding force of the normal force decreased faster than that of the tangential force. The effect of surface electrolysis discharge machining was significant, and the number of exposed particles increased, but the residual height of the surface and the surface roughness were reduced by vibration grinding. When the two-dimensional amplitude was increased to 5 μm, the axial and tangential vibrations increased the grinding domain, and the dragging and rolling of the reinforced particles significantly reduced the surface roughness, which obtained good surface quality.

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Machining Mechanism of 2UG-E-DM

_{w}; the ultrasonic vibration (or axial direction) is along the Z axis; the amplitude and frequency are ${\mathrm{A}}_{\mathrm{Z}}$ and ${\mathrm{f}}_{\mathrm{Z}}$, respectively; the grinding depth is ${\mathrm{a}}_{\mathrm{p}}$; the initial cutting line of the tool abrasive ends with the workpiece surface; and the cutting line leaves the grinding processing area. The workpiece material is connected to the positive pole of the power supply; the cathode tool is coated with diamond abrasive and connected to the negative pole of the power supply; and the processing area is immersed in a passive electrolyte. The motion equation of an abrasive on a tool and a workpiece or ${\mathrm{S}}_{\mathrm{P}}\left(t\right)$ and ${\mathrm{S}}_{\mathrm{W}}\left(t\right)$, respectively, can separately be expressed by Equations (1) and (2).

## 3. Experimental Setup

_{3}which was pumped through a nozzle during machining. A comparative test of different processes was designed, including GM (General Machining), G-E-DM (Grinding and Electrolysis Discharge Machining), XUG-E-DM (X Direction Grinding, Electrolysis, and Discharge Machining), ZUG-E-DM (Z Direction Grinding, Electrolysis, and Discharge Machining), and 2UG-E-DM. The spindle speed was 1000 r/min, the feed rate was set at 30 mm/min, and the processing depth was 0.01 mm. Other parameters are shown in Table 2. According to the comparative test results, when the voltage was 4 V, the processing tests of different amplitudes under different processing depths (0.01 and 0.02 mm) were designed as shown in Table 3.

## 4. Results and Analysis

#### 4.1. Effect of Vibration Direction on Grinding Force

#### 4.2. Effect of Vibration Direction on Surface Quality

## 5. Simulation of an Abrasive Grinding

## 6. Conclusions

- (1)
- Under the action of ultrasonic vibration, the abrasive hammers, abrades, and grinds the machined surface. Two-dimensional ultrasonic vibration combines the advantages of single ultrasonic-assisted processing, which reduces the force of the ultrasonic vibration. The largest decrease is in GM, and the smallest decrease is in XUG-E-DM, while the tangential force decreases more than the axial.
- (2)
- The machined surface of 2UG-E-DM is formed under the combined action of two-dimensional ultrasonic-assisted grinding, electrolysis, and electrical discharge machining. The reciprocating grinding and smoothing of the surface grooves and ridges by two-dimensional ultrasonic vibration increases the groove width, smooths the surface morphology after grinding, and decreases the height difference of the ridges. The surface roughness is 45.6%, 24.0%, and 9.2% lower than that of GM, G-E-DM, and 2UGM2UGM, respectively.
- (3)
- As the amplitude increases, the axial and tangential forces gradually decrease, and the surface roughness becomes smaller. When the amplitude increases to 5 μm, the decreasing trend of the grinding force weakens. The abrasives reciprocal rolling, widening, and leveling effects of the machined surface grooves are obvious, and the improved processing effect is made more significant as the amplitude of the workpiece increases.

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Institutional Review Board Statement

## Informed Consent Statement

## Data Availability Statement

## Conflicts of Interest

## Nomenclature

2UG-E-DM | Two-dimensional ultrasonic-assisted grinding, electrolysis, and discharge machining |

2UGM | Two-dimensional ultrasonic-assisted grinding machining |

ECM | Electrolysis machining |

EDM | Electro-discharge machining |

GM | Grinding machining |

G-E-DM | Grinding and electrolysis discharge machining |

ZUG-E-DM | Z direction ultrasonic grinding, electrolysis, and discharge machining |

XUG-E-DM | X direction ultrasonic grinding, electrolysis, and discharge machining |

MMC | Metal matrix composites |

Ra | Surface roughness |

R_{p} | The maximum residual height |

L_{p} | The length between adjacent bumps |

A_{Z} | Vibration amplitude of Z direction |

f_{Z} | Vibration frequency of Z direction |

A_{X} | Vibration amplitude of X direction |

f_{X} | Vibration frequency of X direction |

n | Spindle speed |

Ge(t) | Machining gap of electrolysis discharge machining |

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**Figure 6.**The effect of workpiece vibration amplitude on grinding force: (

**a**) tangential and (

**b**) axial.

**Figure 8.**The surface topography of different processes: (

**a**) GM; (

**b**) G-E-D-M; (

**c**) 2UGM; and (

**d**) 2UG-E-DM.

**Figure 10.**The effect of different amplitudes on surface roughness: (

**a**) amplitude of workpiece and (

**b**) amplitude of tool.

Material | Density (g/cm ^{3}) | Hardness (HRC) | Poisson’s Ratio | Elastic Modulus (Gpa) | Fracture Toughness (Mpa/m ^{2}) | Thermal Conductivity (W/m∙K) | Elongation |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

40% SiCp/Al | 2.9 | 32 | 0.33 | 163 | 7.8 | 183 | 0.19% |

Category | Voltage U (V) | Amplitude of Workpiece A _{X} (μm) | Amplitude of Tool A _{Z} (μm) |
---|---|---|---|

GM | 0 | 0 | 0 |

G-E-DM | 4 | 0 | 0 |

XUG-E-DM | 4 | 4 | 0 |

ZUG-E-DM | 4 | 0 | 4 |

2UGM | 0 | 4 | 4 |

2UG-E-DM | 4 | 4 | 4 |

No. | X Amplitude of Workpiece A _{X} (μm) | Z Amplitude of Tool A _{Z} (μm) |
---|---|---|

1 | 1 | 4 |

2 | 2 | 4 |

3 | 3 | 4 |

4 | 4 | 4 |

5 | 5 | 4 |

6 | 4 | 1 |

7 | 4 | 2 |

8 | 4 | 3 |

9 | 4 | 5 |

A (MPa) | B (MPa) | n | C | m | Tr (°C) | Tm (°C) |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

315 | 520 | 0.21 | 0.003 | 0.843 | 20 | 730 |

D_{1} | D_{2} | D_{3} | D_{4} | D_{5} |
---|---|---|---|---|

0.118 | 0.126 | −0.374 | 0.036 | 0 |

No. | Category | Feed Speed v _{w} (mm/min) | Spindle Speed n (rpm) | Grinding Depth a _{p} (mm) | X Amplitude AX (μm) | Z Amplitude AZ (μm) |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

(a) | GM | 15 | 1200 | 0.01 | 0 | 0 |

(b) | XUGM | 15 | 1200 | 0.01 | 0 | 5 |

(c) | ZUGM | 15 | 1200 | 0.01 | 5 | 0 |

(d) | 2UGM | 15 | 1200 | 0.01 | 5 | 5 |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Li, J.; Chen, W.; Zhu, Y. Effect of Vibration Direction on Two-Dimensional Ultrasonic Assisted Grinding-Electrolysis-Discharge Generating Machining Mechanism of SiCp/Al. *Materials* **2023**, *16*, 2703.
https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16072703

**AMA Style**

Li J, Chen W, Zhu Y. Effect of Vibration Direction on Two-Dimensional Ultrasonic Assisted Grinding-Electrolysis-Discharge Generating Machining Mechanism of SiCp/Al. *Materials*. 2023; 16(7):2703.
https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16072703

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Li, Jing, Wanwan Chen, and Yongwei Zhu. 2023. "Effect of Vibration Direction on Two-Dimensional Ultrasonic Assisted Grinding-Electrolysis-Discharge Generating Machining Mechanism of SiCp/Al" *Materials* 16, no. 7: 2703.
https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16072703