# The Transverse Bearing Characteristics of the Pile Foundation in a Calcareous Sand Area

^{1}

^{2}

^{3}

^{*}

## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Methodology

#### 2.1. Pile Foundation Response Analysis Based on Pasternak Foundation Model

_{p}I

_{p}(kN·m

^{2}) and D

_{e}(m) are the bending stiffness and equivalent width of the pile, respectively; $y$ is the pile deflection (m); $K$ (kN/m

^{2}) and $G$ (kN/m) are two parameters of the Pasternak foundation, namely foundation reaction modulus and shear layer stiffness.

#### 2.2. Pile Foundation Response Analysis Based on Winkler Foundation Model

_{p}I

_{p}and D

_{e}are the bending stiffness and equivalent width of the pile, respectively; $y$ is the pile deflection; the selection of the foundation reaction modulus $K$ is consistent with the above Pasternak foundation model.

#### 2.3. Case Verification

## 3. Results

^{3}, and the static earth pressure coefficient is 0.5. Through insight curve fitting, the relationship between the compressive modulus and the confining pressure of calcareous sand can be obtained as follows:

#### 3.1. Effect of Pile Length

#### 3.2. Effect of Pile Diameter

#### 3.3. Effect of Pile Elastic Modulus

#### 3.4. Effect of Horizontal Load

#### 3.5. Effect of Bending Moment

#### 3.6. Effect of Void Ratio

## 4. Discussion

^{3}, and the static earth pressure coefficient is 0.5. Through insight curve fitting, the relationship between the compressive modulus and the confining pressure of quartz sand can be obtained as follows:

#### 4.1. Comparison of Pile Length in Calcareous Sand and Quartz Sand Area

#### 4.2. Comparison of Pile Diameter in Calcareous Sand and Quartz Sand Area

#### 4.3. Comparison of Pile Elastic Modulus in Calcareous Sand and Quartz Sand Area

#### 4.4. Comparison of Horizontal Load in Calcareous Sand and Quartz Sand Area

#### 4.5. Comparison of Bending Moment in Calcareous Sand and Quartz Sand Area

#### 4.6. Comparison of Void Ratio in Calcareous Sand and Quartz Sand Area

## 5. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Institutional Review Board Statement

## Informed Consent Statement

## Data Availability Statement

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

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**Figure 8.**Effect of elastic modulus of pile on horizontal displacement of pile in calcareous sand area.

**Figure 14.**Effect of elastic modulus of pile on horizontal displacement of pile. (

**a**) E; (

**b**) 2E; (

**c**) 3E.

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Hu, H.; Luo, L.; Lei, G.; Guo, J.; He, S.; Hu, X.; Guo, P.; Gong, X.
The Transverse Bearing Characteristics of the Pile Foundation in a Calcareous Sand Area. *Materials* **2022**, *15*, 6176.
https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15176176

**AMA Style**

Hu H, Luo L, Lei G, Guo J, He S, Hu X, Guo P, Gong X.
The Transverse Bearing Characteristics of the Pile Foundation in a Calcareous Sand Area. *Materials*. 2022; 15(17):6176.
https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15176176

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Hu, Haibo, Lina Luo, Gang Lei, Jin Guo, Shaoheng He, Xunjian Hu, Panpan Guo, and Xiaonan Gong.
2022. "The Transverse Bearing Characteristics of the Pile Foundation in a Calcareous Sand Area" *Materials* 15, no. 17: 6176.
https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15176176