Next Issue
Volume 16, February-2
Previous Issue
Volume 16, January-2
 
 
materials-logo

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Materials, Volume 16, Issue 3 (February-1 2023) – 437 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): A novel green chemical mechanical polishing was developed for quartz glass, consisting of mixed rare earth abrasives of ceria and lanthanum oxyfluoride (LO), potassium pyrophosphate (PP), sodium lauroyl sarcosinate (SLS) and sodium polyacrylate (SP). This cover depicts rare earth abrasives of ceria and LO surfing on a skateboard of PP in a slurry containing SLS and SP on the surface of transparent quartz glass. Behind the skateboard, a polishing disk is used to smooth the rough surface of quartz glass. After polishing, an atomic surface is achieved for use in high-performance optical devices. View this paper
  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Reader to open them.
Order results
Result details
Section
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
43 pages, 19817 KiB  
Review
Attaining High Functional Performance in Biodegradable Mg-Alloys: An Overview of Challenges and Prospects for the Mg-Zn-Ca System
by Alexei Vinogradov, Evgeniy Merson, Pavel Myagkikh, Mikhail Linderov, Alexandr Brilevsky and Dmitry Merson
Materials 2023, 16(3), 1324; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16031324 - 03 Feb 2023
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3045
Abstract
This article presents a concise overview of modern achievements and existing knowledge gaps in the area of biodegradable magnesium alloys. Hundreds of Mg-based alloys have been proposed as candidates for temporary implants, and this number tends to increase day by day. Therefore, while [...] Read more.
This article presents a concise overview of modern achievements and existing knowledge gaps in the area of biodegradable magnesium alloys. Hundreds of Mg-based alloys have been proposed as candidates for temporary implants, and this number tends to increase day by day. Therefore, while reviewing common aspects of research in this field, we confine ourselves primarily to the popular Mg-Zn-Ca system, taken as a representative example. Over the last decades, research activities in this area have grown enormously and have produced many exciting results. Aiming at highlighting the areas where research efforts are still scarce, we review the state-of-the-art processing techniques and summarize the functional properties attained via a wide variety of processing routes devised towards achieving a desired properties profile, including the mechanical response in terms of strength, ductility, and fatigue resistance paired with biocompatibility and bio-corrosion resistance or controlled degradability. We pay keen attention to a summary of corrosion properties and mechano-chemical interactions between an aggressive environment and loaded Mg-based structures, resulting in stress corrosion cracking and premature corrosion fatigue failures. The polemic issues and challenges practitioners face in their laboratory research are identified and discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnesium and Its Alloys as Biodegradable Implants)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 3807 KiB  
Article
Experimental Study of Stress and Deformation of Reclaimed Asphalt Concrete at Different Temperatures
by Jing Zhang, Mingyuan Zhou, Juan Liu and Xianwen Huang
Materials 2023, 16(3), 1323; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16031323 - 03 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1402
Abstract
Asphalt concrete has been used as a material for dam core walls because of its impermeability, durability and reliability. Firstly, asphalt is a temperature-sensitive material, and many of its characteristics are related to temperature. Secondly, because of the increasing construction height of the [...] Read more.
Asphalt concrete has been used as a material for dam core walls because of its impermeability, durability and reliability. Firstly, asphalt is a temperature-sensitive material, and many of its characteristics are related to temperature. Secondly, because of the increasing construction height of the dam, the pressure on the asphalt concrete core wall is also great. Finally, for the purpose of resource utilization, it is necessary to verify whether the reclaimed asphalt concrete can be used in dam construction. Therefore, it is necessary to study the stress and deformation characteristics of recycled asphalt concrete under different temperatures and confining pressures. In this study, three groups of triaxial tests of reclaimed asphalt concrete were carried out for the first time in a new temperature-controlled room. Duncan Zhang’s E-v model was used to fit the test results. The results show that the stress–strain curves of reclaimed asphalt concrete show softening characteristics at low temperatures and low confining pressure. It evolves to a hardening type with the increase in temperature and confining pressure. The bulk curve is first contracts but is followed by dilatancy. The dilatancy characteristics become more obvious at low temperatures and low confining pressure. With the increase in temperature and confining pressure, the dilatancy characteristics will weaken. Duncan Zhang’s E-v model has a good fitting effect on the stress–strain relationship but a poor fitting effect on the volumetric curve. The research of this paper can better combine the utilization of waste resources with engineering and achieve the aim of resource-saving and waste utilization under the premise of ensuring the safety of the engineering Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanical Performance of Composite Geomaterials)
Show Figures

Figure 1

10 pages, 1815 KiB  
Article
Synthesis of a Room-Temperature Curable Acrylic-Urethane Polymer Binder for Road Markings with High Transmittance
by Won-Bin Lim, Ju-Won Kim, Ju-Hong Lee, Ji-Hong Bae, Jin-Gyu Min and PilHo Huh
Materials 2023, 16(3), 1322; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16031322 - 03 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1700
Abstract
Triol acrylic-urethane (t-AU) was synthesized from an addition reaction using trimethylolpropane, hexamethylene diisocyanate, and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate. The novel acrylic-urethane polymer was applied to a high-performance binder to prepare a reliable road marking paint. Acrylic-urethane polymer binder formulations were designed to optimize the effect [...] Read more.
Triol acrylic-urethane (t-AU) was synthesized from an addition reaction using trimethylolpropane, hexamethylene diisocyanate, and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate. The novel acrylic-urethane polymer was applied to a high-performance binder to prepare a reliable road marking paint. Acrylic-urethane polymer binder formulations were designed to optimize the effect of t-AU on the physical properties. The t-AU content in the formulation affected the adhesion and optical properties. The improvement in the adhesive performance and transparency ability for road markings was attributed to the optimal chemical structure or design of the acrylic-urethane polymer. The synthesis of t-AU was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and molecular weight and polydispersity index (PDI; PDI = Mw/Mn) measurements. The tensile and shear strength, hardness, gel fraction, crosslink density, contact angle, and transmittance of the acrylic-urethane polymer binder (AUP) were evaluated by curing at room temperature using a redox initiator system. An optimized AUP by adding 5 wt.% t-AU provides a viable alternative to high-performance binders in road marking paints. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Materials: Research, Development and Application)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 16717 KiB  
Article
Changes in the Structure of Amorphous Alloys under Deformation by High-Pressure Torsion and Multiple Rolling
by Galina Abrosimova, Dmitry Gunderov, Evgenia Postnova and Alexandr Aronin
Materials 2023, 16(3), 1321; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16031321 - 03 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1527
Abstract
X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy were used to study changes in the structure of amorphous alloys under deformation by high-pressure torsion and multiple rolling. The change in mean nearest neighbor distance (the radius of the first coordination sphere) under deformation was determined. [...] Read more.
X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy were used to study changes in the structure of amorphous alloys under deformation by high-pressure torsion and multiple rolling. The change in mean nearest neighbor distance (the radius of the first coordination sphere) under deformation was determined. During deformation, shear bands are formed in amorphous alloys, which are regions of lower density compared to the surrounding undeformed amorphous matrix. Shear bands are zones of increased free volume, in which crystallization processes are facilitated. The change in the proportion of free volume under deformation of various types was estimated. The formation of shear bands leads to the appearance of steps on the surface of the samples. The number of shear bands and the surface morphology of deformed amorphous alloys were determined by the type of deformation and the physical properties of the material. The results obtained are discussed within the concept of free volume in the amorphous phase. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Glass and Glass-Ceramic Materials)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 6085 KiB  
Article
Plastic Deformation Mechanism of High Strength and Toughness ZK61 Magnesium Alloy Plate by Multipass Horizontal Continuous Rolling
by Ming Chen, Cong Ma, Qingjie Liu, Ming Cheng, Haolei Wang and Xiaodong Hu
Materials 2023, 16(3), 1320; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16031320 - 03 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1504
Abstract
ZK61 magnesium-alloy plate with high tensile strength and elongation is obtained by combined multipass symmetric hot rolling and asymmetric warm rolling. Deformation history considering varying strain rate obtained from the macro-finite element analysis of the selected passes are introduced into the viscoplastic self-consistent [...] Read more.
ZK61 magnesium-alloy plate with high tensile strength and elongation is obtained by combined multipass symmetric hot rolling and asymmetric warm rolling. Deformation history considering varying strain rate obtained from the macro-finite element analysis of the selected passes are introduced into the viscoplastic self-consistent model (VPSC) as initial boundary conditions for macro- multiscale and micro-multiscale coupling analysis. VPSC simulation results show that in the initial stage of rolling deformation, the basal <a> slip is the dominated deformation mode, supplemented by prismatic <a> slip and pyramidal <c+a> slip. With increased rolling strain, the pyramidal <c+a> slip presents competitive relationship with basal <a> slip, and the activation amount of {1011} compression twins is limited. During asymmetric rolling, the basal <a> slip is dominant, followed by the pyramidal <c+a> slip. Experimental results show that the basal texture is gradually strengthened after symmetric rolling, and grain size is refined due to the activation and recrystallization of twins. Asymmetric rolling makes the basal texture deflect 10° to the rolling direction and further refine the grain size. With the ongoing of symmetric rolling, the mechanical anisotropy of the plate weakens, and the yield strength, tensile strength, and plasticity of the material improves. In particular, after asymmetric rolling, the tensile strength in the RD and TD directions of the plate reaches 391.2 MPa and 398.9 MPa, whereas the elongation reaches 19.8% and 25.5%. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 3994 KiB  
Article
Green Synthesized sAuNPs as a Potential Delivery Platform for Cytotoxic Alkaloids
by Byron Mubaiwa, Mookho S. Lerata, Nicole R. S. Sibuyi, Mervin Meyer, Toufiek Samaai, John J. Bolton, Edith M. Antunes and Denzil R. Beukes
Materials 2023, 16(3), 1319; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16031319 - 03 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1542
Abstract
The use of natural products as chemotherapeutic agents is well established. However, many are associated with undesirable side effects, including high toxicity and instability. Previous reports on the cytotoxic activity of pyrroloiminoquinones isolated from Latrunculid sponges against cancer cell lines revealed extraordinary activity [...] Read more.
The use of natural products as chemotherapeutic agents is well established. However, many are associated with undesirable side effects, including high toxicity and instability. Previous reports on the cytotoxic activity of pyrroloiminoquinones isolated from Latrunculid sponges against cancer cell lines revealed extraordinary activity at IC50 of 77nM for discorhabdins. Their general lack of selectivity against the cancer and normal cell lines, however, precludes further development. In this study, extraction of a South African Latrunculid sponge produced three known pyrroloiminoquinone metabolites (14-bromodiscorhabdin C (5), Tsitsikammamine A (6) and B (7)). The assignment of the structures was established using standard 1D and 2D NMR experiments. To mitigate the lack of selectivity, the compounds were loaded onto gold nanoparticles synthesized using the aqueous extract of a brown seaweed, Sargassum incisifolium (sAuNPs). The cytotoxicity of the metabolites alone, and their sAuNP conjugates, were evaluated together with the known anticancer agent doxorubicin and its AuNP conjugate. The compound-AuNP conjugates retained their strong cytotoxic activity against the MCF-7 cell line, with >90% of the pyrroloiminoquinone-loaded AuNPs penetrating the cell membrane. Loading cytotoxic natural products onto AuNPs provides an avenue in overcoming some issues hampering the development of new anticancer drugs. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 9306 KiB  
Article
Effect of the Texture of the Ultrafine-Grained Ti-6Al-4V Titanium Alloy on Impact Toughness
by Iuliia M. Modina, Grigory S. Dyakonov, Andrey G. Stotskiy, Tatyana V. Yakovleva and Irina P. Semenova
Materials 2023, 16(3), 1318; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16031318 - 03 Feb 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1387
Abstract
In this work, the strength properties and impact toughness of the ultrafine-grained (UFG) Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy produced by severe plastic deformation (SPD) in combination with upsetting were studied, depending on the direction of crack propagation. In the billets processed by equal-channel angular pressing [...] Read more.
In this work, the strength properties and impact toughness of the ultrafine-grained (UFG) Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy produced by severe plastic deformation (SPD) in combination with upsetting were studied, depending on the direction of crack propagation. In the billets processed by equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP), the presence of anisotropy of ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and ductility was observed, conditioned by the formation of a metallographic and crystallographic texture. At the same time, the ECAP-processed UFG alloy exhibited satisfactory values of impact toughness, ~0.42 MJ/m2. An additional upsetting of the ECAP-processed billet simulated the processes of shape forming/die forging and was accompanied by the development of recovery and recrystallization. This provided the “blurring” of texture and a reduction in the anisotropy of UTS and ductility, but a difference in impact toughness in several directions of fracture was still observed. It is shown that texture evolution during upsetting provided a significant increase in the crack propagation energy. The relationship between microstructure, texture and mechanical properties in different sections of the material under study is discussed. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

25 pages, 6125 KiB  
Review
Development of Self-Assembly Methods on Quantum Dots
by Qun Hao, Hongyu Lv, Haifei Ma, Xin Tang and Menglu Chen
Materials 2023, 16(3), 1317; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16031317 - 03 Feb 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2877
Abstract
Quantum dot materials, with their unique photophysical properties, are promising zero-dimensional materials for encryption, display, solar cells, and biomedical applications. However, due to the large surface to volume ratio, they face the challenge of chemical instability and low carrier transport efficiency, which have [...] Read more.
Quantum dot materials, with their unique photophysical properties, are promising zero-dimensional materials for encryption, display, solar cells, and biomedical applications. However, due to the large surface to volume ratio, they face the challenge of chemical instability and low carrier transport efficiency, which have greatly limited their reliability and utility. In light of the current development bottleneck of quantum dot materials, the chemical stability and physical properties can be effectively improved by the self-assembly method. This review will discuss the research progress of the self-assembly methods of quantum dots and analyze the advantages and disadvantages of those self-assembly methods. Furthermore, the scientific challenges and improvement in the self-assembly method of quantum dots are prospected. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Quantum Materials)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 7037 KiB  
Article
Numerical and Experimental Study of the Fatigue Behavior for a Medical Rehabilitation Exoskeleton Device Using the Resonance Method
by Ana-Maria Mitu, Tudor Sireteanu, Nicolae Pop, Liviu Cristian Chis, Vicentiu Marius Maxim and Mirela Roxana Apsan
Materials 2023, 16(3), 1316; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16031316 - 03 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1154
Abstract
In this paper, the dynamic behavior of a hip level joint device of an active exoskeleton used in the medical field is analyzed. The finite element method is used in order to determine the first frequencies and the eigenmodes, necessary for the fatigue [...] Read more.
In this paper, the dynamic behavior of a hip level joint device of an active exoskeleton used in the medical field is analyzed. The finite element method is used in order to determine the first frequencies and the eigenmodes, necessary for the fatigue testing in the resonance regime. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue System Dynamics and Fatigue of Materials)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 4097 KiB  
Article
Influence of Citric Acid on the Fundamental Properties of CO2 Cured Magnesium Oxysulfate Paste
by Houchao Sun, Feiting Shi and Hui Wang
Materials 2023, 16(3), 1315; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16031315 - 03 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1296
Abstract
Magnesium oxysulfate (MOS), mainly composed of magnesium oxide and magnesium sulfate, is a kind of gas-hardening cementing material with low energy consumption and CO2 emissions. In order to develop environment-friendly cement-based materials, MOS needs to be studied systematically. The paper mainly investigates [...] Read more.
Magnesium oxysulfate (MOS), mainly composed of magnesium oxide and magnesium sulfate, is a kind of gas-hardening cementing material with low energy consumption and CO2 emissions. In order to develop environment-friendly cement-based materials, MOS needs to be studied systematically. The paper mainly investigates the influence of citric acid (a retarder) on the working and mechanical properties of MOS paste. In this study, the setting time of fresh MOS paste is determined. The flexural and compressive strengths of hardened specimens exposed to the environment of water dry-wet (D-W) alternations, freeze-thaw (F-T) cycles, and sulfate D-W alternations are investigated. Furthermore, the drying shrinkage (D-S) rate of MOS paste is tested for 3 days and 28 days. The specimens are cured in standard or CO2 curing environments. A scanning electron microscope energy spectrum (SEM-EDS) is obtained to analyze the morphology of hydration products. Results show that citric acid can increase the setting time of MOS paste. The citric acid and CO2 curing have a positive effect on the mechanical strengths and the resistance to erosion by water, F-T cycles, and sulfate D-W alternations. The D-S rate decreased in relation to the increasing dosages of citric acid and increased with CO2 curing. MOS with 0.3% of the total binder material mass shows the best erosion resistance. As observed in the results of SEM-EDS, the CO2 curing and the citric acid can make the hydration products denser. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Special Functional and Environmental Cement-Based Materials)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 10486 KiB  
Article
Highly Efficient Cd2+ Removal Using Tobermorite with pH Self-Adjustment Ability from Aqueous Solution
by Juan Qin, Sujuan Yuan, Mauricio Córdova-Udaeta, Keishi Oyama and Chiharu Tokoro
Materials 2023, 16(3), 1314; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16031314 - 03 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1317
Abstract
Cadmium (Cd), as a type of heavy metal, can increase the incidence of many diseases, even in low concentrations. In this study, tobermorite was hydrothermally synthesized and then applied to adsorb Cd2+ from an aqueous solution. The physicochemical characteristics of the synthesized [...] Read more.
Cadmium (Cd), as a type of heavy metal, can increase the incidence of many diseases, even in low concentrations. In this study, tobermorite was hydrothermally synthesized and then applied to adsorb Cd2+ from an aqueous solution. The physicochemical characteristics of the synthesized tobermorite were detected, and the results indicated that the well-crystallized tobermorite had a lot of mesopores and a large specific surface area of 140.92 m2/g. It acquired a pH self-adjustment ability via spontaneously releasing Ca2+ and OH- into the aqueous solution. The effects of different factors on Cd2+ removal were investigated. For Cd2+, the removal efficiency could reach 99.71% and the maximum adsorption capacity was 39.18 mg/g using tobermorite. The adsorption data was best fitted with the pseudo-second-order kinetic and Langmuir isotherm models. In addition, there was no strict limit on the solution pH in Cd2+ adsorption because the tobermorite could adjust the solution pH to an alkaline atmosphere spontaneously. The efficient removal of Cd2+ using tobermorite was a result of surface complexation and ion exchange. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 8909 KiB  
Article
Effects of Temperature and Pressure on Corrosion Behavior of HVOF-Sprayed Fe-Based Amorphous Coating on the Mg-RE Alloy for Dissolvable Plugging Tools
by Yijiao Sun, Hongxiang Li, Jun Yang and Jishan Zhang
Materials 2023, 16(3), 1313; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16031313 - 03 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1552
Abstract
To retard the degradation of the magnesium alloys for dissolvable ball seats, Fe-based amorphous coatings were deposited on dissolvable Mg-RE alloy substrates using high velocity oxygen-fuel spraying technology. The results show that the Fe-based amorphous coatings possess low porosity (0.82%) and high amorphous [...] Read more.
To retard the degradation of the magnesium alloys for dissolvable ball seats, Fe-based amorphous coatings were deposited on dissolvable Mg-RE alloy substrates using high velocity oxygen-fuel spraying technology. The results show that the Fe-based amorphous coatings possess low porosity (0.82%) and high amorphous contents (91.4%) and their corrosion resistance decreases with the increase of temperature or pressure. However, with the help of Fe-based amorphous coatings, the degradation time of dissolvable Mg-RE alloy has been significantly prolonged. In particular, the service life of coated Mg-RE alloy exceeds 360 h at temperatures below 50 °C and reaches 87 h at 120 °C and 80 atm. Under high temperature and high pressure, the compactness of passive films decreases and the chemical activities of ions and metal elements increase, leading to the degradation of corrosion resistance of Fe-based amorphous coatings. In long-term corrosion, the crystallized splats are prone to corrosion because of the multiphase structures. The corroded crystallized splats are connected to the inevitable pores by the corroded intersplat regions, resulting in the formation of corrosion channels and the corrosion failure of coatings. This study provides a useful guidance for the corrosion protection of dissolvable plugging tools made of magnesium alloys. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coatings on Light Alloys Substrate)
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 7454 KiB  
Article
Variation Mechanism of Three-Dimensional Force and Force-Based Defect Detection in Friction Stir Welding of Aluminum Alloys
by Jihong Dong, Yiming Huang, Jialei Zhu, Wei Guan, Lijun Yang and Lei Cui
Materials 2023, 16(3), 1312; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16031312 - 03 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1308
Abstract
As a direct reflection of the interaction between the stirring tool and the base metal in the friction stir welding process, the force signal is an important means to characterize welding quality. In this paper, the variation mechanism of three-dimensional force and its [...] Read more.
As a direct reflection of the interaction between the stirring tool and the base metal in the friction stir welding process, the force signal is an important means to characterize welding quality. In this paper, the variation mechanism of three-dimensional force and its relation with welding quality were explored. The acquired signals were subject to interference from high-frequency noise, so mean filtering and variational mode decomposition were applied to obtain the real signals. The denoised signals were analyzed and the results showed that the traverse force was ahead of the lateral force by a ratio of π /4, while the phase difference between the axial force and the other two forces changed with the process parameters. Through application of the least square method and polynomial fitting, the empirical formulas of three-dimensional force were obtained, and these were applicable regardless of tunnel defects. The minimum value of the lateral force increased several times more than that of traverse force when the welding speed increased from 80 mm/min to 240 mm/min. When the pole radiuses of most data points had a value greater than 4, tunnel defects were highly likely to generate. In order to predict welding quality more accurately, a prediction model based on long short-term memory was constructed. The model recognized the various modes of good welds and tunnel defects with 100% accuracy. The identification ability for large and small defects was relatively poor, and the average accuracy of classifying the three categories of welding quality was 84.67%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Steel Design: Casting, Forming and Heat Treatment)
Show Figures

Figure 1

10 pages, 2711 KiB  
Article
ZnTe Crystal Multimode Cryogenic Thermometry Using Raman and Luminescence Spectroscopy
by Evgenii V. Borisov, Alexey A. Kalinichev and Ilya E. Kolesnikov
Materials 2023, 16(3), 1311; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16031311 - 03 Feb 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1424
Abstract
In this study, ZnTe crystal was applied to provide precise thermal sensing for cryogenic temperatures. Multiple techniques, namely Raman and photoluminescence spectroscopies, were used to broaden the operating temperature range and improve the reliability of the proposed thermometers. Raman-based temperature sensing could be [...] Read more.
In this study, ZnTe crystal was applied to provide precise thermal sensing for cryogenic temperatures. Multiple techniques, namely Raman and photoluminescence spectroscopies, were used to broaden the operating temperature range and improve the reliability of the proposed thermometers. Raman-based temperature sensing could be applied in the range of 20–100 K, while luminescence-based thermometry could be utilized in a narrower range of 20–70 K. However, the latter strategy provides better relative thermal sensitivity and temperature resolution. The best thermal performances based on a single temperature-dependent parameter attain Sr = 3.82% K−1 and ΔT = 0.12 K at T = 50 K. The synergy between multiple linear regression and multiparametric thermal sensing demonstrated for Raman-based thermometry results in a ten-fold improvement of Sr and a two-fold enhancement of ΔT. All studies performed testify that the ZnTe crystal is a promising multimode contactless optical sensor for cryogenic thermometry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Properties and Applications of Nanocrystals)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 4719 KiB  
Article
Three-Dimensional Numerical Simulation of the Performance and Transport Phenomena of Oxygen Evolution Reactions in a Proton Exchange Membrane Water Electrolyzer
by Jinsong Zheng, Zhenye Kang, Bo Han and Jingke Mo
Materials 2023, 16(3), 1310; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16031310 - 03 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2165
Abstract
Proton exchange membrane (PEM) water electrolysis, which is one of methods of hydrogen production with the most potential, has attracted more attention due to its energy conversion and storage potential. In this paper, a steady state, three-dimensional mathematical model coupled with the electrochemical [...] Read more.
Proton exchange membrane (PEM) water electrolysis, which is one of methods of hydrogen production with the most potential, has attracted more attention due to its energy conversion and storage potential. In this paper, a steady state, three-dimensional mathematical model coupled with the electrochemical and mass transfer physical fields for a PEM water electrolyzer was established. The influence of the different operation parameters on the cell performance was discussed. Moreover, the different patterns of the flow field, such as parallel, serpentine, multi-serpentine, and interdigitate flow fields, were simulated to reveal their influence on the mass transfer and current distribution and how they consequently affected the cell performance. The results of the numerical modeling were in good agreement with the experimental data. The results demonstrated that a higher temperature led to a better mass transfer, current distribution, and cell performance. By comparing the polarization curve, current, velocity, and pressure distribution, the results also indicated that the PEM water electrolyzer with a parallel flow field had the best performance. The results in this study can help in optimizing the design of PEM water electrolyzers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis of Electrode Materials)
Show Figures

Figure 1

22 pages, 12239 KiB  
Article
Application of Digital Image Correlation to Evaluate Strain, Stiffness and Ductility of Full-Scale LVL Beams Strengthened by CFRP
by Michał Marcin Bakalarz and Paweł Piotr Tworzewski
Materials 2023, 16(3), 1309; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16031309 - 03 Feb 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1728
Abstract
Due to limitations of traditional measuring methods, a necessity of verification of applicability of optical measuring systems in different fields of science is required. The paper presents the application of a non-contact, non-destructive ARAMIS optical system in the analysis of static work of [...] Read more.
Due to limitations of traditional measuring methods, a necessity of verification of applicability of optical measuring systems in different fields of science is required. The paper presents the application of a non-contact, non-destructive ARAMIS optical system in the analysis of static work of unstrengthened and strengthened laminated veneer lumber beams (LVL) with composite materials, subjected to a four-point bending test. The beams were strengthened with Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) sheets and laminates. The sheets were bonded to the external surfaces in three configurations differing in the number of layers applied and the degree of coverage of the side surface. The CFRP laminates were glued into predrilled grooves and applied to the underside of the beams. An adhesive based on epoxy resin was used. The scope of the work includes analysis of the strain distribution, stiffness and ductility. The analysis was performed on the basis of measurements made with an optical measurement system. The strain analysis indicated a change of the distribution of the strain in the compressive zone from linear for the unstrengthened to bilinear for the strengthened beams. The stiffness increase was equal from 14% up to 45% for the application of the CFRP laminates in the grooves and CFRP sheets bonded externally, respectively. Similar improvement was obtained for the ductility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Advances in Strengthening of Structural Timber)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 6422 KiB  
Article
Acoustic Insulation Characteristics and Optimal Design of Membrane-Type Metamaterials Loaded with Asymmetric Mass Blocks
by Renjie Jiang, Geman Shi, Chengmao Huang, Weiguang Zheng and Shande Li
Materials 2023, 16(3), 1308; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16031308 - 03 Feb 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1730
Abstract
Membrane-type acoustic metamaterials (MAMs) are the focus of the current research due to their lightweight, small size, and good low-frequency sound insulation performance. However, there exists difficulties for extensive application because of the narrow sound insulation band. In order to achieve broadband sound [...] Read more.
Membrane-type acoustic metamaterials (MAMs) are the focus of the current research due to their lightweight, small size, and good low-frequency sound insulation performance. However, there exists difficulties for extensive application because of the narrow sound insulation band. In order to achieve broadband sound isolation under the premise of lightweight, a novel MAM with asymmetric rings is firstly proposed in this paper. The sound transmission loss (STL) of this MAM is calculated by an analytical method and is verified by the finite element model. The different properties of the membrane when it is loaded with one, two, or four mass blocks are analyzed. The comparison with the traditional MAM proves the superior performance of this novel MAM. Moreover, by discussing the influence of the eccentricity and distribution position of the masses on the results, the tunability of the sound insulation performance of this MAM is proven. Finally, the Isight platform is used to optimize the MAM to further improve the broadband sound insulation performance: the average STL of the MAM is improved by 15.7%, the bandwidth above 30 dB is improved by 11.5%, and the mass density is reduced by 30.01%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Advanced Composites)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 3089 KiB  
Article
Multiple Reprocessing of Conductive PLA 3D-Printing Filament: Rheology, Morphology, Thermal and Electrochemical Properties Assessment
by Mateusz Cieślik, Agata Rodak, Agnieszka Susik, Natalia Wójcik, Michał Szociński, Jacek Ryl and Krzysztof Formela
Materials 2023, 16(3), 1307; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16031307 - 03 Feb 2023
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2102
Abstract
Additive manufacturing technologies are gaining more and more attention, resulting in the development or modification of 3D printing techniques and dedicated materials. On the other hand, economic and ecological aspects force the industry to develop material recycling strategies. In this work, the multiple [...] Read more.
Additive manufacturing technologies are gaining more and more attention, resulting in the development or modification of 3D printing techniques and dedicated materials. On the other hand, economic and ecological aspects force the industry to develop material recycling strategies. In this work, the multiple reprocessing of a commercially available PLA conductive composite with carbon black filler, dedicated to 3D printing, was investigated. The effects of extrusion temperature (190 °C and 200 °C) and reprocessing steps (1–5 steps) on the rheology, morphology, thermal and electrochemical properties of the conductive PLA 3D-printing filament were evaluated. The results showed deterioration of the thermal stability and material strength, as well as the influence of reprocessing on the melting point, which increases after initial melting. The electronic conduction mechanism of the composite depends on the percolation paths and it is also affected by the multiple processing. The reversibility of the [Fe(CN)6]3−/4− redox process diminishes with a higher degradation level of the conductive PLA. Importantly, the material fluidity was too high after the multiple reprocessing, which should be considered and suitably corrected during CB–PLA application as a 3D-printed electrode material. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 5085 KiB  
Article
Chloride Penetration of Recycled Fine Aggregate Concrete under Drying–Wetting Cycles
by Chunhong Chen, Lei Wang, Ronggui Liu, Jiang Yu, Hui Liu and Jinlong Wu
Materials 2023, 16(3), 1306; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16031306 - 03 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1309
Abstract
Recycled fine aggregate (RFA) produced from concrete waste is commonly used in the construction industry; however, its use for structural concrete members has not been extensively studied. Moreover, its durability in a drying–wetting cycle environment still needs to be examined. In this study, [...] Read more.
Recycled fine aggregate (RFA) produced from concrete waste is commonly used in the construction industry; however, its use for structural concrete members has not been extensively studied. Moreover, its durability in a drying–wetting cycle environment still needs to be examined. In this study, the intrusion process of chloride in concrete under the drying–wetting cycles is experimentally characterized. Chloride penetration tests are carried out on concrete with the incorporation of different RFA replacement rates and mineral admixtures (i.e., fly ash and silica fume). The results show that the chloride penetration of recycled fine aggregate concrete (RFAC) is dependent upon the performance of the concrete itself, while the deterioration of chloride ion erosion resistance is due to the combined action of the replacement rate of RFA and the drying–wetting cycles. The incorporation of RFA degrades the properties of RFAC owing to its drawbacks in the degradation of interfacial properties of RFAC. Exposure to the drying–wetting cycle environment causes the content of free chloride ions in RFAC to increase initially before decreasing with the erosion depth, thereby showing an obvious convection zone and diffusion zone. The incorporation of the mineral admixture can effectively improve the compactness of the concrete microstructure and make concrete less susceptible to chloride ions ingress. RFAC mixed with 15% fly ash and 10% silica fume has a comparable resistance to chloride penetration as a natural aggregate concrete, which is a feasible method for the application of RFA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Sustainable Construction and Building Materials)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 5394 KiB  
Article
Optical Properties Investigation of Upconverting K2Gd(PO4)(WO4):20%Yb3+,Tm3+ Phosphors
by Julija Grigorjevaite and Arturas Katelnikovas
Materials 2023, 16(3), 1305; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16031305 - 03 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1382
Abstract
Nowadays, scientists are interested in inorganic luminescence materials that can be excited with UV or NIR radiation and emit in the visible range. Such inorganic materials can be successfully used as luminescent or anti-counterfeiting pigments. In this work, we report the synthesis and [...] Read more.
Nowadays, scientists are interested in inorganic luminescence materials that can be excited with UV or NIR radiation and emit in the visible range. Such inorganic materials can be successfully used as luminescent or anti-counterfeiting pigments. In this work, we report the synthesis and optical properties investigation of solely Tm3+ doped and Yb3+/Tm3+ co-doped K2Gd(PO4)(WO4) phosphors. The single-phase samples were prepared using a solid-state reaction method. The Tm3+ concentration was changed from 0.5% to 5%. Downshifting and upconversion emission studies were performed under 360 nm and 980 nm excitation, respectively. Yb3+ ions were used as sensitizers in the K2Gd(PO4)(WO4) phosphors to transfer the captured energy to Tm3+ ions. It turned out that under UV excitation, phosphors emitted in the blue spectral area regardless of the presence or absence of Yb3+. However, a very strong deep-red (~800 nm) emission was observed when Yb3+ and Tm3+-containing samples were excited with a 980 nm wavelength laser. It is interesting that the highest upconversion emission in the UV/Visible range was achieved for 20% Yb3+, 0.5% Tm3+ doped sample, whereas the sample co-doped with 20% Yb3+, 2% Tm3+ showed the most intensive UC emission band in the NIR range. The materials were characterized using powder X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Optical properties were studied using steady-state and kinetic downshifting and upconversion photoluminescence spectroscopy. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

17 pages, 6285 KiB  
Article
Efficient Day-and-Night NO2 Abatement by Polyaniline/TiO2 Nanocomposites
by Daniela Meroni, Melissa G. Galloni, Carolina Cionti, Giuseppina Cerrato, Ermelinda Falletta and Claudia L. Bianchi
Materials 2023, 16(3), 1304; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16031304 - 03 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1418
Abstract
Finding innovative and highly performing approaches for NOx degradation represents a key challenge to enhance the air quality of our environment. In this study, the high efficiency of PANI/TiO2 nanostructures in the NO2 abatement both in the dark and under light [...] Read more.
Finding innovative and highly performing approaches for NOx degradation represents a key challenge to enhance the air quality of our environment. In this study, the high efficiency of PANI/TiO2 nanostructures in the NO2 abatement both in the dark and under light irradiation is demonstrated for the first time. Heterostructures were synthesized by a “green” method and their composition, structure, morphology and oxidation state were investigated by a combination of characterization techniques. The results show that the unique PANI structure promotes two mechanisms for the NO2 abatement in the dark (adsorption on the polymeric chains and chemical reduction to NO), whereas the photocatalytic behavior prevails under light irradiation, leading to the complete NOx degradation. The best-performing materials were subjected to recycling tests, thereby showing high stability without any significant activity loss. Overall, the presented material can represent an innovative and efficient night-and-day solution for NOx abatement. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

23 pages, 2261 KiB  
Review
Recent Trends in Hydroxyapatite Supplementation for Osteoregenerative Purposes
by Ana Zastulka, Simona Clichici, Maria Tomoaia-Cotisel, Aurora Mocanu, Cecilia Roman, Cristian-Doru Olteanu, Bogdan Culic and Teodora Mocan
Materials 2023, 16(3), 1303; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16031303 - 03 Feb 2023
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2672
Abstract
Bone regeneration has gained attention in the biomedical field, which has led to the development of materials and synthesis methods meant to improve osseointegration and cellular bone activity. The properties of hydroxyapatite, a type of calcium phosphate, have been researched to determine its [...] Read more.
Bone regeneration has gained attention in the biomedical field, which has led to the development of materials and synthesis methods meant to improve osseointegration and cellular bone activity. The properties of hydroxyapatite, a type of calcium phosphate, have been researched to determine its advantages for bone tissue engineering, particularly its biocompatibility and ability to interact with bone cells. Recently, the advantages of utilizing nanomolecules of hydroxyapatite, combined with various substances, in order to enhance and combine their characteristics, have been reported in the literature. This review will outline the cellular and molecular roles of hydroxypatite, its interactions with bone cells, and its nano-combinations with various ions and natural products and their effects on bone growth, development, and bone repair. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physico-Chemical Analysis of Engineered Nanomaterials)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 4003 KiB  
Article
Effect of Cu on the Formation of Reversed Austenite in Super Martensitic Stainless Steel
by Wen Jiang and Kunyu Zhao
Materials 2023, 16(3), 1302; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16031302 - 03 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1300
Abstract
We investigated the effect of Cu on the formation of reversed austenite in super martensitic stainless steel by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), a transmission electron microscope (TEM) and an energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS). Our results showed that the microstructure of the steels comprised tempered [...] Read more.
We investigated the effect of Cu on the formation of reversed austenite in super martensitic stainless steel by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), a transmission electron microscope (TEM) and an energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS). Our results showed that the microstructure of the steels comprised tempered martensite and diffused reversed austenite after the steels were quenched at 1050 °C and tempered at 550–750 °C. The volume fraction of reversed austenite in the steel with 3 wt.% of Cu (3Cu) was more than that with 1.5 wt.% of Cu (1.5Cu). The transmission electron microscope results revealed that the reversed austenite in 1.5Cu steel mainly had the shape of a thin strip, while that in 3Cu steel had a block shape. The nucleation points and degree of Ni enrichment of reversed austenite in 3Cu steel were higher than those in 1.5Cu steel. The reversed austenite was more likely to grow in ε-Cu enriched regions. Therefore, Cu can promote reversed austenite nucleation and growth. The mechanical properties of 3 Cu steel are obviously better than those of 1.5Cu steel when tempered at 550–650 °C. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recovery of Non-ferrous Metal from Metallurgical Residues)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 4857 KiB  
Article
Freeze/Thaw Resistance of Mortar with Recycled Tyre Waste at Varying Particle Sizes
by Riccardo Maddalena
Materials 2023, 16(3), 1301; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16031301 - 03 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1845
Abstract
There is a growing concern for finding alternative solutions to construction materials in order to minimise their environmental impact as well as enhancing their service life. This study investigated the durability of cementitious mortars prepared by replacing fine aggregate (sand) with recycled tyre [...] Read more.
There is a growing concern for finding alternative solutions to construction materials in order to minimise their environmental impact as well as enhancing their service life. This study investigated the durability of cementitious mortars prepared by replacing fine aggregate (sand) with recycled tyre shreds and crumbs, aiming at providing an alternative outlet to tyre waste disposal. Tyre shreds obtained at different particle sizes, from fibres of 0.5–5.0 mm to crumbs of 0.1–0.85 mm in diameter, were used as fine aggregate replacement at 20% by volume. The strength of the mortar samples, their thermal conductivity and their water absorption rate were tested at the age of 28 days and after 20 freeze/thaw cycles. The results showed that the mortar containing tyre crumbs at lower particle sizes resulted in negligible shrinkage, improved freeze/thaw resistance, a reduced water absorption by up to 52% and an improved thermal resistivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Durability and Sustainability of Cement and Concrete Composites)
Show Figures

Figure 1

22 pages, 8750 KiB  
Article
Laboratory Study of the Effects of the Mixer Type and Mixing Time on the Volumetric Properties and Performance of a HMA with 30 Percent Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement
by Marc-André Bérubé, Sébastien Lamothe, Kevin Bilodeau and Alan Carter
Materials 2023, 16(3), 1300; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16031300 - 03 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2137
Abstract
This study examined the effects of the laboratory mixer type and mixing time on a hot-mix asphalt (HMA) using three different types of mixers and four different mixing times. The asphalt mix used is a semi-open graded mix (ESG-10) with 30% reclaimed asphalt [...] Read more.
This study examined the effects of the laboratory mixer type and mixing time on a hot-mix asphalt (HMA) using three different types of mixers and four different mixing times. The asphalt mix used is a semi-open graded mix (ESG-10) with 30% reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP), and a range of tests were conducted including bitumen extraction by ignition, particle size distribution, maximum specific gravity (Gmm), a SUPERPAVE gyratory compactor (SGC), bulk specific gravity (Gmb), indirect tensile stiffness modulus (ITSM), and indirect tensile strength (IDT). The statistical analysis of variance (ANOVA) was also applied to quantify the effect of mixer type and mixing time. The results indicated that both mixing type and time had a significant effect on the properties of the HMA (volumetric properties and compactability) and that the type of mixer used also affected the performance of the HMA (stiffness and cracking resistance), with some mixers producing asphalt mixes with better properties than others. The study ultimately demonstrated that it is possible to produce a mix that exhibits good performance and meets or does not meet the compactability specifications depending on the mixer type used. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Sustainable Asphalt Pavements)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 6105 KiB  
Article
Novel Ultrafine-Grain Mg-Gd/Nd-Y-Ca Alloys with an Increased Ignition Temperature
by Stanislav Šašek, Peter Minárik, Jitka Stráská, Klára Hosová, Jozef Veselý, Jiří Kubásek, Robert Král, Tomáš Krajňák and Dalibor Vojtěch
Materials 2023, 16(3), 1299; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16031299 - 03 Feb 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1667
Abstract
Two novel ignition-resistant magnesium alloys, Mg-2Gd-2Y-1Ca and Mg-2Nd-1Y-1Ca, were prepared in the ultrafine-grain condition by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP). In addition, four commercial alloys—AZ31, AX41, AE42 and WE43—were prepared similarly as a reference. The microstructure, mechanical properties and ignition temperature were thoroughly [...] Read more.
Two novel ignition-resistant magnesium alloys, Mg-2Gd-2Y-1Ca and Mg-2Nd-1Y-1Ca, were prepared in the ultrafine-grain condition by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP). In addition, four commercial alloys—AZ31, AX41, AE42 and WE43—were prepared similarly as a reference. The microstructure, mechanical properties and ignition temperature were thoroughly investigated. Both novel alloys exhibited a mean grain size of ~1 µm and dense distribution of small secondary phase particles. The mechanical strength measured by the tensile deformation test showed that the novel alloys are much stronger (~290 MPa) than all commercial alloys except WE43. However, Ca segregation into the grain boundaries caused a significant decrease in ductility (<6%). The ignition temperature of the novel alloys (~950 °C) was considerably improved by the presence of Gd/Nd, Y and Ca. This study showed that both novel alloys exhibit high strength and high ignition temperature in the ultrafine-grain condition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Metals and Alloys)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 9303 KiB  
Article
The Workability and Mechanical Performance of Fly Ash Cenosphere–Desert Sand Ceramsite Concrete: An Experimental Study and Analysis
by Junlin Guo, Kang Yuan, Jianjiang Xu, Ying Wang, Dan Gan and Mingsheng He
Materials 2023, 16(3), 1298; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16031298 - 02 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1972
Abstract
In order to alleviate the shortage of sand resources for construction, make full use of industrial waste and promote the development of green lightweight aggregate concrete in the desert and surrounding areas, this paper proposes a new lightweight ceramsite concrete, fly ash cenospheres [...] Read more.
In order to alleviate the shortage of sand resources for construction, make full use of industrial waste and promote the development of green lightweight aggregate concrete in the desert and surrounding areas, this paper proposes a new lightweight ceramsite concrete, fly ash cenospheres and desert sand ceramsite concrete (FDCC). An orthogonal test was conducted to analyze the effects of the desert sand (DS) replacing ratio, fly ash cenosphere (FAC) replacing ratio and polymer emulsion (PLE) addition on the damage patterns, slump, apparent density and compressive strength of the FDCC. The results showed that the most influential factors for the slump, apparent density and compressive strength of the FDCC were the FAC replacing ratio, FAC replacing ratio and DS replacing ratio, respectively. Meanwhile, the PLE addition had little effect on the workability or mechanical performance of the FDCC. With the increase in the DS replacing ratio, the slump decreased rapidly and the compressive strength reached its peak value, increasing by 20.6% when the DS replacing ratio was 20%. With the increase in the FAC replacing ratio, the slump increased by 106%, the apparent density decreased gradually and the compressive decreased and then increased, reaching its lowest value when the FAC replacing ratio was 20%. According to the synthetic evaluation analysis, the optimum DS replacing ratio, FAC replacing ratio and PLE addition of the FDCC were 20%, 30% and 1%, respectively. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

28 pages, 7818 KiB  
Review
Mechanochemical Activation of Superradiance in Paramagnetic Polymer Composites
by Aleksey I. Aleksandrov and Vitaliy G. Shevchenko
Materials 2023, 16(3), 1297; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16031297 - 02 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1432
Abstract
The review examines the effect of radio-frequency superradiance during pulsed mechanochemical activation of polymer composites under high pressure. Mechanochemical activation is implemented in three modes: (a) rheological explosion of polymer composite under rapid uniaxial compression, when an elastic wave pulse occurs in a [...] Read more.
The review examines the effect of radio-frequency superradiance during pulsed mechanochemical activation of polymer composites under high pressure. Mechanochemical activation is implemented in three modes: (a) rheological explosion of polymer composite under rapid uniaxial compression, when an elastic wave pulse occurs in a polymer composite sample and implements the physico-chemical transformations leading to the occurrence of a superradiance pulse; (b) parametric mode, when an elastic wave pulse is introduced from the outside through a waveguide into a composite sample; (c) the mode of rapid pressure release, which also leads to the occurrence of a superradiance pulse. Paramagnetic polymer composites—namely polystyrene–binuclear clusters Co(QH)2–O–Co(QH)2 or Mn(QH)2–O–Mn(QH)2, where QH is a ligand based on QH2–3,6-di-tert-butylpyrocatechin)—are considered as objects implementing such processes. These binuclear clusters exhibit the Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya effect, and polymer composites based on them exhibit multiferroic properties. A composite of a molecular magnet in polystyrene matrix (Eu(III)(SQ)3·bipy complex with four unpaired electrons on Eu(III) and on SQ ligands; SQ is 3,6-di-tert-butylquinolate paramagnetic ligand) is also considered. The binuclear clusters and europium complexes form 2D nano-objects in the polymer matrix with a diameter of 50–100 nm and a thickness of ~ 1–2 nm. The review considers the formalisms of Dicke, Lorentz, Landau–Lifshitz–Blombergen and Havriliak–Negami equations, which make it possible to conduct a time–frequency analysis of these processes, to obtain data on the relaxation processes of spin and charge density in objects responsible for the process of radio-frequency superradiation. It is also shown that the analysis of electron spin resonance data allows us to provide a probable quantum chemical scheme for the implementation of the radio-frequency superradiance process. The phenomenon of superradiation has a great deal of potential in such areas as energy-saving technologies, wireless power transmission and storage devices. The technique of studying fast mechanochemical processes considered in the review allows us to investigate the mechanisms of interaction of magnetic and electrical subsystems in multiferroics and molecular magnets, which expands the scientific base for the creation of new functional materials and enables the solving of related problems of condensed matter physics. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 6762 KiB  
Article
GO-Enabled Bacterial Cellulose Membranes by Multistep, In Situ Loading: Effect of Bacterial Strain and Loading Pattern on Nanocomposite Properties
by Tobiasz Gabryś, Beata Fryczkowska, Urška Jančič, Janja Trček and Selestina Gorgieva
Materials 2023, 16(3), 1296; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16031296 - 02 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1499
Abstract
This paper presents the results of research on the preparation and properties of GO/BC nanocomposite from bacterial cellulose (BC) modified with graphene oxide (GO) using the in situ method. Two bacterial strains were used for the biosynthesis of the BC: Komagataeibacter intermedius LMG [...] Read more.
This paper presents the results of research on the preparation and properties of GO/BC nanocomposite from bacterial cellulose (BC) modified with graphene oxide (GO) using the in situ method. Two bacterial strains were used for the biosynthesis of the BC: Komagataeibacter intermedius LMG 18909 and Komagataeibacter sucrofermentans LMG 18788. A simple biosynthesis method was developed, where GO water dispersion was added to reinforced acetic acid-ethanol (RAE) medium at concentrations of 10 ppm, 25 ppm, and 50 ppm at 24 h and 48 h intervals. As a result, a GO/BC nanocomposite membrane was obtained, characterized by tensile strength greater by 150% as compared with the pure BC (̴ 50 MPa) and lower volume resistivity of ~4 ∙ 109 Ω × cm. Moreover, GO addition increases membrane thickness up to ~10% and affects higher mass production, especially with low GO concentration. All of this may indicate the possibility of using GO/BC membranes in fuel cell applications. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 3303 KiB  
Article
Influence of Imperfections on the Effective Stiffness of Multilayer Corrugated Board
by Damian Mrówczyński and Tomasz Garbowski
Materials 2023, 16(3), 1295; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16031295 - 02 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1448
Abstract
There are many possible sources of potential geometrical inaccuracies in each layer of corrugated board during its manufacture. These include, among others, the processes of wetting the corrugated layers during profiling, the process of accelerated drying, the gluing process, and any mechanical impact [...] Read more.
There are many possible sources of potential geometrical inaccuracies in each layer of corrugated board during its manufacture. These include, among others, the processes of wetting the corrugated layers during profiling, the process of accelerated drying, the gluing process, and any mechanical impact of the pressure rollers on the cardboard. Work taking into account all the above effects in numerical modeling is not well described in the literature. Therefore, this article presents a simple and practical procedure that allows us to easily account for geometric imperfections in the calculation of the effective stiffness of corrugated board. As a main tool, the numerical homogenization based on the finite element method (FE) was used here. In the proposed procedure, a 3D model of a representative volumetric element (RVE) of a corrugated board is first built. The numerical model can include all kinds of geometrical imperfections and is used to calculate the equivalent tensile and bending stiffnesses. These imperfections were included in the 3D numerical model by appropriate modeling of individual layers, taking into account their distorted shape, which was obtained on the basis of a priori buckling analysis. This paper analyzes different types of buckling in order to find the most representative one. The proposed procedure is easy to implement and fully scalable. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Back to TopTop