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Materials, Volume 15, Issue 24 (December-2 2022) – 384 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): A novel device that enables light polarization control in silicon photonic-integrated waveguides has been demonstrated using graphene. The proposed device consists of a graphene nanoribbon placed on top of a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) strip waveguide. It allows us to tune and filter out one of the two orthogonal polarizations with respect to the other polarization by adjusting the waveguide design. Numerical simulations showed that the chemical potential of graphene and the device’s geometrical dimensions (e.g., waveguide and nanoribbon widths; oxide spacer thickness between silicon and graphene) are the main parameters that influence the polarization control functionality. The results are relevant for applications in silicon photonic-based polarization-encoded QKD devices that operate in the telecom 1.55 µm C-band. View this paper
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16 pages, 4195 KiB  
Article
Notch Effects on the Stress Intensity Factor and on the Fatigue Crack Path for Eccentric Circular Internal Cracks in Elliptically Notched Round Bars under Tensile Loading
by Jesús Toribio, Beatriz González, Juan-Carlos Matos and Iván González
Materials 2022, 15(24), 9091; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15249091 - 19 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1545
Abstract
In this paper, stress intensity factor (SIF) solutions are numerically obtained for notched bars subjected to tensile loading containing an eccentric circular inner crack located in the cross-section corresponding to the notch root. The finite element method and the J-integral have been [...] Read more.
In this paper, stress intensity factor (SIF) solutions are numerically obtained for notched bars subjected to tensile loading containing an eccentric circular inner crack located in the cross-section corresponding to the notch root. The finite element method and the J-integral have been used to obtain the SIF and to analyze the effect on it of three elliptical notch geometries (of equal radial depth). The results show how the SIF is greater in the notched bars than in the smooth bar and within the former when the axial semi-axis of the notch rises, its effect being greater as the diameter and eccentricity of the inner crack increase. In addition, the fatigue growth of an eccentric crack induces an increase in such eccentricity, greater as the notch axial semi-axis increases. The cause of these phenomena can be attributed to the constraint loss caused by the notch, which also facilitates bending of the specimen due to the asymmetry generated by the crack eccentricity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research and Modeling of Materials Fatigue and Fracture)
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17 pages, 12124 KiB  
Article
Effect of Al Addition on Microstructure and Properties of CoCrNi Medium-Entropy Alloy Prepared by Powder Metallurgy
by Xuekun Ding, Jichang He, Jinde Zhong, Xiang Wang, Zhanjiang Li, Jun Tian and Pinqiang Dai
Materials 2022, 15(24), 9090; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15249090 - 19 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1615
Abstract
Powder metallurgy possesses the advantages of low energy consumption, less material consumption, uniform composition, and near-final forming. In order to improve the mechanical properties and high-temperature oxidation resistance of CoCrNi medium-entropy alloy (MEA), CoCrNiAlX (X = 0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7) MEAs [...] Read more.
Powder metallurgy possesses the advantages of low energy consumption, less material consumption, uniform composition, and near-final forming. In order to improve the mechanical properties and high-temperature oxidation resistance of CoCrNi medium-entropy alloy (MEA), CoCrNiAlX (X = 0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7) MEAs were prepared using mechanical alloying (MA) and spark-plasma sintering (SPS). The effect of aluminum content on the microstructure and properties of the MEAs was investigated. The results show that the CoCrNi MEA is composed of face center cubic (fcc) phase and some carbides (Cr23C6). With the increase in Al content, there exists Al2O3 precipitation. When the Al content is increased to Al0.5 and Al0.7, the body center cubic (bcc) phase begins to precipitate. The addition of aluminum significantly enhances the properties of the alloys, especially those containing fcc+bcc dual-phase solid solutions. The yield strength, compressive strength, and hardness of CoCrNiAl0.7 alloy are as high as 2083 MPa, 2498 MPa, and 646 HV, respectively. The high-temperature resistance also reaches the oxidation resistance level. Different oxides include Cr2O3, Al2O3, and (Co, Ni) Cr2O4 and NiCrO3 spinel oxides formed on the surface of alloys. The formation of an Al2O3 oxidation film prevents the further erosion of the matrix by oxygen elements. Full article
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13 pages, 3256 KiB  
Article
New Insights into the Crystal Chemistry of FeB-Type Compounds: The Case of CeGe
by Riccardo Freccero, Emmelina Frick, Caroline Wilthorn and Julia-Maria Hübner
Materials 2022, 15(24), 9089; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15249089 - 19 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1425
Abstract
Several alkaline earth or rare earth binary monosilicides and -germanides possess complex bonding properties, such as polycation formation exceeding the scope of classical electron counting rules. In this study, we present characterization by powder and single-crystal diffraction and thermal analysis of CeGe, one [...] Read more.
Several alkaline earth or rare earth binary monosilicides and -germanides possess complex bonding properties, such as polycation formation exceeding the scope of classical electron counting rules. In this study, we present characterization by powder and single-crystal diffraction and thermal analysis of CeGe, one of the few monogermanides crystallizing in the FeB-type structure. Comparative computational investigations for structure types experimentally observed for monogermanides and alternative structures with different structural motifs were performed to gain energetical insights into this family of compounds, underlining the preference for infinite germanium chains over other structural motifs. Formation enthalpy calculations and structural chemical analysis highlight the special position of FeB-type compounds among the monogermanides. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Materials Chemistry)
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16 pages, 10532 KiB  
Article
Laser Welding of Ti6Al4V Titanium Alloy in Air and a Water Medium
by Mohamad Alhajhamoud, Sayit Ozbey, Mehmet Alp Ilgaz, Levent Candan, Ibrahim Cinar, Mario Vukotić, Selma Čorović, Damijan Miljavec and Ersin Kayahan
Materials 2022, 15(24), 9088; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15249088 - 19 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1742
Abstract
Ti6Al4V titanium alloys are widely used in a variety of scientific and industrial fields. Laser beam welding is one of the most effective techniques for the joining of titanium plates. The main objective of this study was to investigate the influence of the [...] Read more.
Ti6Al4V titanium alloys are widely used in a variety of scientific and industrial fields. Laser beam welding is one of the most effective techniques for the joining of titanium plates. The main objective of this study was to investigate the influence of the most important laser parameters on welding performance of titanium alloy in two different physical environments such as air and water (i.e., serum) media. Specifically, the laser beam welding of 2 mm thick Ti6Al4V samples was applied using an Nd:YAG laser in open-air welding using argon as a shielding gas, and in wet welding using a serum environment. The deepest penetration was achieved at −3 mm focal position with 11 J of laser energy in both investigated media (i.e., air and serum). The maximum hardness (1130 HV) was achieved for the focal position of −4 mm in serum medium while it was 795 HV for a focal position of −5 mm in air medium. The minimum (1200 μm and 800 μm) and maximum (1960 μm and 1900 μm) weld widths were observed for air and serum medium, respectively. After the welding process, martensite, massif martensite, and transformed martensite were observed in the microstructure of Ti6Al4V. To the best of our knowledge, the underwater wet welding of titanium alloy was carried out and reported for the first time in this study. Full article
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9 pages, 2744 KiB  
Article
Non-Volatile Memory and Synaptic Characteristics of TiN/CeOx/Pt RRAM Devices
by Hoesung Ha, Juyeong Pyo, Yunseok Lee and Sungjun Kim
Materials 2022, 15(24), 9087; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15249087 - 19 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1766
Abstract
In this study, we investigate the synaptic characteristics and the non-volatile memory characteristics of TiN/CeOx/Pt RRAM devices for a neuromorphic system. The thickness and chemical properties of the CeOx are confirmed through TEM, EDS, and XPS analysis. A lot of [...] Read more.
In this study, we investigate the synaptic characteristics and the non-volatile memory characteristics of TiN/CeOx/Pt RRAM devices for a neuromorphic system. The thickness and chemical properties of the CeOx are confirmed through TEM, EDS, and XPS analysis. A lot of oxygen vacancies (ions) in CeOx film enhance resistive switching. The stable bipolar resistive switching characteristics, endurance cycling (>100 cycles), and non-volatile properties in the retention test (>10,000 s) are assessed through DC sweep. The filamentary switching model and Schottky emission-based conduction model are presented for TiN/CeOx/Pt RRAM devices in the LRS and HRS. The compliance current (1~5 mA) and reset stop voltage (−1.3~−2.2 V) are used in the set and reset processes, respectively, to implement multi-level cell (MLC) in DC sweep mode. Based on neural activity, a neuromorphic system is performed by electrical stimulation. Accordingly, the pulse responses achieve longer endurance cycling (>10,000 cycles), MLC (potentiation and depression), spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP), and excitatory postsynaptic current (EPSC) to mimic synapse using TiN/CeOx/Pt RRAM devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Memristive Materials and Devices)
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12 pages, 4091 KiB  
Article
Nano-Confined Tin Oxide in Carbon Nanotube Electrodes via Electrostatic Spray Deposition for Lithium-Ion Batteries
by Alexandra Henriques, Amin Rabiei Baboukani, Borzooye Jafarizadeh, Azmal Huda Chowdhury and Chunlei Wang
Materials 2022, 15(24), 9086; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15249086 - 19 Dec 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1926
Abstract
The development of novel materials is essential for the next generation of electric vehicles and portable devices. Tin oxide (SnO2), with its relatively high theoretical capacity, has been considered as a promising anode material for applications in energy storage devices. However, [...] Read more.
The development of novel materials is essential for the next generation of electric vehicles and portable devices. Tin oxide (SnO2), with its relatively high theoretical capacity, has been considered as a promising anode material for applications in energy storage devices. However, the SnO2 anode material suffers from poor conductivity and huge volume expansion during charge/discharge cycles. In this study, we evaluated an approach to control the conductivity and volume change of SnO2 through a controllable and effective method by confining different percentages of SnO2 nanoparticles into carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The binder-free confined SnO2 in CNT composite was deposited via an electrostatic spray deposition technique. The morphology of the synthesized and deposited composite was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron spectroscopy. The binder-free 20% confined SnO2 in CNT anode delivered a high reversible capacity of 770.6 mAh g−1. The specific capacity of the anode increased to 1069.7 mAh g−1 after 200 cycles, owing to the electrochemical milling effect. The delivered specific capacity after 200 cycles shows that developed novel anode material is suitable for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design, Performance, and Application of Lithium-Ion Batteries)
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15 pages, 2608 KiB  
Article
On the Use of Multi-Step Dies for Improving the Performance against Hydrogen Embrittlement of Cold Drawn Prestressing Steel Wires
by Jesús Toribio and Miguel Lorenzo
Materials 2022, 15(24), 9085; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15249085 - 19 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1164
Abstract
The main cause of in-service failure of cold drawn wires in aggressive environments is hydrogen embrittlement (HE). The non-uniform plastic strains and residual stresses generated after cold drawing play a significant role in the matter of HE susceptibility of prestressing steels. In this [...] Read more.
The main cause of in-service failure of cold drawn wires in aggressive environments is hydrogen embrittlement (HE). The non-uniform plastic strains and residual stresses generated after cold drawing play a significant role in the matter of HE susceptibility of prestressing steels. In this paper, a new and innovative design of the drawing scheme is developed, geared towards the reduction in both manufacturing-induced residual stresses and plastic strains. To achieve this goal, three innovative cold drawing chains (consisting in diverse multi-step dies where multiple diameter reductions are progressively carried out in a single die) are numerically simulated by the finite element (FE) method. From the residual stress and plastic strain fields revealed from FE numerical simulations, hydrogen accumulation for diverse times of exposure is obtained by means of FE simulations of the hydrogen diffusion assisted by stress and strains. Thus, an estimation of the HE susceptibility of the cold drawn wires after each process was obtained. Results reveal that cold drawn wire using multi-step dies exhibits lower stress and strain states nearby the wire surface. This reduction causes a decrease in the hydrogen concentration at the prospective damage zones, thereby improving the performance of the prestressing steel wires in hydrogenating environments promoting HE. Thus, the optimal wire drawing process design is carried out using special dies with several reductions per die. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling and Simulations of Construction Materials)
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21 pages, 23339 KiB  
Article
Impact of Dynamic Soil-Structure Interaction on Performance of a Single Span Footbridge with Overhangs Subjected to Mining-Induced Shocks
by Izabela Joanna Drygala, Joanna Maria Dulińska, Nicola Nisticò and Tadeusz Tatara
Materials 2022, 15(24), 9084; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15249084 - 19 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1373
Abstract
The impact of the dynamic soil-structure interaction (DSSI) on the response of a single-span footbridge to mining-induced shocks was assessed. Firstly, the eigen values, modes and damping of the footbridge were evaluated based on in-operation field tests. Then, natural frequencies were determined numerically [...] Read more.
The impact of the dynamic soil-structure interaction (DSSI) on the response of a single-span footbridge to mining-induced shocks was assessed. Firstly, the eigen values, modes and damping of the footbridge were evaluated based on in-operation field tests. Then, natural frequencies were determined numerically by a model usually used in static calculations, i.e., a simple supported beam with overhangs. The numerical natural frequencies turned out to be inconsistent with the experimentally determined values. In turn, the model, assuming the overhangs’ ends translationally restrained, gave natural frequency values closer to the experimental ones. However, for the third mode, that is lateral, the frequency error (~26%) can be considered greater than usually accepted values. Hence, the three-dimensional numerical model of the footbridge was tuned by considering the DSSI between the overhangs and the ground, and implementing springs (in three directions) at the overhangs’ ends. To estimate the impact of DSSI on the dynamic performance of the footbridge, time history analyses were carried out for the model with fixed overhang ends and for the model with additional springs. Two different types of mining-induced tremors were used as excitations. Those two tremors (narrow and wide band) induced different dynamic responses in the models with and without the springs. Hence, the impact of the DSSI on the dynamic footbridge performance needs to be considered to predict the effect of mining-induced shocks. Full article
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11 pages, 2679 KiB  
Article
Achieving Persistent Luminescence Performance Based on the Cation-Tunable Trap Distribution
by Tao Wang, Rui Li, Mengya Zhang, Panlai Li and Zhijun Wang
Materials 2022, 15(24), 9083; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15249083 - 19 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1054
Abstract
Deep-red persistent luminescence (PersL) materials have promising applications in fluorescence labeling and tracking. PersL spectral range and PersL duration are considered to be the key factors driving the development of high-performance deep-red PersL materials. To address these two key issues, the performance of [...] Read more.
Deep-red persistent luminescence (PersL) materials have promising applications in fluorescence labeling and tracking. PersL spectral range and PersL duration are considered to be the key factors driving the development of high-performance deep-red PersL materials. To address these two key issues, the performance of PersL materials was continually optimized by doping with cations (Si4+ and Al3+ ions), relying on the material of Li2ZnGe3O8:Cr3+ from the previous work of our group, and a 4.8-fold increase in PersL radiation spectrum intensity and more than twice the PersL duration was achieved (PersL duration up to 47 h). Ultimately, the obtained PersL materials are used to demonstrate their potential use in multi-level anti-counterfeiting, tracking and localization, respectively. This study provides a unique and novel entry point for achieving high-performance PersL materials by optimizing the PersL material host to modulate the electronic structure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Rare Earth Luminescent Materials)
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25 pages, 982 KiB  
Review
Bioactive Glasses as Carriers of Cancer-Targeted Drugs: Challenges and Opportunities in Bone Cancer Treatment
by Roger Borges, Agatha Maria Pelosine, Ana Carolina Santos de Souza, Joel Machado, Jr., Giselle Zenker Justo, Lionel Fernel Gamarra and Juliana Marchi
Materials 2022, 15(24), 9082; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15249082 - 19 Dec 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1920
Abstract
The treatment of bone cancer involves tumor resection followed by bone reconstruction of the defect caused by the tumor using biomaterials. Additionally, post-surgery protocols cover chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or drug administration, which are employed as adjuvant treatments to prevent tumor recurrence. In this work, [...] Read more.
The treatment of bone cancer involves tumor resection followed by bone reconstruction of the defect caused by the tumor using biomaterials. Additionally, post-surgery protocols cover chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or drug administration, which are employed as adjuvant treatments to prevent tumor recurrence. In this work, we reviewed new strategies for bone cancer treatment based on bioactive glasses as carriers of cancer-targeted and other drugs that are intended for bone regeneration in conjunction with adjuvant treatments. Drugs used in combination with bioactive glasses can be classified into cancer-target, osteoclast-target, and new therapies (such as gene delivery and bioinorganic). Microparticulated, nanoparticulated, or mesoporous bioactive glasses have been used as drug-delivery systems. Additionally, surface modification through functionalization or the production of composites based on polymers and hydrogels has been employed to improve drug-release kinetics. Overall, although different drugs and drug delivery systems have been developed, there is still room for new studies involving kinase inhibitors or antibody-conjugated drugs, as these drugs have been poorly explored in combination with bioactive glasses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Ceramics Applied in Healthcare)
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11 pages, 2690 KiB  
Article
Enhanced Short-Term Memory Plasticity of WOx-Based Memristors by Inserting AlOx Thin Layer
by Juyeong Pyo, Hoesung Ha and Sungjun Kim
Materials 2022, 15(24), 9081; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15249081 - 19 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1410
Abstract
ITO/WOx/TaN and ITO/WOx/AlOx/TaN memory cells were fabricated as a neuromorphic device that is compatible with CMOS. They are suitable for the information age, which requires a large amount of data as next-generation memory. The device with a [...] Read more.
ITO/WOx/TaN and ITO/WOx/AlOx/TaN memory cells were fabricated as a neuromorphic device that is compatible with CMOS. They are suitable for the information age, which requires a large amount of data as next-generation memory. The device with a thin AlOx layer deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) has different electrical characteristics from the device without an AlOx layer. The low current is achieved by inserting an ultra-thin AlOx layer between the switching layer and the bottom electrode due to the tunneling barrier effect. Moreover, the short-term memory characteristics in bilayer devices are enhanced. The WOx/AlOx device returns to the HRS without a separate reset process or energy consumption. The amount of gradual current reduction could be controlled by interval time. In addition, it is possible to maintain LRS for a longer time by forming it to implement long-term memory. Full article
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14 pages, 16475 KiB  
Article
Tunable Energy Absorbing Property of Bilayer Amorphous Glass Foam via Dry Powder Printing
by Jungjin Park, John Howard, Avi Edery, Matthew DeMay and Norman Wereley
Materials 2022, 15(24), 9080; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15249080 - 19 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1514
Abstract
The research in this paper entails the design of material systems with tunable energy-absorbing properties. Hollow glass microspheres of different densities are layered using dry powder printing and subsequently sintered to form a cellular structure. The tunability of the bilayer foams is investigated [...] Read more.
The research in this paper entails the design of material systems with tunable energy-absorbing properties. Hollow glass microspheres of different densities are layered using dry powder printing and subsequently sintered to form a cellular structure. The tunability of the bilayer foams is investigated using various combinations of hollow microspheres with different densities and different thickness ratios of the layers. The mechanical responses to quasi-static uniaxial compression of the bilayer foams are also investigated. These bilayer samples show different mechanical responses from uniform samples with a distinctive two-step stress–strain profile that includes a first and second plateau stress. The strain where the second plateau starts can be tuned by adjusting the thickness ratio of the two layers. The resulting tunable stress–strain profile demonstrates tunable energy absorption. The tunability is found to be more significant if the density values of each layer differ largely. For comparison, bilayer samples are fabricated using epoxy at the interface instead of a sintering process and a different mechanical response is shown from a sintered sample with the different stress–strain profile. Designing the layered foams allows tuning of the stress–strain profile, enabling desired energy-absorbing properties which are critical in diverse impact conditions. Full article
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17 pages, 2805 KiB  
Article
Impact of Location and Insulation Material on Energy Performance of Residential Buildings as per Saudi Building Code (SBC) 601/602 in Saudi Arabia
by Saleh H. Alyami, Ali Alqahtany, Noman Ashraf, Abdelbagi Osman, Naief Ali Aldossary, Ayman Almutlaqa, Faris Al-Maziad, Maher S. Alshammari and Wadee Ahmed Ghanem Al-Gehlani
Materials 2022, 15(24), 9079; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15249079 - 19 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3099
Abstract
In hot and humid climates, a significant part of the energy is used to cool the building. There are several ways to reduce this air conditioning load, but one standout is through the selection and design of the right building envelope and its [...] Read more.
In hot and humid climates, a significant part of the energy is used to cool the building. There are several ways to reduce this air conditioning load, but one standout is through the selection and design of the right building envelope and its components. The thermal characteristics of the building envelope, in particular the thermal resistance of the insulation used, have an impact on the thermal and energy performance of building structures. Thermal conductivity, which indicates the ability of heat to move through a material given a temperature difference, is the primary factor affecting the performance of a thermal insulation material. Both temperature and humidity changes can affect a material’s thermal conductivity value, which can then change. In fact, due to the fluctuating ambient air temperature and solar radiation, thermal insulation in buildings is susceptible to significant and continuous temperature variations. Thermal insulation used in building walls and roofs helps to reduce the energy demand of the building. It improves thermal comfort and, if used correctly, reduces the operational cost of the building. The present study has focused on the effects of location and insulation material on the energy performance of a residential building by considering five climatic locations in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Five commonly used insulation materials with different thermal characteristics, namely polyurethane board (PU), expanded polystyrene (EPS), glass wool (GW), urea-formaldehyde foam (UFF), and expanded perlite (EP), were analyzed under various climatic zones as per the Saudi Building Code 601/602. The selected cities were categorized based on cooling degree days (CDD) and outdoor dry bulb temperature (DBT) as hot, very hot, and extremely hot climatic zones. Insulation improves thermal comfort and, if used correctly, reduces running costs. Experiments were conducted to determine the thermal conductivity, and the energy simulation was performed by employing IES-VE software for various insulation options. The findings indicate that the location has a significant impact on the energy performance of the insulating materials. The energy saving potential of polyurethane board (PU) insulation is more attractive in cities with higher DBTs and CDDs than in cities with lower DBTs and CDDs. The benefit of installing insulation ranged from a 2 to 14% decrease in energy demand for the climate zones studied. The sensitivity analysis showed that the energy saving potential of the insulation materials is sensitive to the set-point temperature (ST) band. Full article
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11 pages, 7382 KiB  
Article
Effect of Ti3SiC2 and Ti3AlC2 Particles on Microstructure and Wear Resistance of Microarc Oxidation Layers on TC4 Alloy
by Gaoyang Gu, Jian Shang and Dan Lin
Materials 2022, 15(24), 9078; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15249078 - 19 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1577
Abstract
Microarc oxidation (MAO) layers were prepared using 8g/L Na2SiO3 + 6g/L (NaPO3)6 + 4g/L Na2WO4 electrolyte with the addition of 2g/L Ti3SiC2/Ti3AlC2 particles under constant-current mode. The [...] Read more.
Microarc oxidation (MAO) layers were prepared using 8g/L Na2SiO3 + 6g/L (NaPO3)6 + 4g/L Na2WO4 electrolyte with the addition of 2g/L Ti3SiC2/Ti3AlC2 particles under constant-current mode. The roughness, porosity, composition, surface/cross-sectional morphology, and frictional behavior of the prepared MAO layers were characterized by 3D real-color electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray energy spectrometry, X-ray diffractometry, and with a tribo-tester. The results showed that the addition of Ti3SiC2 and Ti3AlC2 to the electrolyte reduced the porosity of the prepared layers by 9% compared with that of the MAO layer without added particles. The addition of Ti3SiC2/Ti3AlC2 also reduced the friction coefficient and wear rate of the prepared layers by 35% compared with that of the MAO layer without added particles. It was found that the addition of Ti3AlC2 particles to the electrolyte resulted in the lowest porosity and the lowest wear volume. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wear and Corrosion Resistance Technology of Thin Film Materials)
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9 pages, 2364 KiB  
Article
Spectroscopic Ellipsometry Studies on Solution-Processed OLED Devices: Optical Properties and Interfacial Layers
by Maria Gioti
Materials 2022, 15(24), 9077; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15249077 - 19 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1834
Abstract
Τhe fabrication of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) from solution involves the major problem of stack integrity, setting the determination of the composition and the characteristics of the resulting interfaces prerequisite for the optimization of the growth processes and the achievement of high devices’ [...] Read more.
Τhe fabrication of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) from solution involves the major problem of stack integrity, setting the determination of the composition and the characteristics of the resulting interfaces prerequisite for the optimization of the growth processes and the achievement of high devices’ performance. In this work, a poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene) (F8) and poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene-alt-benzothiadiazole) (F8BT) blend is used for the emissive layer (EML), poly-3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene; poly-styrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) is used for a hole transport layer (HTL), and Poly(9,9-bis(3′-(N,N-dimethyl)-N-ethylammoinium-propyl-2,7-fluorene)-alt-2,7-(9,9-dioctylfluore-ne))dibromide (PFN-Br) for an electron transport layer (ETL) to produce the OLED device. All the layers are developed using the slot-die process, onto indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated polyethylene terephthalate (PET) flexible substrates, whereas Ag cathode was formed by ink-jet printing under ambient conditions. Spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements were performed upon completion of the successive films’ growth, in sequential steps, for the multilayer OLED development. Ellipsometry analysis using different models demonstrate the degree of intermixing within the layers and provide information about the interfaces. These interfacial properties are correlated with the emission characteristics as well as the final performance of the OLED devices. Full article
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12 pages, 2354 KiB  
Article
Biochar Obtained from Caryocar brasiliense Endocarp for Removal of Dyes from the Aqueous Medium
by André L. F. C. Melo, Marcelo T. Carneiro, Ariane M. S. S. Nascimento, Alan I. S. Morais, Roosevelt D. S. Bezerra, Bartolomeu C. Viana, Josy A. Osajima and Edson C. Silva-Filho
Materials 2022, 15(24), 9076; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15249076 - 19 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1680
Abstract
Given the increase in environmental pollution, especially of water, the emergence of studies that seek to develop strategies to mitigate/treat such effects have gained prominence in the world scientific community. Among the numerous adsorption processes, those made from biochar production stand out. This [...] Read more.
Given the increase in environmental pollution, especially of water, the emergence of studies that seek to develop strategies to mitigate/treat such effects have gained prominence in the world scientific community. Among the numerous adsorption processes, those made from biochar production stand out. This study analyzed the adsorption properties of the blue methylene model dye in the aqueous solution of biochar and activated biochar developed from pequi (Caryocar brasiliense) endocarp. The biochar was characterized, before and after adsorption, by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), and thermogravimetric analysis (TG). The surface load of the materials was performed by the point of zero charge (pHPZC) method. The study also included analyses of contact time parameters and adsorbed concentration in the adsorption process. Morphological analysis showed that a more significant and profound number of fissures and pores appeared in the activated biochar compared to the biochar. Residual mass analysis evidenced that biochar lost about 15% more mass than the activated biochar, indicating that activation occurred satisfactorily. The adsorption process was well adjusted by pseudo-second-order kinetics and Langmuir’s isothermal model. The activated biochar achieved an excellent adsorption capacity of 476.19 mg.g−1, thus demonstrating to be a sound system for removing dyes from an aqueous medium. Full article
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13 pages, 6568 KiB  
Article
Correlation between Laboratory-Accelerated Corrosion and Field Exposure Test for High-Strength Stainless Steels
by Jinchao Jiao, Yong Lian, Zhao Liu, He Guo, Jin Zhang, Yan Su, Junpeng Teng, Yiming Jin and Jinyan Chen
Materials 2022, 15(24), 9075; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15249075 - 19 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2123
Abstract
Equipment in a long-term marine atmosphere environment is prone to corrosion failure. Natural field exposure tests usually require a long time to obtain corrosion information. This study worked out a laboratory-accelerated corrosion test method that has a strong correlation with the natural environment [...] Read more.
Equipment in a long-term marine atmosphere environment is prone to corrosion failure. Natural field exposure tests usually require a long time to obtain corrosion information. This study worked out a laboratory-accelerated corrosion test method that has a strong correlation with the natural environment test in Wanning, Hainan, and can be used as the basis for life assessment and the prediction of two high-strength stainless-steel materials. The mathematical model of corrosion weight loss of two high-strength stainless steels (3Cr13 and 00Cr12Ni10MoTi) was established by a field exposure test and a laboratory-accelerated corrosion test. Then, the correlation between the field exposure test and the laboratory-accelerated corrosion test was evaluated using qualitative and quantitative methods, and the acceleration ratio was calculated using the accelerated switching factor (ASF) method. The results show that: (1) The corrosion morphology of the two stainless steels after 15 days of laboratory-accelerated corrosion testing is similar to that obtained after two years of field exposure. (2) The value of gray correlation between the laboratory-accelerated corrosion test and the field exposure test is not less than 0.75. (3) The acceleration ratio of both stainless steels increases with the corrosion test time in the laboratory. The corrosion prediction models for the two stainless steels are T3Cr13 = 6.234 t1.634 and T00Cr12Ni10MoTi = 55.693 t1.322, respectively. Full article
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22 pages, 3479 KiB  
Article
An Improved Optimization Model to Predict the MOR of Glulam Prepared by UF-Oxidized Starch Adhesive: A Hybrid Artificial Neural Network-Modified Genetic Algorithm Optimization Approach
by Morteza Nazerian, Jalal Karimi, Hossin Jalali Torshizi, Antonios N. Papadopoulos, Sepideh Hamedi and Elham Vatankhah
Materials 2022, 15(24), 9074; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15249074 - 19 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1477
Abstract
The purpose of the present article is to study the bending strength of glulam prepared by plane tree (Platanus Orientalis-L) wood layers adhered by UF resin with different formaldehyde to urea molar ratios containing the modified starch adhesive with different NaOCl concentrations. Artificial [...] Read more.
The purpose of the present article is to study the bending strength of glulam prepared by plane tree (Platanus Orientalis-L) wood layers adhered by UF resin with different formaldehyde to urea molar ratios containing the modified starch adhesive with different NaOCl concentrations. Artificial neural network (ANN) as a modern tool was used to predict this response, too. The multilayer perceptron (MLP) models were used to predict the modulus of rapture (MOR) and the statistics, including the determination coefficient (R2), root mean square error (RMSE), and mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) were used to validate the prediction. Combining the ANN and the genetic algorithm by using the multiple objective and nonlinear constraint functions, the optimum point was determined based on the experimental and estimated data, respectively. The characterization analysis, performed by FTIR and XRD, was used to describe the effect of the inputs on the output. The results indicated that the statistics obtained show excellent MOR predictions by the feed-forward neural network using Levenberg–Marquardt algorithms. The comparison of the optimal output of the actual values obtained by the genetic algorithm resulting from the multi-objective function and the optimal output of the values estimated by the nonlinear constraint function indicates a minimum difference between both functions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Natural Materials for Engineering Application (Volume II))
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14 pages, 3552 KiB  
Article
Structure, Biodegradation, and In Vitro Bioactivity of Zn–1%Mg Alloy Strengthened by High-Pressure Torsion
by Natalia Martynenko, Natalia Anisimova, Olga Rybalchenko, Mikhail Kiselevskiy, Georgy Rybalchenko, Natalia Tabachkova, Mark Zheleznyi, Diana Temralieva, Viacheslav Bazhenov, Andrey Koltygin, Andrey Sannikov and Sergey Dobatkin
Materials 2022, 15(24), 9073; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15249073 - 19 Dec 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2061
Abstract
The effect of high-pressure torsion (HPT) on the microstructure, phase composition, mechanical characteristics, degradation rate, and bioactive properties of the Zn–1%Mg alloy is studied. An ultrafine-grained (UFG) structure with an average grain size of α-Zn equal to 890 ± 26 nm and grains [...] Read more.
The effect of high-pressure torsion (HPT) on the microstructure, phase composition, mechanical characteristics, degradation rate, and bioactive properties of the Zn–1%Mg alloy is studied. An ultrafine-grained (UFG) structure with an average grain size of α-Zn equal to 890 ± 26 nm and grains and subgrains of the Mg2Zn11 and MgZn2 phases with a size of 50–100 nm are formed after HPT. This UFG structure leads to an increase in the ultimate tensile strength of the alloy by ~3 times with an increase in elongation to 6.3 ± 3.3% due to the formation of a basal texture. The study of corrosion resistance did not show a significant effect of HPT on the degradation rate of the alloy. In addition, no significant changes in the bioactivity of the alloy after HPT: hemolysis, cellular colonization and Escherichia coli growth inhibition. Full article
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26 pages, 9046 KiB  
Article
Optimisation of Selective Laser Melted Ti6Al4V Functionally Graded Lattice Structures Accounting for Structural Safety
by Lei Zhu, Xiaoyang Wang, Liao Sun, Quandong Hu and Nan Li
Materials 2022, 15(24), 9072; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15249072 - 19 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1906
Abstract
This paper presents a new framework for lightweight optimisation of functionally graded lattice structures (FGLSs) with a particular focus on enhancing and guaranteeing structural safety through three main contributions. Firstly, a design strategy of adding fillets to the joints of body-centred cubic (BCC) [...] Read more.
This paper presents a new framework for lightweight optimisation of functionally graded lattice structures (FGLSs) with a particular focus on enhancing and guaranteeing structural safety through three main contributions. Firstly, a design strategy of adding fillets to the joints of body-centred cubic (BCC) type lattice cells was proposed to improve the effective yield stress of the lattices. Secondly, effective properties of lattice metamaterials were experimentally characterised by conducting quasi-static uniaxial compression tests on selective laser melted specimens of both Ti6Al4V BCC and filleted BCC (BCC-F) lattices with different relative densities. Thirdly, a yield stress constraint for optimising FGLSs was developed based on surrogate models quantifying the relationships between the relative density and the effective properties of BCC and BCC-F lattices developed using experimental results assisted by numerical homogenisation. This framework was tested with two case studies. Results showed that structural safety with respect to avoiding yield failure of the optimised FGLSs can be ensured and the introduction of fillets can effectively improve the strength-to-weight ratio of the optimised FGLSs composed of BCC type lattices. The BCC-F FGLS achieved 14.5% improvement in weight reduction compared with BCC FGLS for the Messerschmitt-Bölkow-Blohm beam optimisation case study. Full article
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13 pages, 3898 KiB  
Article
Laser Additive Manufacturing of TC4/AlSi12 Bimetallic Structure via Nb Interlayer
by Zhicheng Jing, Xiangyu Liu, Wenbo Wang, Nuo Xu, Guojian Xu and Fei Xing
Materials 2022, 15(24), 9071; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15249071 - 19 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1860
Abstract
The TC4/AlSi12 bimetallic structures (BS) with Nb interlayer transition were fabricated by laser additive manufacturing (LAM). The results showed that the TC4/AlSi12 BS with Nb interlayer prepared with optimized process parameters can be divided into three regions (the TC4 region, Nb region and [...] Read more.
The TC4/AlSi12 bimetallic structures (BS) with Nb interlayer transition were fabricated by laser additive manufacturing (LAM). The results showed that the TC4/AlSi12 BS with Nb interlayer prepared with optimized process parameters can be divided into three regions (the TC4 region, Nb region and the AlSi12 region) and two interfaces (the TC4/Nb interface and the Nb/AlSi12 interface). The high melting point (Ti, Nb) solid solution formed in the Nb region acted as a diffusion barrier between the TC4 alloy and the AlSi12 alloy, thereby effectively inhibiting the formation of Ti-Al intermetallic compounds (IMCs). With the decrease of the laser output power for AlSi12 deposition, the NbAl3 IMC changed from layered to dispersed distribution, while γ-TiAl and Ti5Si3 IMC disappeared, thus significantly reducing the crack susceptibility of the BS deposited layer. The tensile strength of TC4/AlSi12 BS with Nb interlayer was about 128MPa, and the fracture was located near the Nb/AlSi12 interface. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D Printing of Metallic Materials)
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14 pages, 6173 KiB  
Article
Effect of Volume Fraction of Reinforcement on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of In Situ (Ti, Nb)B/Ti2AlNb Composites with Tailored Three-Dimensional Network Architecture
by Ningbo Zhang, Boyu Ju, Taiqing Deng, Sen Fu, Cungao Duan, Yiwei Song, Yijun Jiang, Qin Shen, Caogen Yao, Mingda Liu, Ping Wu, Ziyang Xiu and Wenshu Yang
Materials 2022, 15(24), 9070; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15249070 - 19 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1745
Abstract
The mechanical properties of (Ti, Nb)B/Ti2AlNb composites were expected to improve further by utilizing spark plasma sintering (SPS) and inducing the novel three-dimensional network architecture. In this study, (Ti, Nb)B/Ti2AlNb composites with the novel architecture were successfully fabricated by [...] Read more.
The mechanical properties of (Ti, Nb)B/Ti2AlNb composites were expected to improve further by utilizing spark plasma sintering (SPS) and inducing the novel three-dimensional network architecture. In this study, (Ti, Nb)B/Ti2AlNb composites with the novel architecture were successfully fabricated by ball milling the LaB6 and Ti2AlNb mixed powders and subsequent SPS consolidation. The influence of the (Ti, Nb)B content on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the composites was revealed by using the scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electronic universal testing machine. The microstructural characterization demonstrated that the boride crystallized into a B27 structure and the α2-precipitated amount increased with the (Ti, Nb)B increasing. When the (Ti, Nb)B content reached 4.9 vol%, both the α2 and reinforcement exhibited a continuous distribution along the prior particle boundaries (PPBs). The tensile test displayed that the tensile strength of the composites presented an increasing trend with the increasing (Ti, Nb)B content followed by a decreasing trend. The composite with a 3.2 vol% reinforcement had the optimal mechanical properties; the yield strengths of the composite at 25 and 650 °C were 998.3 and 774.9 MPa, showing an 11.8% and 9.2% improvement when compared with the Ti2AlNb-based alloy. Overall, (Ti, Nb)B possessed an excellent strengthening effect and inhibited the strength weakening of the PPBs area at high temperatures; the reinforcement content mainly affected the mechanical properties of the (Ti, Nb)B/Ti2AlNb composites by altering the α2-precipitated amount and the morphology of (Ti, Nb)B in the PPBs area. Both the continuous precipitation of the brittle α2 phase and the agglomeration of the (Ti, Nb)B reinforcement dramatically deteriorated the mechanical properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Study on Advanced Metal Matrix Composites)
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32 pages, 15538 KiB  
Review
Transparent Wood-Based Materials: Current State-of-the-Art and Future Perspectives
by Alberto Mariani and Giulio Malucelli
Materials 2022, 15(24), 9069; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15249069 - 19 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3151
Abstract
Human history is largely characterized by the massive use of wood, the most well-known natural composite material, possessing unique thermal, mechanical, and environmental features that make it suitable for several applications, ranging from civil engineering, art, and household uses, to business uses (including [...] Read more.
Human history is largely characterized by the massive use of wood, the most well-known natural composite material, possessing unique thermal, mechanical, and environmental features that make it suitable for several applications, ranging from civil engineering, art, and household uses, to business uses (including furniture, stationery, shipbuilding, and fuel). Further, as a renewable and recyclable biomass, wood perfectly matches the current circular economy concept. However, because of its structure and composition, wood is not transparent: therefore, the possibility of removing the embedded lignin, hence limiting the light-scattering phenomena, has been investigated over the last ten to fifteen years, hence obtaining the so-called “transparent wood (TW)”. This latter represents an up-to-date key material, as it can be utilized as obtained or further functionalized, combining the transparency with other features (such as flame retardance, energy storage ability, and environmental protection, among others), which widen the potential (and practical) applications of wood. The present manuscript aims at summarizing first the current methods employed for obtaining transparent wood, and then the latest achievements concerning the properties of transparent wood, providing the reader with some perspectives about its novel functionalizations and applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Composite Materials: Theory, Design and Applications)
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13 pages, 6063 KiB  
Article
Prediction Model of Three-Dimensional Machined Potassium Dihydrogen Phosphate Surfaces Based on a Dynamic Response Machining System
by Qilong Pang and Jianlong Xiong
Materials 2022, 15(24), 9068; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15249068 - 19 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1206
Abstract
To comprehensively obtain the effect of the machining process on the three-dimensional surface topography of machined potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals, a dynamic response model of a machining system was built to calculate the dynamic displacement variables in the different processing directions. This model [...] Read more.
To comprehensively obtain the effect of the machining process on the three-dimensional surface topography of machined potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals, a dynamic response model of a machining system was built to calculate the dynamic displacement variables in the different processing directions. This model includes almost all processing factors, such as cutting parameters, environment vibration, radial and axial runout of the spindle, cutting tool parameters, material parameters, guide way error, fast tool servo and lubrication condition errors, etc. Compared with the experimental results, the three-dimensional topographies and two-dimensional profiles of the simulation surfaces were nearly consistent with those of experimental machined surfaces. As the simulation shows, the cutting parameters, axial runout of the spindle, and the output noise of the fast tool servo can respectively impact the main, low, and high frequencies of the machined surface topography. The main frequency of all the simulated and experimental surfaces in this study was 0.0138 μm−1. The low and high frequencies of the simulation surfaces had slight differences, about 0.003 μm−1 from those of the experimental surfaces. The simulation model, based on dynamic response, can accurately predict the entire machining process and three-dimensional topographies of machined potassium dihydrogen phosphate surfaces. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Manufacturing Processes and Systems)
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15 pages, 7613 KiB  
Article
Remarkable Reduction in IG with an Explicit Investigation of the Leakage Conduction Mechanisms in a Dual Surface-Modified Al2O3/SiO2 Stack Layer AlGaN/GaN MOS-HEMT
by Soumen Mazumder, Parthasarathi Pal, Kuan-Wei Lee and Yeong-Her Wang
Materials 2022, 15(24), 9067; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15249067 - 19 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1851
Abstract
We demonstrated the performance of an Al2O3/SiO2 stack layer AlGaN/GaN metal–oxide semiconductor (MOS) high-electron-mobility transistor (HEMT) combined with a dual surface treatment that used tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) and hydrochloric acid (HCl) with post-gate annealing (PGA) modulation at 400 [...] Read more.
We demonstrated the performance of an Al2O3/SiO2 stack layer AlGaN/GaN metal–oxide semiconductor (MOS) high-electron-mobility transistor (HEMT) combined with a dual surface treatment that used tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) and hydrochloric acid (HCl) with post-gate annealing (PGA) modulation at 400 °C for 10 min. A remarkable reduction in the reverse gate leakage current (IG) up to 1.5×1012 A/mm (@ VG = −12 V) was observed in the stack layer MOS-HEMT due to the combined treatment. The performance of the dual surface-treated MOS–HEMT was significantly improved, particularly in terms of hysteresis, gate leakage, and subthreshold characteristics, with optimized gate annealing treatment. In addition, an organized gate leakage conduction mechanism in the AlGaN/GaN MOS–HEMT with the Al2O3/SiO2 stack gate dielectric layer was investigated before and after gate annealing treatment and compared with the conventional Schottky gate. The conduction mechanism in the reverse gate bias was Poole–Frankel emission for the Schottky-gate HEMT and the MOS–HEMT before annealing. The dominant conduction mechanism was ohmic/Poole-Frankel at low/medium forward bias. Meanwhile, gate leakage was governed by the hopping conduction mechanism in the MOS–HEMT without gate annealing modulation at a higher forward bias. After post-gate annealing (PGA) treatment, however, the leakage conduction mechanism was dominated by trap-assisted tunneling at the low to medium forward bias region and by Fowler–Nordheim tunneling at the higher forward bias region. Moreover, a decent product of maximum oscillation frequency and gate length (fmax × LG) was found to reach 27.16 GHz∙µm for the stack layer MOS–HEMT with PGA modulation. The dual surface-treated Al2O3/SiO2 stack layer MOS–HEMT with PGA modulation exhibited decent performance with an IDMAX of 720 mA/mm, a peak extrinsic transconductance (GMMAX) of 120 mS/mm, a threshold voltage (VTH) of −4.8 V, a higher ION/IOFF ratio of approximately 1.2×109, a subthreshold swing of 82 mV/dec, and a cutoff frequency(ft)/maximum frequency of (fmax) of 7.5/13.58 GHz. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Opto/Electronics Materials and Devices Applied for Telecommunications)
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13 pages, 1337 KiB  
Article
Effect of the Partial Replacement of Cement with Waste Granite Powder on the Properties of Fresh and Hardened Mortars for Masonry Applications
by Zuzanna Zofia Woźniak, Adrian Chajec and Łukasz Sadowski
Materials 2022, 15(24), 9066; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15249066 - 19 Dec 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1656
Abstract
Granite is a well-known building and decorative material, and, therefore, the amount of produced waste in the form of granite powder is a problem. Granite powder affects the health of people living near landfills. Dust particles floating in the air, which are blown [...] Read more.
Granite is a well-known building and decorative material, and, therefore, the amount of produced waste in the form of granite powder is a problem. Granite powder affects the health of people living near landfills. Dust particles floating in the air, which are blown by gusts of wind, can lead to lung silicosis and eye infections, and can also affect the immune system. To find an application for this kind of waste material, it was decided to study the effect of partially replacing cement with waste granite powder on the properties of fresh and hardened mortars intended for masonry applications. The authors planned to replace 5%, 10%, and 15% of cement with waste material. Series of mortar with the addition of granite powder achieved 50% to 70% of the compressive strength of the reference series, and 60% to 76% of the bending strength of the reference series. The partial replacement of cement with the granite powder significantly increased the water sorption coefficient. The consistency of the fresh mortar, and its density and water absorption also increased when compared to the reference series. Therefore, Granite powder can be used as a partial replacement of cement in masonry mortars. Full article
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16 pages, 4388 KiB  
Article
Effect of Paste Fluidity and Paste-to-Aggregate Ratio on the Strength and Permeability of Porous Mortar from Manufactured Sand
by Weichao Li, Laibo Li, Yali Li, Yanlin Li, Lingchao Lu and Xin Cheng
Materials 2022, 15(24), 9065; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15249065 - 19 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1019
Abstract
Many places in the world suffer from a shortage of river sand because of population growth and environmental protection, and people have to replace river sand with manufactured sand (M-sand). In this study, M-sand was adopted as aggregate and the effect of the [...] Read more.
Many places in the world suffer from a shortage of river sand because of population growth and environmental protection, and people have to replace river sand with manufactured sand (M-sand). In this study, M-sand was adopted as aggregate and the effect of the mix design (paste fluidity (PF) and paste-to-aggregate ratio (P/A)) on the properties of porous mortar was investigated through a combined experimental, statistical and response surface method (RSM). By including variations in both P/A (0.16–0.26) and PF (160–200 mm), the method was utilized to develop ANOVA models and construct response surface and contour lines. The experimental results revealed that the compressive strength of the porous mortar increased by 62.3% to a value of 34.1 MPa while the PF increased to 190 mm from 160 mm at a P/A of 0.20, and the water permeability coefficient was 7.2 mm/s under the same conditions. In addition, the ANOVA analysis of the measured properties revealed a strong interactive effect of the paste-to-aggregate ratio and paste fluidity on the porous mortar properties, and the developed relationship models between the variables and responses were accurate. A porous mortar with a compressive strength over 30 MPa and a permeability coefficient over 7 mm/s could be conveniently designed by RSM. Additionally, the compressive strength of the porous concrete reached more than 40 MPa at a P/A of 0.26. Full article
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17 pages, 12813 KiB  
Article
The Influence of Co Addition on the Structure and Mechanical Properties of Tungsten Heavy Alloys
by Paweł Skoczylas and Mieczysław Kaczorowski
Materials 2022, 15(24), 9064; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15249064 - 19 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1597
Abstract
This study shows the results of Ni replacement with Co in a W-Ni-Co-type tungsten heavy alloy (WHA) in terms of the structure and mechanical properties. Five alloys containing 92 wt. % of tungsten plus Ni and Co changing in the proportions (Co:Ni) of [...] Read more.
This study shows the results of Ni replacement with Co in a W-Ni-Co-type tungsten heavy alloy (WHA) in terms of the structure and mechanical properties. Five alloys containing 92 wt. % of tungsten plus Ni and Co changing in the proportions (Co:Ni) of 1:9, 2:8, 3:7, 4:6, and 5:5 were prepared using liquid phase sintering (LPS). The specimens were studied directly after sintering and after solution heat treatment. The tensile strength, yield strength, and elongation were evaluated. The results of tensile tests were supplemented with microhardness measurements of tungsten grains and matrix. Light microscopy was used for the microstructure, and a scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with an EDS attachment was applied for the assessment of the fracture mode and chemical microanalysis. It was concluded that the replacement of Ni with Co led to a tensile property increase that was accompanied by a gradual decrease in elongation that started to be critical for a Co:Ni ratio higher than 4:6. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nonconventional Technology in Materials Processing-Volume 2)
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13 pages, 1497 KiB  
Article
Innovative Design of Residual Stress and Strain Distributions for Analyzing the Hydrogen Embrittlement Phenomenon in Metallic Materials
by Jesús Toribio, Miguel Lorenzo and Leticia Aguado
Materials 2022, 15(24), 9063; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15249063 - 19 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1365
Abstract
Round-notched samples are commonly used for testing the susceptibility to hydrogen embrittlement (HE) of metallic materials. Hydrogen diffusion is influenced by the stress and strain states generated during testing. This state causes hydrogen-assisted micro-damage leading to failure that is due to HE. In [...] Read more.
Round-notched samples are commonly used for testing the susceptibility to hydrogen embrittlement (HE) of metallic materials. Hydrogen diffusion is influenced by the stress and strain states generated during testing. This state causes hydrogen-assisted micro-damage leading to failure that is due to HE. In this study, it is assumed that hydrogen diffusion can be controlled by modifying such residual stress and strain fields. Thus, the selection of the notch geometry to be used in the experiments becomes a key task. In this paper, different HE behaviors are analyzed in terms of the stress and strain fields obtained under diverse loading conditions (un-preloaded and preloaded causing residual stress and strains) in different notch geometries (shallow notches and deep notches). To achieve this goal, two uncoupled finite element (FE) simulations were carried out: (i) a simulation by FE of the loading sequences applied in the notched geometries for revealing the stress and strain states and (ii) a simulation of hydrogen diffusion assisted by stress and strain, for estimating the hydrogen distributions. According to results, hydrogen accumulation in shallow notches is heavily localized close to the wire surface, whereas for deep notches, hydrogen is more uniformly distributed. The residual stress and plastic strains generated by the applied preload localize maximum hydrogen concentration at deeper points than un-preloaded cases. As results, four different scenarios are established for estimating “a la carte” the HE susceptibility of pearlitic steels just combining two notch depths and the residual stress and strain caused by a preload. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling of Fracture and Microstructure of Steels)
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12 pages, 1224 KiB  
Article
Repair Bond Strength of Conventionally and Digitally Fabricated Denture Base Resins to Auto-Polymerized Acrylic Resin: Surface Treatment Effects In Vitro
by Mohammed M. Gad, Zainab Albazroun, Fatimah Aldajani, Ahmed M. Elakel, Mai El Zayat, Sultan Akhtar, Soban Q. Khan, Saqib Ali and Ahmed M. Rahoma
Materials 2022, 15(24), 9062; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15249062 - 19 Dec 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2167
Abstract
Denture base fracture is one of the most annoying problems for both prosthodontists and patients. Denture repair is considered to be an appropriate solution rather than fabricating a new denture. Digital denture fabrication is widely spreading nowadays. However, the repair strength of CAD-CAM [...] Read more.
Denture base fracture is one of the most annoying problems for both prosthodontists and patients. Denture repair is considered to be an appropriate solution rather than fabricating a new denture. Digital denture fabrication is widely spreading nowadays. However, the repair strength of CAD-CAM milled and 3D-printed resins is lacking. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of surface treatment on the shear bond strength (SBS) of conventionally and digitally fabricated denture base resins. One l heat-polymerized (Major base20), two milled (IvoCad, AvaDent), and three 3D-printed (ASIGA, NextDent, FormLabs) denture base resins were used to fabricate 10 × 10 × 3.3 acrylic specimens (N = 180, 30/resin, n = 10). Specimens were divided into three groups according to surface treatment; no treatment (control), monomer application (MMA), or sandblasting (SB) surface treatments were performed. Repair resin was bonded to the resin surface followed by thermocycling (5000 cycles). SBS was tested using a universal testing machine where a load was applied at the resin interface (0.5 mm/min). Data were collected and analyzed using ANOVA and a post hoc Tukey test (α = 0.05). SEM was used for failure type and topography of fractured surfaces analysis. The heat-polymerized and CAD-CAM milled groups showed close SBS values without significance (p > 0.05), while the 3D-printed resin groups showed a significant decrease in SBS (p < 0.0001). SBS increased significantly with monomer application (p < 0.0001) except for the ASIGA and NextDent groups, which showed no significant difference compared to the control groups (p > 0.05). All materials with SB surface treatment showed a significant increase in SBS when compared with the controls and MMA application (p < 0.0001). Adhesive failure type was observed in the control groups, which dramatically changed to cohesive or mixed in groups with surface treatment. The SBS of 3D-printed resin was decreased when compared with the conventional and CAD-CAM milled resin. Regardless of the material type, SB and MMA applications increased the SBS of the repaired resin and SB showed high performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D Printed and CAD-CAM Milled Polymer-Based Materials for Dentistry)
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