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Materials, Volume 16, Issue 6 (March-2 2023) – 410 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): In recent years, the demand for efficient, high-capacity, and environmentally friendly energy storage has significantly increased. Solid-state electrolytes (SSEs) have received much attention as crucial components in solid-state lithium-ion batteries. Inorganic SSEs have witnessed considerable developments in the last few decades; however, there is still a long way to go before successful industrialization and commercialization. This work comprehensively elucidates the development, structure, and Li-ion transport mechanism of typical inorganic SSEs. Moreover, difficulties such as interface issues and air stability are discussed, and viable solutions to tackle these issues are summarized. View this paper
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14 pages, 4659 KiB  
Article
Effect of NO2 Aging on the Surface Structure and Thermal Stability of Silicone Rubber with Varying Al(OH)3 Contents
by Jiapeng Fang, Yi Luo, Shilong Kuang, Kai Luo, Zikang Xiao, Xiangyang Peng, Zhen Huang, Zheng Wang and Pengfei Fang
Materials 2023, 16(6), 2540; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16062540 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1295
Abstract
In this study, silicone rubber (SiR) with 0, 90, and 180 parts of aluminum hydroxide (Al(OH)3, ATH) contents prepared in the laboratory was treated in a certain concentration of NO2 for 0, 12, 24, and 36 h. Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy [...] Read more.
In this study, silicone rubber (SiR) with 0, 90, and 180 parts of aluminum hydroxide (Al(OH)3, ATH) contents prepared in the laboratory was treated in a certain concentration of NO2 for 0, 12, 24, and 36 h. Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and thermogravimetry (TG) were used to study the changes in the surface structure and thermal stability of SiR, as well as the influence of Al(OH)3 on the properties of SiR. According to AFM, the root-mean-square roughness of ATH-90 SiR was 192 nm, which was 2.7 times of ATH-0 SiR. With the incorporation of ATH, the surface of SiR became more susceptible to corrosion by NO2. According to FT-IR and XPS, with the increase in aging time, the side chain Si-CH3 of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was oxidized gradually and a few of nitroso -NO2 groups were formed. According to TG, the incorporation of ATH caused the maximum decomposition rate temperature of PDMS to advance from 458.65 °C to 449.37 and 449.26 °C, which shows that the thermal stability of SiR degraded by adding ATH. After NO2 aging, a new decomposition stage appeared between 75 and 220 °C (stage Ⅰ), and this decomposition trend was similar to aluminum nitrate, which was proven to reduce the thermal stability of PDMS. The effects of NO2 on the surface structure and thermal stability of different ATH contents of silicone rubber were preliminarily clarified by a variety of characterization methods, which provided ideas for the development of silicone rubber resistant to NO2 aging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Composite Insulating Materials)
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16 pages, 5352 KiB  
Article
Studies of Electrical Parameters and Thermal Stability of HiPIMS Hafnium Oxynitride (HfOxNy) Thin Films
by Mirosław Puźniak, Wojciech Gajewski, Aleksandra Seweryn, Marcin T. Klepka, Bartłomiej S. Witkowski, Marek Godlewski and Robert Mroczyński
Materials 2023, 16(6), 2539; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16062539 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1278
Abstract
This work demonstrated the optimization of HiPIMS reactive magnetron sputtering of hafnium oxynitride (HfOxNy) thin films. During the optimization procedure, employing Taguchi orthogonal tables, the parameters of examined dielectric films were explored, utilizing optical methods (spectroscopic ellipsometry and refractometry), [...] Read more.
This work demonstrated the optimization of HiPIMS reactive magnetron sputtering of hafnium oxynitride (HfOxNy) thin films. During the optimization procedure, employing Taguchi orthogonal tables, the parameters of examined dielectric films were explored, utilizing optical methods (spectroscopic ellipsometry and refractometry), electrical characterization (C-V, I-V measurements of MOS structures), and structural investigation (AFM, XRD, XPS). The thermal stability of fabricated HfOxNy layers, up to 800 °C, was also investigated. The presented results demonstrated the correctness of the optimization methodology. The results also demonstrated the significant stability of hafnia-based layers at up to 800 °C. No electrical parameters or surface morphology deteriorations were demonstrated. The structural analysis revealed comparable electrical properties and significantly greater immunity to high-temperature treatment in HfOxNy layers formed using HiPIMS, as compared to those formed using the standard pulsed magnetron sputtering technique. The results presented in this study confirmed that the investigated hafnium oxynitride films, fabricated through the HiPIMS process, could potentially be used as a thermally-stable gate dielectric in self-aligned MOS structures and devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends in Electronic and Optoelectronic Materials)
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18 pages, 2671 KiB  
Article
Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Fly Ash: From Waste to Cement Manufacturing Resource
by Cristina Marieta, Alexander Martín-Garin, Iñigo Leon and Ana Guerrero
Materials 2023, 16(6), 2538; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16062538 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1719
Abstract
This study investigates the possibility of using municipal solid waste incineration fly ash as a supplementary cementitious material to replace part of the clinker in cement. Life cycle assessment has shown that the partial replacement of clinker with blast furnace slag (CEM III) [...] Read more.
This study investigates the possibility of using municipal solid waste incineration fly ash as a supplementary cementitious material to replace part of the clinker in cement. Life cycle assessment has shown that the partial replacement of clinker with blast furnace slag (CEM III) reduces cement’s global warming potential by ~30%, while replacing clinker with fly ash reduces it by up to 55%. When using CEM III as the control binder in cement in which 55 wt% of the clinker was replaced with hydrothermally treated fly ash, the flexural strength decreased by ~60% and the compressive strength by ~65%. When the fly ash was mixed with calcined and vitrified demolition materials, flexural strength decreased by ~30% and compressive strength by ~50%. The hardening of the hydraulic binders fixed the heavy metals in the municipal solid waste incineration fly ash. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Concrete Chemistry and Sustainability)
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14 pages, 5777 KiB  
Article
Lanthanide and Ladder-Structured Polysilsesquioxane Composites for Transparent Color Conversion Layers
by Jaehyun Han, Darya Burak, Valeriia Poliukhova, Albert S. Lee, Hoseong Jang, Seungsang Hwang, Kyung-Youl Baek, Joonsoo Han, Byeong-Kwon Ju and So-Hye Cho
Materials 2023, 16(6), 2537; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16062537 - 22 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1393
Abstract
Ladder-type polysilsesquioxanes (LPSQs) containing phenyl as a high refractive index unit and cyclic epoxy as a curable unit were found to be excellent candidates for a transparent color conversion layer for displays due to being miscible with organic solvents and amenable to transparent [...] Read more.
Ladder-type polysilsesquioxanes (LPSQs) containing phenyl as a high refractive index unit and cyclic epoxy as a curable unit were found to be excellent candidates for a transparent color conversion layer for displays due to being miscible with organic solvents and amenable to transparent film formation. Therefore, the LPSQs were combined with luminescent lanthanide metals, europium Eu(III), and terbium Tb(III), to fabricate transparent films with various emission colors, including red, orange, yellow, and green. The high luminescence and transmittance properties of the LPSQs–lanthanide composite films after thermal curing were attributed to chelating properties of hydroxyl and polyether side chains of LPSQs to lanthanide ions, as well as a light sensitizing effect of phenyl side chains of the LPSQs. Furthermore, Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and nanoindentation tests indicated that the addition of the nanoparticles to the LPSQs moderately enhanced the epoxy conversion rate and substantially improved the wear resistance, including hardness, adhesion, and insusceptibility to atmospheric corrosion in a saline environment. Thus, the achieved LPGSG–lanthanide hybrid organic–inorganic material could effectively serve as a color conversion layer for displays. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High-Efficiency Light-Emitting Materials and Devices)
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14 pages, 15510 KiB  
Article
Effect of Femtosecond Laser Processing Parameters on the Ablation Microgrooves of RB-SiC Composites
by Feng Yang, Renke Kang, Hongbin Ma, Guangyi Ma, Dongjiang Wu and Zhigang Dong
Materials 2023, 16(6), 2536; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16062536 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1377
Abstract
Because of the high hardness, brittleness, and anisotropy of reaction-bonded silicon carbide composites (RB-SiC), it is challenging to process high-quality textures on their surfaces. With the advantages of high processing accuracy and low processing damage, femtosecond laser processing is the preferred technology for [...] Read more.
Because of the high hardness, brittleness, and anisotropy of reaction-bonded silicon carbide composites (RB-SiC), it is challenging to process high-quality textures on their surfaces. With the advantages of high processing accuracy and low processing damage, femtosecond laser processing is the preferred technology for the precision processing of difficult-to-process materials. The present work used a femtosecond laser with a linear scanning path and a spot diameter of 18 µm to process microgrooves on RB-SiC. The influence of different processing parameters on the microgroove profile, dimensions, and ablation rate (AR) was investigated. The ablation width Wa and average ablation depth Da of microgrooves were evaluated, and the various patterns of varying processing parameters were obtained. A model for Wa prediction was developed based on the laser fluence within the finite length (FL). As a result, the experimental values were distributed near the prediction curve with a maximum error of 20.4%, showing an upward trend of gradually decreasing increments. For a single pass, the AR value was mainly determined by the laser energy, which could reach the scale of 106 μm3/s when the laser energy was greater than 50 μJ. For multiple passes, the AR value decreased as the number of passes increased and it finally stabilized. The above research will provide theoretical and experimental support for the high-quality and efficient processing of RB-SiC surface textures. Full article
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13 pages, 12237 KiB  
Article
The Study of Radius End Mills with TiB2 Coating When Milling a Nickel Alloy
by Sergey Grigoriev, Marina Volosova, Mikhail Mosyanov and Sergey Fedorov
Materials 2023, 16(6), 2535; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16062535 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1200
Abstract
Nickel alloy high-speed processing technology using ball-end mills is characterized by high contact temperature and leads to accelerated tool wear. One of the effective ways to increase its reliability and service life is to modify the surface by applying functional antifriction layers in [...] Read more.
Nickel alloy high-speed processing technology using ball-end mills is characterized by high contact temperature and leads to accelerated tool wear. One of the effective ways to increase its reliability and service life is to modify the surface by applying functional antifriction layers in addition to wear-resistant coatings. Diamond-like carbon is often used as the latter. However, at cutting speed, when a cutting-edge temperature exceeding 650 °C is reached, the material of this coating reacts actively with oxygen in the air, and the sharply increasing adhesive component of wear quickly incapacitates the milling tooth, limiting its performance. Applying a coating of titanium diboride as an antifriction layer on top of nanocrystalline composite nitride coatings with good resistance to abrasive wear can be a solution to this problem. Our experiments have shown that such technology makes it possible to obtain a twofold increase in durability compared to a tool with a diamond-like antifriction coating in conditions when the cutting edge of the tool is subjected to cyclic thermal shocks above 800 °C, and the durability period of the radius end mill is about 50 min. Full article
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26 pages, 10296 KiB  
Article
Investigation of the Internal Structure of Hardened 3D-Printed Concrete by X-CT Scanning and Its Influence on the Mechanical Performance
by Yanjuan Chen, Jukka Kuva, Ashish Mohite, Zhongsen Li, Hubert Rahier, Fahim Al-Neshawy and Jiangpeng Shu
Materials 2023, 16(6), 2534; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16062534 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1845
Abstract
As we know, 3DPC is printed layer by layer compared with mold-casting conventional concrete. Pore structure and layer-to-layer interface are two main aspects of the internal structure for 3DPC, which decide 3DPC’s mechanical performance. The layer-to-layer interface caused by printing is specific to [...] Read more.
As we know, 3DPC is printed layer by layer compared with mold-casting conventional concrete. Pore structure and layer-to-layer interface are two main aspects of the internal structure for 3DPC, which decide 3DPC’s mechanical performance. The layer-to-layer interface caused by printing is specific to 3DPC. The emphasis of this study lies in the layer-to-layer interfaces of 3DPC. The first aim of this study is to quantify the characteristics of the layer-to-layer interface and therefore characterize different aspects of the interfaces. The second aim of this study is to explore how the internal structure of printed concrete influences the mechanical performance of 3DPC. This research set out to design a series of experimental comparisons between 3DPC and casted concrete with the same compositions. Mechanical tests, i.e., compressive stress, ultrasonic Pulse Velocity test, flexural tension, and tension splitting, as well as the Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity test, were performed to check the mechanical performance of 3DPC. Contrary to what has often been expected, the mechanical test results showed the printed concrete has a quality not worse than casted concrete with the same recipe. Meanwhile, the X-ray computed tomography (X-CT) is used to characterize the internal structure, pore shapes, and interfaces of 3DPC. First, the investigation revealed that the lower total porosity and fewer big voids could be the fundamental causes meaning 3DPC has a better mechanical performance than casted concrete. Second, the statistics based on aspect ratio show that the distribution curves follow similar trends, regardless of the printed or casted concrete. Third, this study quantified the depth of the different interfaces for 3DPC. The results suggest that the porosity in an interface varies in a range. The author’s pioneer work has contributed to our present understanding of the interfaces of 3DPC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development and Characterization of Novel Cement Materials)
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17 pages, 1400 KiB  
Systematic Review
Influence of Surface Characteristics of TiO2 Coatings on the Response of Gingival Cells: A Systematic Review of In Vitro Studies
by Nagat Areid, Sini Riivari, Faleh Abushahba, Khalil Shahramian and Timo Närhi
Materials 2023, 16(6), 2533; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16062533 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1247
Abstract
The soft tissue-implant interface requires the formation of epithelium and connective tissue seal to hinder microbial infiltration and prevent epithelial down growth. Nanoporous titanium dioxide (TiO2) surface coatings have shown good potential for promoting soft tissue attachment to implant surfaces. However, [...] Read more.
The soft tissue-implant interface requires the formation of epithelium and connective tissue seal to hinder microbial infiltration and prevent epithelial down growth. Nanoporous titanium dioxide (TiO2) surface coatings have shown good potential for promoting soft tissue attachment to implant surfaces. However, the impact of their surface properties on the biological response of gingival cells needs further investigation. This systematic review aimed to investigate the cellular behavior of gingival cells on TiO2-implant abutment coatings based on in vitro studies. The review was performed to answer the question: “How does the surface characteristic of TiO2 coatings influence the gingival cell response in in vitro studies?”. A search in MEDLINE/PubMed and the web of science databases from 1990 to 2022 was performed using keywords. A quality assessment of the studies selected was performed using the SciRAP method. A total of 11 publications were selected from the 289 studies that fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The mean reporting and methodologic quality SciRAP scores were 82.7 ± 6.4/100 and 87 ± 4.2/100, respectively. Within the limitations of this in vitro systematic review, it can be concluded that the TiO2 coatings with smooth nano-structured surface topography and good wettability improve gingival cell response compared to non-coated surfaces. Full article
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13 pages, 3031 KiB  
Article
A Carbonized Zeolite/Chitosan Composite as an Adsorbent for Copper (II) and Chromium (VI) Removal from Water
by Endar Hidayat, Tomoyuki Yoshino, Seiichiro Yonemura, Yoshiharu Mitoma and Hiroyuki Harada
Materials 2023, 16(6), 2532; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16062532 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1819
Abstract
To address Cu(II) and Cr(VI) water pollution, a carbonized zeolite/chitosan (C-ZLCH) composite adsorbent was produced via pyrolysis at 500 °C for two hours. C-ZLCH was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), dynamic light scattering (DLS), [...] Read more.
To address Cu(II) and Cr(VI) water pollution, a carbonized zeolite/chitosan (C-ZLCH) composite adsorbent was produced via pyrolysis at 500 °C for two hours. C-ZLCH was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and zeta potential measurements. The batch experiments were performed by varying the initial pH, concentration, and contact time. The optimal pH values for Cu(II) and Cr(VI) were 8.1 and 9.6, respectively. The highest adsorption capacities for Cu(II) and Cr(VI) were 111.35 mg/g at 60 min and 104.75 mg/g at 90 min, respectively. The effects of chemicals such as sodium (Na+), glucose, ammonium (NH4+), and acid red 88 (AR88) were also studied. Statistical analysis showed that sodium had no significant effect on Cu(II) removal, in contrast to Cr(VI) removal. However, there was a significant effect of the presence of glucose, ammonium, and AR88 on both Cu(II) and Cr(VI) removal. The adsorption isotherm and kinetic models were fitted using Langmuir and pseudo-second-order models for Cu(II) and Cr(VI), respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio-Based Materials and Their Environmental Applications)
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14 pages, 4200 KiB  
Article
The Influence of Concrete Sludge from Residual Concrete on Fresh and Hardened Cement Paste Properties
by Edvinas Pocius, Džigita Nagrockienė and Ina Pundienė
Materials 2023, 16(6), 2531; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16062531 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1888
Abstract
In the concrete manufacturing industry, a large amount of waste is generated. Such waste can be utilised in the production of more sustainable products with a low carbon footprint. In this study, concrete sludge, a difficult-to-utilise waste that is obtained from residual concrete [...] Read more.
In the concrete manufacturing industry, a large amount of waste is generated. Such waste can be utilised in the production of more sustainable products with a low carbon footprint. In this study, concrete sludge, a difficult-to-utilise waste that is obtained from residual concrete by washing a concrete truck, was investigated. During washing, aggregates from the concrete mixture are separated, and the remaining insoluble fine particles combine with water to form concrete sludge. Dried and wet concrete sludge were used in the tests. Samples with different compositions were produced with dried and wet concrete sludge, cement, superplasticiser, and tap water. Seven cement pastes with different compositions were made by partially replacing cement with dried concrete sludge (0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, and 30%). In compositions with wet concrete sludge, cement was replaced by the same amounts as in the case of dried concrete sludge. The slump, setting time, and their changes with different amounts of concrete sludge were determined for fresh cement pastes. It was found that with different forms of concrete sludge, the technological properties of the mixtures change, and the setting time decreases. The density and compressive and flexural strength results were confirmed by SEM and XRD tests. The research results show that dry concrete sludge causes the deterioration of the mechanical properties of cement stone, while wet concrete sludge improves the mechanical properties of cement stone. However, it was found that replacing 5% cement with dry concrete sludge does not significantly affect the properties of hardened cement stone. In mixes with wet concrete sludge, the recommended amount of replaced cement is 10%, because the technological properties of the mixture are strongly influenced by larger amounts. Full article
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19 pages, 64672 KiB  
Article
Investigations of Abrasive Wear Behaviour of Hybrid High-Boron Multi-Component Alloys: Effect of Boron and Carbon Contents by the Factorial Design Method
by Yuliia Chabak, Ivan Petryshynets, Vasily Efremenko, Michail Golinskyi, Kazumichi Shimizu, Vadym Zurnadzhy, Ivan Sili, Hossam Halfa, Bohdan Efremenko and Viktor Puchy
Materials 2023, 16(6), 2530; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16062530 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1289
Abstract
This paper is devoted to the evaluation of the “three-body-abrasion” wear behaviour of (wt.%) 5W–5Mo–5V–10Cr-2.5Ti-Fe (balance) multi-component (C + B)-added alloys in the as-cast condition. The carbon (0.3 wt.%, 0.7 wt.%, 1.1 wt.%) and boron (1.5 wt.%, 2.5 wt.%, 3.5 wt.%) contents were [...] Read more.
This paper is devoted to the evaluation of the “three-body-abrasion” wear behaviour of (wt.%) 5W–5Mo–5V–10Cr-2.5Ti-Fe (balance) multi-component (C + B)-added alloys in the as-cast condition. The carbon (0.3 wt.%, 0.7 wt.%, 1.1 wt.%) and boron (1.5 wt.%, 2.5 wt.%, 3.5 wt.%) contents were selected using a full factorial (32) design method. The alloys had a near-eutectic (at 1.5 wt.% B) or hyper-eutectic (at 2.5–3.5 wt.% B) structure. The structural micro-constituents were (in different combinations): (a) (W, Mo, and V)-rich borocarbide M2(B,C)5 as the coarse primary prismatoids or as the fibres of a “Chinese-script” eutectic, (b) Ti-rich carboboride M(C,B) with a dispersed equiaxed shape, (c) Cr-rich carboboride M7(C,B)3 as the plates of a “rosette”-like eutectic, and (d) Fe-rich boroncementite (M3(C,B)) as the plates of “coarse-net” and ledeburite eutectics. The metallic matrix was ferrite (at 0.3–1.1 wt.% C and 1.5 wt.% B) and “ferrite + pearlite” or martensite (at 0.7–1.1 wt.% C and 2.5–3.5 wt.% B). The bulk hardness varied from 29 HRC (0.3 wt.% C–1.5 wt.% B) to 53.5 HRC (1.1 wt.% C–3.5 wt.% B). The wear test results were mathematically processed and the regression equation of the wear rate as a function of the carbon and boron contents was derived and analysed. At any carbon content, the lowest wear rate was attributed to the alloy with 1.5 wt.% B. Adding 2.5 wt.% B led to an increase in the wear rate because of the appearance of coarse primary borocarbides (M2(B,C)5), which were prone to chipping and spalling-off under abrasion. At a higher boron content (3.5 wt.%), the wear rate decreased due to the increase in the volume fraction of the eutectic carboborides. The optimal chemical composition was found to be 1.1 wt.% C–1.5 wt.% B with a near-eutectic structure with about 35 vol.% of hard inclusions (M2(B,C)5, M(C,B), M3(C,B), and M7(C,B)3) in total. The effect of carbon and boron on the abrasive behaviour of the multi-component cast alloys with respect to the alloys’ structure is discussed, and the mechanism of wear for these alloys is proposed. Full article
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12 pages, 5031 KiB  
Article
Microstructure and High-Temperature Ablation Behaviour of Hafnium-Doped Tungsten-Yttrium Alloys
by Rui Wu, Chuanbing Huang, Huifeng Zhang, Haozhong Lv, Xiaoming Sun, Hao Lan and Weigang Zhang
Materials 2023, 16(6), 2529; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16062529 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1088
Abstract
W is a widely used refractory metal with ultra-high melting point up to 3410 °C. However, its applications are limited by poor ablation resistance under high-temperature flame and air flow, which is crucial for aerospace vehicles. To improve the ablation resistance of W [...] Read more.
W is a widely used refractory metal with ultra-high melting point up to 3410 °C. However, its applications are limited by poor ablation resistance under high-temperature flame and air flow, which is crucial for aerospace vehicles. To improve the ablation resistance of W under extreme conditions, W-Y alloys doped with different Hf mass fractions (0, 10, 20, and 30) were prepared using the fast hot pressing sintering method. Microstructure and ablation behaviours at 2000 °C were investigated. Results showed that adding an appropriate amount of Hf improved the properties of the W-Y alloy evidently. In particular, the hardness of the alloy increased with the increased content of Hf. The formation of the HfO2 layer on the surface during ablation decreased the mass and linear ablation rates, indicating enhanced ablation resistance. However, excessive Hf addition will result in crack behaviour during ablation. With a Hf content of 20 wt.%, the alloy exhibited high stability and an excellent ablation resistance. Full article
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14 pages, 2873 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Milled Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Bottom Ash on Cement Hydration and Mortar Properties
by Jurgita Malaiškienė, Edmundas Spudulis and Rimvydas Stonys
Materials 2023, 16(6), 2528; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16062528 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1245
Abstract
Large amounts of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash (MSWI BA) are formed worldwide, and this quantity is growing because of the establishment of new waste-to-energy plants. This waste is generally kept in landfills but can be used for the manufacturing of cementitious [...] Read more.
Large amounts of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash (MSWI BA) are formed worldwide, and this quantity is growing because of the establishment of new waste-to-energy plants. This waste is generally kept in landfills but can be used for the manufacturing of cementitious building materials. This article analyzes the use of MSWI BA as a microfiller in cement mortars. The effects of MSWI BA on the properties of cement binder and mortar were analyzed by using them separately or in combination with other microfillers: milled quartz sand, metakaolin, milled glass, and microsilica. This article investigates the flowability of cement-based mixtures, the volume change as a result of the evolution of hydrogen gas, cement hydration, XRD, TG, the physical and mechanical properties of the mortar samples, and leaching. The addition of milled MSWI BA in cement mortars was found to significantly increase slump flow; therefore, MSWI BA can be used as a microfiller. The addition of metakaolin changed the kinetics of H2, which evolved due to the reaction between Al and alkali, and had a positive effect on the mechanical properties of cement mortar. Full article
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29 pages, 3664 KiB  
Review
A Review on Graphene (GN) and Graphene Oxide (GO) Based Biodegradable Polymer Composites and Their Usage as Selective Adsorbents for Heavy Metals in Water
by Lesia Sydney Mokoena and Julia Puseletso Mofokeng
Materials 2023, 16(6), 2527; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16062527 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1713
Abstract
Water pollution due to heavy metal ions has become a persistent and increasing problem globally. To combat this, carbonaceous materials have been explored as possible adsorbents of these metal ions from solution. The problem with using these materials on their own is that [...] Read more.
Water pollution due to heavy metal ions has become a persistent and increasing problem globally. To combat this, carbonaceous materials have been explored as possible adsorbents of these metal ions from solution. The problem with using these materials on their own is that their lifespan and, therefore, usability is reduced. Hence the need to mask them and an interest in using polymers to do so is picked. This introduces an improvement into other properties as well and opens the way for more applications. This work gives a detailed review of the major carbonaceous materials, graphene and graphene oxide, outlining their origin as well as morphological studies. It also outlines the findings on their effectiveness in removing heavy metal ions from water, as well as their water absorption properties. The section further reports on graphene/polymer and graphene oxide/polymer composites previously studied and their morphological as well as thermal properties. Then the work done in the absorption and adsorption capabilities of these composites is explored, thereby contrasting the two materials. This enables us to choose the optimal material for the desired outcome of advancing further in the utilization of carbonaceous material-based polymer composites to remove heavy metal ions from water. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Advanced Composites)
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21 pages, 4623 KiB  
Article
Fast Hydrogen Sorption Kinetics in Mg-VCl3 Produced by Cryogenic Ball-Milling
by Karina Suárez-Alcántara, Nadia Isabel Flores-Jacobo, Mayara del Pilar Osorio-García and José Gerardo Cabañas-Moreno
Materials 2023, 16(6), 2526; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16062526 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1317
Abstract
Hydrogen storage in Mg/MgH2 materials is still an active research topic. In this work, a mixture of Mg-15wt.% VCl3 was produced by cryogenic ball milling and tested for hydrogen storage. Short milling time (1 h), liquid N2 cooling, and the [...] Read more.
Hydrogen storage in Mg/MgH2 materials is still an active research topic. In this work, a mixture of Mg-15wt.% VCl3 was produced by cryogenic ball milling and tested for hydrogen storage. Short milling time (1 h), liquid N2 cooling, and the use of VCl3 as an additive produced micro-flaked particles approximately 2.5–5.0 µm thick. The Mg-15wt.% VCl3 mixture demonstrated hydrogen uptake even at near room-temperature (50 °C). Mg-15wt.% VCl3 achieved ~5 wt.% hydrogen in 1 min at 300 °C/26 bar. The fast hydriding kinetics is attributed to a reduction of the activation energy of the hydriding reaction (Ea hydriding = 63.8 ± 5.6 kJ/mol). The dehydriding reaction occurred at high temperatures (300–350 °C) and 0.8–1 bar hydrogen pressure. The activation energy of the dehydriding reaction is 123.11 ± 0.6 kJ/mol. Cryomilling and VCl3 drastically improved the hydriding/dehydriding of Mg/MgH2. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Metal Hydrides: Fundamentals and Applications)
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25 pages, 23986 KiB  
Article
Impact Deposition Behavior of Al/B4C Cold-Sprayed Composite Coatings: Understanding the Role of Porosity on Particle Retention
by Hannaneh Manafi Farid, André McDonald and James David Hogan
Materials 2023, 16(6), 2525; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16062525 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1792
Abstract
This study explores the role of porosity in the impact deposition of a ceramic-reinforced metal-matrix (i.e., Al/B4C) composite coating fabricated via cold spraying. The Johnson–Holmquist–Beissel constitutive law and the modified Gurson–Tvergaard–Needleman model were used to describe the high strain-rate behavior of [...] Read more.
This study explores the role of porosity in the impact deposition of a ceramic-reinforced metal-matrix (i.e., Al/B4C) composite coating fabricated via cold spraying. The Johnson–Holmquist–Beissel constitutive law and the modified Gurson–Tvergaard–Needleman model were used to describe the high strain-rate behavior of the boron carbide and the aluminum metal matrix during impact deposition, respectively. Within a finite element model framework, the Arbitrary Lagrangian–Eulerian technique is implemented to explore the roles of reinforcement particle size and velocity, and pore size and depth in particle retention by examining the post-impact crater morphology, penetration depth, and localized plastic deformation of the aluminum substrate. Results reveal that some degree of matrix porosity may improve particle retention. In particular, porosity near the surface facilitates particle retention at lower impact velocities, while kinetic energy dominates particle retention at higher deposition velocities. Altogether, these results provide insights into the effect of deposition variables (i.e., particle size, impact velocity, pore size, and pore depth) on particle retention that improves coating quality. Full article
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12 pages, 2343 KiB  
Article
Preparation, Characterization, and Performance of a Modified Polyacrylamide-Sericite Gel
by Haibo Jin, Xu Wang, Haizhong Yang, Guangxiang He, Xiaogang Li, Xiaoyan Guo and Lizhu Li
Materials 2023, 16(6), 2524; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16062524 - 22 Mar 2023
Viewed by 998
Abstract
In this study, a modified chemical plugging agent is prepared with the aim to reduce the well moisture content and improve the efficiency of oilfield development. In comparison to other chemical plugging agents, the composite gels plugging agents have excellent blocking capacity and [...] Read more.
In this study, a modified chemical plugging agent is prepared with the aim to reduce the well moisture content and improve the efficiency of oilfield development. In comparison to other chemical plugging agents, the composite gels plugging agents have excellent blocking capacity and erosion resistance. In this study, optimal conditions for the preparation of plugging agents were explored. The results showed that the performance of polyacrylamide-sericite (PAM-sericite) gel improved at a polymerization temperature of 60 °C, a crosslinker concentration of 0.5%, an initiator concentration of 0.75%, an acrylamide concentration of 10.0%, and a sericite concentration of 10.0%. The characterization of PAM-sericite gel showed a certain fold-like shape with a smoother surface, indicating that the doped sericite makes the plugging agent more compact and firm. It was also found that the blocking ratio of the plugging agent can potentially reach 99.5% after the addition of sericite. Moreover, failure stress of the skeleton structure and the water swelling degree were increased by 63.5% and 51.2%, respectively. Additionally, long-term stability, temperature resistance, pressure resistance and pressure stability also showed improvement to varying degrees. It was concluded that this gel has better stability against different kinds of salt solutions and is not affected by particle size. Full article
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16 pages, 5667 KiB  
Article
Effects of Wall Thickness Variation on Hydrogen Embrittlement Susceptibility of Additively Manufactured 316L Stainless Steel with Lattice Auxetic Structures
by Mahmoud Khedr, Atef Hamada, Walaa Abd-Elaziem, Matias Jaskari, Mahmoud Elsamanty, Jukka Kömi and Antti Järvenpää
Materials 2023, 16(6), 2523; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16062523 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1800
Abstract
In the present study, the hydrogen embrittlement (HE) susceptibility of an additively manufactured (AM) 316L stainless steel (SS) was investigated. The materials were fabricated in the form of a lattice auxetic structure with three different strut thicknesses, 0.6, 1, and 1.4 mm, by [...] Read more.
In the present study, the hydrogen embrittlement (HE) susceptibility of an additively manufactured (AM) 316L stainless steel (SS) was investigated. The materials were fabricated in the form of a lattice auxetic structure with three different strut thicknesses, 0.6, 1, and 1.4 mm, by the laser powder bed fusion technique at a volumetric energy of 70 J·mm−3. The effect of H charging on the strength and ductility of the lattice structures was evaluated by conducting tensile testing of the H-charged specimens at a slow strain rate of 4 × 10−5 s−1. Hydrogen was introduced to the specimens via electrochemical charging in an NaOH aqueous solution for 24 h at 80 °C before the tensile testing. The microstructure evolution of the H-charged materials was studied using the electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) technique. The study revealed that the auxetic structures of the AM 316L-SS exhibited a slight reduction in mechanical properties after H charging. The tensile strength was slightly decreased regardless of the thickness. However, the ductility was significantly reduced with increasing thickness. For instance, the strength and uniform elongation of the auxetic structure of the 0.6 mm thick strut were 340 MPa and 17.4% before H charging, and 320 MPa and 16.7% after H charging, respectively. The corresponding values of the counterpart’s 1.4 mm thick strut were 550 MPa and 29% before H charging, and 523 MPa and 23.9% after H charging, respectively. The fractography of the fracture surfaces showed the impact of H charging, as cleavage fracture was a striking feature in H-charged materials. Furthermore, the mechanical twins were enhanced during tensile straining of the H-charged high-thickness material. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Concepts for Improvement of Hydrogen Storage Hydride Materials)
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20 pages, 2467 KiB  
Article
Valorization of Vetiver Root Biochar in Eco-Friendly Reinforced Concrete: Mechanical, Economic, and Environmental Performance
by Sameer Neve, Jiang Du, Rojyar Barhemat, Weina Meng, Yi Bao and Dibyendu Sarkar
Materials 2023, 16(6), 2522; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16062522 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2355
Abstract
Biochar has shown great promise in producing low-cost low-carbon concrete for civil infrastructure applications. However, there is limited research comparing the use of pristine and contaminated biochar in concrete. This paper presents comprehensive laboratory experiments and three-dimensional nonlinear finite element analysis on the [...] Read more.
Biochar has shown great promise in producing low-cost low-carbon concrete for civil infrastructure applications. However, there is limited research comparing the use of pristine and contaminated biochar in concrete. This paper presents comprehensive laboratory experiments and three-dimensional nonlinear finite element analysis on the mechanical, economical, and environmental performance of reinforced concrete beams made using concrete blended with biochar generated from vetiver grass roots after the roots were used in an oil extraction process. Both pristine biochar and biochar that were used to treat wastewater through adsorbing heavy metals (100 mg/L of Pb, Cu, Cd, and Zn) were investigated. The biochar was used to replace up to 6% Portland cement in concrete. Laboratory experiments were conducted to characterize the workability, mechanical properties, shrinkage, and leaching potential of the concrete blended with biochar. The results showed that using biochar could increase the compressive strengths and reduce the shrinkage of concrete without causing a leaching problem. The results from finite element analysis of the reinforced concrete beams showed that the use of biochar was able to increase the flexural performance of the beams as well as their economic and environmental performance. This research will promote the development and structural applications of low-cost low-carbon concrete. Full article
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11 pages, 6299 KiB  
Article
Reliability Study of Magnesium Oxychloride-Coated Reinforced Concrete Based on Gumbel Distribution
by Yuanke Li, Hongxia Qiao and An Yang
Materials 2023, 16(6), 2521; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16062521 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 909
Abstract
The constant current accelerated corrosion test was used to study the durability of magnesium oxychloride-coated reinforced concrete (MOCRC) in order to solve the problem of MOCRC’s durability. The relative dynamic elastic modulus was utilized as the failure threshold to evaluate the concrete durability, [...] Read more.
The constant current accelerated corrosion test was used to study the durability of magnesium oxychloride-coated reinforced concrete (MOCRC) in order to solve the problem of MOCRC’s durability. The relative dynamic elastic modulus was utilized as the failure threshold to evaluate the concrete durability, and the collected life data of concrete under different cover thickness were acquired. On the basis of the Gumbel distribution, the probability analysis can be used to study and foretell the life data. The results show that when the durability is evaluated by the relative mass and the relative dynamic modulus of elasticity, the durability of MOCRC with a larger protection layer thickness is better; the relative dynamic modulus of elasticity can better reflect the durability change in MOCRC than the relative mass. When the Gumbel distribution is used for durability analysis, the calculated value of the model and the life data have a relatively high degree of fit, which can provide a reference basis for the durability evaluation of concrete. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Techniques and Materials for Reinforced Concrete)
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18 pages, 6441 KiB  
Article
Mechanical Properties under Compression and Microscopy Analysis of Basalt Fiber Reinforced Recycled Aggregate Concrete
by Xianggang Zhang, Gaoqiang Zhou, Ping Xu, Lei Fu, Dapeng Deng, Xiaomei Kuang and Yuhui Fan
Materials 2023, 16(6), 2520; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16062520 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1340
Abstract
In this study, the basalt fiber content (0%, 0.075%, and 0.15%) and replacement ratio of recycled coarse aggregate (0%, 50%, and 100%) were used as parameters, and the compressive strength of 15 cubes and 15 prisms was analyzed. The failure morphology of the [...] Read more.
In this study, the basalt fiber content (0%, 0.075%, and 0.15%) and replacement ratio of recycled coarse aggregate (0%, 50%, and 100%) were used as parameters, and the compressive strength of 15 cubes and 15 prisms was analyzed. The failure morphology of the specimens was characterized, and the cubic compressive strength, axial compressive strength, elastic modulus, Poisson’s ratio, and other mechanical property indices of the specimens were measured. Upon increasing the replacement ratio, the degree of damage of the specimens gradually increased, whereas the cubic compressive strength, axial compressive strength, and elastic modulus gradually decreased. As the replacement ratio was increased from 50% to 100%, the cubic compressive strength and elastic modulus were noted to decrease the most by about 9.07% and 9.87%, respectively. On the other hand, the Poisson’s ratio first decreased, followed by an increase. Upon increasing the fiber content, the degree of damage of the specimens was gradually reduced, whereas the cubic compressive strength, axial compressive strength, and elastic modulus gradually increased. As the fiber content increased from 0.075% to 0.15%, the axial compressive strength and elastic modulus increased the most by about 6.65% and 10.19%, respectively. On the other hand, the Poisson’s ratio gradually decreased. Based on the test data, the functional relationships between the strength indices and different variables, as well as the conversion value of each strength index and different variables were established; after comparison and verification, the formula calculation results were found to be in good agreement with the test results. The microstructural changes in the basalt fiber reinforced recycled aggregate concrete were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the changes in the mechanical properties of the basalt fiber reinforced recycled aggregate concrete as well as the mechanism of fiber modification and reinforcement were explained from a micro perspective. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Construction and Building Materials)
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17 pages, 3570 KiB  
Article
Reduced Graphene Oxide Aerogels Cartridges for Solid Phase Extraction of Benzotriazoles
by Samantha L. Flores-López, Ana Arenillas, Ivan Mikšík, J. Angel Menéndez and Miguel A. Montes-Morán
Materials 2023, 16(6), 2519; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16062519 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1136
Abstract
UV-benzotriazoles have been identified as water micropollutants that cause serious problems for human health and the environment. Their low concentration in water bodies complicates their detection by direct water analysis, slowing the corrective actions to avoid bioaccumulation. In this regard, the use of [...] Read more.
UV-benzotriazoles have been identified as water micropollutants that cause serious problems for human health and the environment. Their low concentration in water bodies complicates their detection by direct water analysis, slowing the corrective actions to avoid bioaccumulation. In this regard, the use of graphene-based materials with a high affinity for non-polar molecules has been demonstrated to be a potential tool for the optimal separation and concentration of this type of molecules in solid phase extraction (SPE) processes. This work evaluates the potential of novel reduced graphene oxide aerogels (rGO) as extractants of mixtures of three UV-benzotriazoles in water at low concentrations. These rGO aerogels incorporate graphenic domains into a tough structure of polymeric chains by adding graphene oxide during the synthesis of resorcinol-formaldehyde gels. Aerogels with a different content and ordering of graphenic domains were obtained and characterized using Raman, XRD, SEM and nitrogen adsorption isotherms (−196 °C). The rGO aerogels that performed better as solid phase extractants were those containing 60% rGO. Aerogels with lower rGO contents (40%) required a high-temperature (2000 °C) treatment to render competitive results. The SPE methodology using selected rGO aerogels was optimized by varying the elution solvent, elution time and volume. The best performances, i.e., recoveries of 80–100% and enrichment factors of 12.5–50, were accomplished when using 0.8 mL of tetrahydrofuran (THF) as an elution solvent. As a result, a fast (10 min) and simple extraction method of UV-benzotriazoles in water was attained, achieving a detection limit of 1 ng mL−1. Selected aerogels were finally tested for the SPE of spiked samples of river waters, showing a similar performance to that observed with synthetic mixtures. Full article
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16 pages, 10697 KiB  
Article
Effect of Crystallographic Orientations on Bendability in a Strongly Textured Mg-9Al Extrusion Plate and Texture Evolution during Three-Point Bending
by Jiansheng Wei, Shunong Jiang, Yingchun Wan and Chuming Liu
Materials 2023, 16(6), 2518; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16062518 - 22 Mar 2023
Viewed by 800
Abstract
The dependence of bendability on crystallographic orientations and texture evolution was investigated in a strongly textured Mg-9Al extrusion plate by bending along four directions. Results show that the bars have relatively small and reasonably close bendability when bent along the extrusion direction, transverse [...] Read more.
The dependence of bendability on crystallographic orientations and texture evolution was investigated in a strongly textured Mg-9Al extrusion plate by bending along four directions. Results show that the bars have relatively small and reasonably close bendability when bent along the extrusion direction, transverse direction, and through-thickness direction. In contrast, the bendability of the 45° bar is much larger. Microstructure examination indicates that twins are prevalent in all bars. Furthermore, a detailed analysis of deformation mechanisms suggests that the initial texture transforms towards a basal texture during bending. Nevertheless, the texture transformation efficiency is drastically lower when basal slip—in contrast to tensile twinning—is the dominant deformation mechanism. The difference in texture evolution efficiency was used to rationalize the varied bendability along different directions. The findings of this provide insights into improving the bendability of magnesium alloys. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Metals and Alloys)
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13 pages, 7294 KiB  
Article
Characterization of Deposits Formed in Gas Engines Fuelled by Coal Mine Methane
by Izabela Konkol, Jan Cebula, Lesław Świerczek, Jan Sopa, Janusz Sopa and Adam Cenian
Materials 2023, 16(6), 2517; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16062517 - 22 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1048
Abstract
The main purpose of this research was to determine the chemical composition of deposits in gas engines fuelled by coal mine methane (CMM), as well as its dependence on the place of collection. This composition was compared with that for deposits formed in [...] Read more.
The main purpose of this research was to determine the chemical composition of deposits in gas engines fuelled by coal mine methane (CMM), as well as its dependence on the place of collection. This composition was compared with that for deposits formed in biogas-powered engines. It was also found that the chemical composition of deposits varies depending on the place of their formation in the engine and on the gaseous fuel used. The dominant mineral deposits found in gas engines fuelled by CMM contained Ca, Zn, P, and S, which originate from oil additives. The Al, Cr, Cu, Ti, and Fe elements present in the tested samples are related to the wear of the engine under normal operation. The remaining trace elements can originate as impurities from the air. Full article
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9 pages, 10889 KiB  
Article
Characterization of Green Part of Steel from Metal Injection Molding: An Analysis Using Moldflow
by I Putu Widiantara, Rosy Amalia Kurnia Putri, Da In Han, Warda Bahanan, Eun Hye Lee, Chang Hoon Woo, Jee-Hyun Kang, Jungho Ryu and Young Gun Ko
Materials 2023, 16(6), 2516; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16062516 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1936
Abstract
Metal injection molding (MIM) is a quick manufacturing method that produces elaborate and complex items accurately and repeatably. The success of MIM is highly impacted by green part characteristics. This work characterized the green part of steel produced using MIM from feedstock with [...] Read more.
Metal injection molding (MIM) is a quick manufacturing method that produces elaborate and complex items accurately and repeatably. The success of MIM is highly impacted by green part characteristics. This work characterized the green part of steel produced using MIM from feedstock with a powder/binder ratio of 93:7. Several parameters were used, such as dual gates position, injection temperature of ~150 °C, and injection pressure of ~180 MPa. Analysis using Moldflow revealed that the aformentioned parameters were expected to produce a green part with decent value of confidence to fill. However, particular regions exhibited high pressure drop and low-quality prediction, which may lead to the formation of defects. Scanning electron microscopy, as well as three-dimensional examination using X-ray computed tomography, revealed that only small amounts of pores were formed, and critical defects such as crack, surface wrinkle, and binder separation were absent. Hardness analysis revealed that the green part exhibited decent homogeneity. Therefore, the observed results could be useful to establish guidelines for MIM of steel in order to obtain a high quality green part. Full article
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18 pages, 9352 KiB  
Article
A Numerical Study of ITZ Percolation in Polyphase Concrete Systems Considering the Synergetic Effect of Aggregate Shape- and Size-Diversities
by Jianjun Lin, Qingxin Zhao, Huisu Chen, Mingqi Li and Lili Yuan
Materials 2023, 16(6), 2515; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16062515 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1110
Abstract
The percolation of the interfacial transition zone (ITZ) is generally regarded as an important factor that may accelerate the penetration of aggressive agents in concrete materials, and its threshold is largely determined by the features of aggregates. In most numerical studies about ITZ [...] Read more.
The percolation of the interfacial transition zone (ITZ) is generally regarded as an important factor that may accelerate the penetration of aggressive agents in concrete materials, and its threshold is largely determined by the features of aggregates. In most numerical studies about ITZ percolation, both fine aggregates and coarse aggregates are assumed to be the particles of uniform shape, and their size distributions are generally strung together by a single function, which is quite different from reality. To quantify the ITZ percolation associated with the polydispersity of aggregate shapes and size gradations in a more realistic way, the two-dimensional (2D) meso-scale model of concrete is generated by simplifying coarse aggregates and fine aggregates as polygons and ovals, respectively. Moreover, the size gradations of them are also represented by two separate expressions. By combining these models with percolation theory, the percolation of ITZ in the 2D case is explicitly simulated, and the influence of aggregate shape- and size-diversities on the critical threshold ϕagg,c is studied in detail. Based on the simulated results of ϕagg,c, an empirically analytical expression is further proposed to fast predict the ITZ percolation, and its reliability is verified. The results show that the ITZ thickness, average aggregate fineness, coarse aggregate shape, and fine aggregate shapes are the four main contributing factors to the ITZ percolation. Compared with the existing literature, the proposed model here has a broader range of applications (e.g., mortar, concrete, and other granular systems) in the 2D case and can provide the larger predicted results, which may be closer to reality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Construction and Building Materials)
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21 pages, 9681 KiB  
Article
Study of the Chlorine Influence on the Corrosion of Three Steels to Be Used in Water Treatment Municipal Facilities
by Rúben D. F. S. Costa, Marta L. S. Barbosa, Francisco J. G. Silva, Susana R. Sousa, Vitor F. C. Sousa and Bruno O. Ferreira
Materials 2023, 16(6), 2514; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16062514 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2262
Abstract
Many municipal facilities, such as pools and drinking water treatment facilities, are subject to ongoing maintenance due to the corrosion of their metallic materials caused by chlorine, leading to high costs and a possible risk to public health. A proper study of the [...] Read more.
Many municipal facilities, such as pools and drinking water treatment facilities, are subject to ongoing maintenance due to the corrosion of their metallic materials caused by chlorine, leading to high costs and a possible risk to public health. A proper study of the employed product’s effect could lead to the use of better materials, which significantly increase the lifetime of metallic equipment more attacked by corrosion, through studies evaluating their cost-effectiveness. This paper was carried out with the objective of studying the degradation of some metallic materials (AISI 316L, AISI 321 and Duplex 14462) used in the referred facilities in order to select the one that possessed a better behavior. It was observed that the introduction of some more adequate materials can drastically reduce maintenance operations, with Duplex 14462 showing the best results, ideal for greater chlorine concentrations, followed by AISI 321, which may be employed for components in less contact with chlorine, since it is more easily affordable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Surface Corrosion Science)
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16 pages, 6479 KiB  
Article
Influence of Short Carbon Fibers on the Properties of Autoclaved Fiber Cement in Standard Fire Environment
by Tomas Veliseicik, Ramune Zurauskiene, Modestas Kligys and Mark Dauksevic
Materials 2023, 16(6), 2513; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16062513 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1098
Abstract
In case of a fire, the flame can spread from the building through the outer openings to the outside. In such cases, the fire temperature thermal effect determines the façade fibrocement tile thermal destruction, while the flammable thermo-insulating systems used for building energy [...] Read more.
In case of a fire, the flame can spread from the building through the outer openings to the outside. In such cases, the fire temperature thermal effect determines the façade fibrocement tile thermal destruction, while the flammable thermo-insulating systems used for building energy effectiveness ensures it sets on fire. The spread of such a fire becomes uncontrollable and raises an immediate danger to the people inside the building, while such event dynamics delay and make it harder to put out the fire. Extra additive usage in façade fibrocement tiles can raise its resistance to fire temperature effect. Carbon fiber is widely known as a material resistant to the high temperature destructive effect. An investigation was conducted on the influence that carbon fiber has on the properties of autoclaved fiber cement samples. The autoclaved fiber cement samples were made from the raw materials, typical for façade fiber cement plates, produced in an industrial way (using the same proportions). In the samples, carbon fiber was used instead of mix cellulose fiber in 0.5%, 0.75%, 1% proportions. After completing the density research, it was determined that the carbon fiber effect had no general effect on the sample density. Ultrasound speed spreading research showed that the carbon fiber insignificantly makes sample structure denser; however, after the fire temperature effect, sample structure is less dense when using carbon fiber. The results of both these investigations could be within the margin of error. Insignificant sample structure density rise was confirmed with water absorption research, which during the 1% carbon fiber usage case was lower by 4.3%. It was found that up to 1% carbon fiber usage instead of mix cellulose fiber creates a dense structure of autoclaved fiber cement samples, and the carbon fiber in the microstructure influences the mechanical properties of the autoclaved fiber cement samples. After using carbon fiber in ambient temperature, the sample compressive strength and bending strength increased. However, the results of mechanical properties were completely different after experiencing fire temperature effect. Scanning electron microscopy research showed that the bond between the carbon fiber and the cement matrix was not resistant to high temperature effect, due to which the structure of the samples with carbon fiber weakened. Research showed that carbon fiber lowers the mechanical properties of the autoclaved fiber cement samples after high temperature effect. After analyzing the density, ultrasound speed spreading, water absorption, microstructure and macrostructure, compressive strength, and bending strength, the authors determined the main CF usage for AFK dependencies: 1. CF usage up to 1% replacing MCF makes the AFK structure more dense up to 1.5%, and lowers the water absorption up to 4.3%; 2. CF incorporates itself densely into the AFC microstructure; 3. CF usage up to replacing MCF improves the AFK strength properties up to until the fire temperature effect. Compression strength increases up 7.3% while bending strength increases up to 14.9%. 4. AFK hydrate amount on CF surface is lower than on MCF; 5. Fire temperature effect on AFK with CF causes dehydration by removing water vapor from the microstructure, resulting in a lot of microcracks due to stress; 6. The CF and cement matrix contact zone is not resistant to fire temperature effect. SEM experiments were used to determine the CF “self-removing” effect; 7. Due to complex changes happening in the AFK during fire temperature effect, CF usage does not improve strength properties in the microstructure. Compression strength decreases to 66.7% while bending strength decreases to 20% when compared with E samples. Full article
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13 pages, 4966 KiB  
Article
Effect of Solution Treatment Time on Microstructure Evolution and Properties of Mg-3Y-4Nd-2Al Alloy
by Lili Zhao, Sicong Zhao, Yicheng Feng, Lei Wang, Rui Fan, Tao Ma and Liping Wang
Materials 2023, 16(6), 2512; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16062512 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1265
Abstract
In order to explore the microstructure evolution of an Mg-RE alloy refined by Al during solution treatment, an Mg-3Y-4Nd-2Al alloy was treated at 545 °C for different time periods. Phase evolution of the alloy was investigated. After solution treatment, the Mg-RE eutectic phase [...] Read more.
In order to explore the microstructure evolution of an Mg-RE alloy refined by Al during solution treatment, an Mg-3Y-4Nd-2Al alloy was treated at 545 °C for different time periods. Phase evolution of the alloy was investigated. After solution treatment, the Mg-RE eutectic phase in the Mg-3Y-4Nd-2Al alloy dissolves, the granular Al2RE phase does not change, the acicular Al11RE3 phase breaks into the short rod-like Al2RE phase, and the lamellar Al2RE phase precipitates in the grains. With the extension of solution time, the precipitated phase of the lamellar Al2RE increased at first and then decreased, and its orientation relationship with the matrix is <112>Al2RE//<21¯1¯0>Mg and {111}Al2RE//{0002}Mg. The undissolved granular Al2RE phase can improve the thermal stability of the alloy grain by pinning the grain boundary, and the grain size did not change after solution treatment. Solution treatment significantly improved the plasticity of the alloy. After 48 h of solution treatment, the elongation increased to 17.5% from 8.5% in the as-cast state. Full article
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15 pages, 4287 KiB  
Article
Design and Optimization of a Self-Protected Thin Film c-Si Solar Cell against Reverse Bias
by Omar M. Saif, Abdelhalim Zekry, Ahmed Shaker, Mohammed Abouelatta, Tarek I. Alanazi and Ahmed Saeed
Materials 2023, 16(6), 2511; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16062511 - 21 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1332
Abstract
Current mismatch due to solar cell failure or partial shading of solar panels may cause a reverse biasing of solar cells inside a photovoltaic (PV) module. The reverse-biased cells consume power instead of generating it, resulting in hot spots. To protect the solar [...] Read more.
Current mismatch due to solar cell failure or partial shading of solar panels may cause a reverse biasing of solar cells inside a photovoltaic (PV) module. The reverse-biased cells consume power instead of generating it, resulting in hot spots. To protect the solar cell against the reverse current, we introduce a novel design of a self-protected thin-film crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cell using TCAD simulation. The proposed device achieves two distinct functions where it acts as a regular solar cell at forward bias while it performs as a backward diode upon reverse biasing. The ON-state voltage (VON) of the backward equivalent diode is found to be 0.062 V, which is lower than the value for the Schottky diode usually used as a protective element in a string of solar cells. Furthermore, enhancement techniques to improve the electrical and optical characteristics of the self-protected device are investigated. The proposed solar cell is enhanced by optimizing different design parameters, such as the doping concentration and the layers’ thicknesses. The enhanced cell structure shows an improvement in the short-circuit current density (JSC) and the open-circuit voltage (VOC), and thus an increased power conversion efficiency (PCE) while the VON is increased due to an increase of the JSC. Moreover, the simulation results depict that, by the introduction of an antireflection coating (ARC) layer, the external quantum efficiency (EQE) is enhanced and the PCE is boosted to 22.43%. Although the inclusion of ARC results in increasing VON, it is still lower than the value of VON for the Schottky diode encountered in current protection technology. Full article
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