The Cracking of Al-Mg Alloys Welded by MIG and FSW under Slow Strain Rating
2. Materials and Methods
- Plastic deformations;
- The formation of micro-voids and micro-cracks;
- Joining micro-cracks and micro-voids;
- Crack propagation until material failure.
- Small precipitates (up to 1 μm) arranged evenly in the matrix and located close to each other can be cut by dislocations, causing plane slippage. Micro-cracks can grow along the slip line, affecting micro-cracks development. Growing, micro-cracks take the shape of a broken line, which increases the surface of the crack, and thus the energy of the cracking process increases.
- Large precipitates with dimensions from 2 μm to 25 μm, during the plastic deformation of the material, contribute to the formation of micro-voids. These precipitates occur both in native materials and in bonded joints. The results of chemical microanalysis of the precipitates (EDS) showed that they are formed on the basis of iron or silicon. Therefore, it seems advisable to strive to reduce the content of these elements in technical Al-Mg alloys.
- In base materials (5059 and 5083) and their FSW joints, evenly distributed precipitates and fine-grained structures cause the growth of micro-cracks along the broken line.
- In MIG welds, unevenly distributed precipitates in the structure and clusters of precipitates can be avoided by dislocations that bend and the slip changes its character to wavy. Micro-crack development is easier due to the coarse-grained structure and follows wavy slip lines.
- Micrographs of fractures of all investigated samples after the SSRT allow us to conclude that the cracking mechanism was trans-crystalline ductile.
- In the case of MIG welded joints, the fracture surfaces are highly developed, but there are also relatively large craters that indicate the non-uniformity of the weld structure. This inhomogeneity may be caused by the presence of grains of different sizes and intermetallic phases. These phases occur both in the form of single precipitates as well as a grid on grain boundaries. Numerous cracked intermetallic phases are visible in the wells, which probably initiated the cracking process of the material as a result of the load.
- In the case of samples from base materials of the tested alloys and their joints welded by the FSW method, smaller crater sizes were observed, which suggests smaller grain sizes compared to MIG welds. In the samples welded by the FSW method, no cracked intercrystalline phases were observed at the bottom of the wells. The crack boundaries formed parallel bands characteristic of the material deformed thermoplastically by the welding tool.
- The size of the elevations and depressions on the fracture surfaces depends mainly on the size of the grains and the dispersion of the precipitates. The void formation is easier when particle sizes are larger and the decohesion of interfacial boundaries occurs due to large local deformation around these micro-voids. As the plastic deformation increases, micro-cracks develop and merge into a major crack. After reaching a critical dimension, it develops rapidly, causing the destruction of the material.
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Alloy||Chemical Composition [wt.%]|
|Tool Dimensions||Angle of Tool Deflection||Mandrel’s Rotary Speed||Welding Speed|
|Alloy||Chemical Composition [wt.%]|
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Dudzik, K.; Czechowski, M. The Cracking of Al-Mg Alloys Welded by MIG and FSW under Slow Strain Rating. Materials 2023, 16, 2643. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16072643
Dudzik K, Czechowski M. The Cracking of Al-Mg Alloys Welded by MIG and FSW under Slow Strain Rating. Materials. 2023; 16(7):2643. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16072643Chicago/Turabian Style
Dudzik, Krzysztof, and Mirosław Czechowski. 2023. "The Cracking of Al-Mg Alloys Welded by MIG and FSW under Slow Strain Rating" Materials 16, no. 7: 2643. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16072643