Review on Mono and Hybrid Nanofluids: Preparation, Properties, Investigation, and Applications in IC Engines and Heat Transfer
Abstract
:1. Introduction
1.1. Heat Exchanger
1.2. Hybrid Nanofluids
1.3. Secondary Refrigerant
1.4. Objectives
2. Preparation of Mono/Hybrid Nanofluids
3. Characterization and Stability of Mono/Hybrid Nanofluids
4. Thermo-Physical Properties of Mono/Hybrid Nanofluids
4.1. Density and Specific Heat of Mono/Hybrid Nanofluids
4.2. Viscosity of Mono/Hybrid Nanofluids
4.3. Thermal Conductivity of Mono/Hybrid Nanofluids
5. Hydrothermal Characteristics of Heat Exchanger
5.1. Experimental Studies on Heat Exchangers
5.2. Numerical Studies on the Heat Exchangers
6. Exergy Analysis of Mono/Hybrid Nanofluids
7. Applications of Mono/Hybrid Nanofluids
8. Conclusions
- There are limited studies on the heat transfer properties of hybrid nanofluid heat exchangers.
- The influence of individual particle proportions of hybrid nanofluids on the performance of heat exchangers is unknown.
- There is little experimental work and validation by CFD modeling of heat exchangers using hybrid nanofluids operating for low-temperature applications.
- Hybrid nanofluids can be used in biodiesel blends and as fuel additives to enhance the performance of IC engines.
- A single correlation containing the effect of temperature and particle size is needed to predict accurate thermal conductivity and viscosity of mono/hybrid nanofluids.
- Nanofluids with more thermal conductivity show better heat transfer characteristics, and nanofluids with more viscosity provide higher pressure drop and pump work. An increment in heat transfer is desirable, while an increment in pump work is undesirable; thus, another performance indicator must be determined, such as a performance index (ratio of heat transfer rate and pump work), to obtain a better nanofluid.
- Many empirical relations are available for calculating the Nusselt number on the basis of non-dimensional numbers, i.e., Reynolds and Prandtl numbers. However, the Nusselt number, by definition, depends on the thermal conductivity, geometric parameters, and heat transfer coefficient. Hence, it is suggested to validate the results in two ways. For this purpose, conducting the experiments and obtaining the required parameters are recommended.
- It can be observed that the thermal conductivity, density, and viscosity increase with the addition of nanoparticles in the base fluid. The fluid’s thermal conductivity increases with the temperature increase, whereas density and viscosity decrease. No change can be observed for the specific heat as the studied temperature range is small.
- Hybrid nanofluids can be used as a coolant in automobile radiators and ICEs.
- Few investigations are available for ternary hybrid nanofluids to analyze irreversibility, exergy, economic, and the second law of efficiency in air heat exchangers utilizing various turbulators.
- Studies were conducted primarily with water and EG/water brine as base fluids. Using different brines as primary and secondary cooling water should be explored.
Author Contributions
Funding
Data Availability Statement
Acknowledgments
Conflicts of Interest
Nomenclature
b | Plate spacing, mm |
C | Specific heat, J/kg·K |
K | Thermal conductivity, W/m·K |
ṁ | Mass flow rate, kg/s |
N | Shape factor |
Pe | Pecklet number |
Re | Reynolds number |
T | Temperature, °C |
V | Volume, m^{3} |
Abbreviation | |
COP | Coefficient of performance |
CTAB | Cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide |
DI | Deionized water |
DLS | Dynamic light scattering |
EG | Ethylene glycol |
F-CNF | Functionalized carbon nanofiber |
FESEM | Field-emission scanning electron microscopy |
GA | Gum Arabic |
HCFC | Hydrochlorofluorocarbons |
HEG | Hydrogen-induced exfoliated graphene |
HEX | Heat exchanger |
HTC | Heat transfer coefficient |
HVAC | Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning |
HyNf | Hybrid nanofluid |
MCHS | Microchannel heat sink |
MWCNT | Multiwalled carbon nanotube |
PCM | Phase change material |
PHE | Plate heat exchanger |
PHP | Pulsating heat pipe |
PVP | Polyvinyl pyrrolidone |
PVA | Polyvinyl alcohol |
rGO | Reduced graphene oxide |
SDS | Sodium dodecyl sulfate |
SDBS | Sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate |
SEM | Scanning electron microscopy |
TEM | Transmission electron microscopy |
VSM | Vibrating sample magnetometry |
v% | Percentage volume concentration |
XRD | X-ray diffraction |
Greek symbols | |
β | Chevron angle, ° |
Ω | Discharge, lpm |
µ | Dynamic viscosity, Pa·S |
ρ | Density, kg/m^{3} |
Φ | Volume concentration |
Ψ | Coefficient |
Subscript | |
1 | First |
2 | Second |
bf | Base fluid |
nf | Nanofluid |
p | Nanoparticle |
eff | Effective |
h | Hot |
c | Cold |
i | Inlet |
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Author(s) | Nanoparticle | Base Fluid |
---|---|---|
Jana et al. [49] | Au–CNT, Cu–CNT | Water |
Han et al. [50] | Sphere–CNT | Oil |
Turcu et al. [51] | Fe_{3}O_{4}–polypyrrole | Water |
Jha and Ramaprabhu [52] | Cu–MWCNT | Water/EG |
Han and Rhi [53] | Ag–Al_{2}O_{3} | Water |
Baby and Sundara [54] | CuO–HEG | Water/EG |
Paul et al. [55] | Al–Zn | EG |
Suresh et al. [56] | Al_{2}O_{3}–Cu | Water |
Botha et al. [57] * | Ag–SiO_{2} | Oil |
Ho et al. [58] | Al_{2}O_{3}–PCM | Water |
Baby and Sundara [59] | Ag–HEG | Water/EG |
Amiri et al. [60] | Ag–MWCNT | Water |
Chen et al. [61] | Ag–MWCNT | Water |
Aravind and Ramaprabhu [62] | Graphene–MWCNT | Water and EG |
Bhosale and Borse [63] | Al_{2}O_{3}–CuO | Water |
Balla et al. [64] | CuO–Cu | Water |
Abbasi et al. [65] | ϒ-Al_{2}O_{3}–MWCNT | Water |
Nine et al. [66] | Cu–Cu_{2}O | Water |
Munkhbayar et al. [67] * | Ag–MWCNT | Water |
Sundar et al. [68] | Nanodiamond–nickel | Water/EG |
Parameshwaran et al. [69] | Ag–TiO_{2} | PCM |
Batmunkh et al. [70] | Ag–TiO_{2} | Water |
Madhesh et al. [71] | Cu–TiO_{2} | Water |
Chen et al. [72] | MWCNT–Fe_{3}O_{4} | Water |
Parekh [73] | Mn_{0.5}Zn_{0.5}Fe_{2}O_{4} | Oil |
Luo et al. [74] | Al_{2}O_{3}–TiO_{2} | Lubricating oil |
Madhesh and Kalaiselvam [75] | Cu–TiO_{2} | Water |
Zubir et al. [76] | Graphene oxide–CNT | Water |
Qadri et al. [77] | Graphene–Cu_{2}O | Water/EG |
Karimi et al. [78] | NiFe_{2}O_{4} | Water |
Chakraborty et al. [79] | Cu–Al | Water |
Megatif et al. [80] | CNT–TiO_{2} | Water |
Abbasi et al. [81] | MWCNT–TiO_{2} | Water |
Toghraie et al. [82] | ZnO–TiO_{2} | EG |
Bhanvase et al. [83] | PANI–CuO | Water |
Asadi et al. [84] | CuO–TiO_{2} | Water |
Chen et al. [85] | Al_{2}O_{3} | Liquid paraffin |
Asadi et al. [86] | MWCNT | Water |
Gulzar et al. [87] | Al_{2}O_{3}–TiO_{2} | Therminol-55 |
Alarifi et al. [88] | MWCNT–TiO_{2} | Oil |
Akram et al. [89] | CGNP | DI Water |
Sharafeldin and Grof [90] | WO_{3} | Water |
Chen et al. [91] | MWCNT | Water |
Ali et al. [92] | Al | Water |
Mahbubul et al. [93] | Al_{2}O_{3} | Water |
Mahyari et al. [94] | GO–SiC | Water/EG |
Chen et al. [95] | Fe_{3}O_{4}–MWCNT | Brine water |
Okonkwo et al. [96] | Al_{2}O_{3}–Fe | Water |
Terueal et al. [97] | MoSe_{2} | Water |
Li et al. [98] | SiO_{2} | Liquid paraffin |
Geng et al. [99] | ZnO–MWCNT | Oil |
Li et al. [100] | SiO_{2} | EG |
Author(s) | Nanoparticle | Base Fluid | Surfactant (s) |
---|---|---|---|
Xian et al. [130] | COOH-GnP, TiO_{2} | DW/EG | SDC, CTAB *, SDBS |
Almanassra et al. [131] | CNT | Water | GA *, PVP, SDS |
Cacua et al. [132] | Al_{2}O_{3} | Water | CTAB, SDBS * |
Kazemi et al. [129] | SiO_{2}, graphene | Water | CMC * |
Ouikhalfan et al. [133] | TiO_{2} | DW | CTAB *, SDS |
Siddiqui et al. [134] | Cu-Al_{2}O_{3} | DI water | |
Cacua et al. [128] | Al_{2}O_{3} | DI water | CTAB, SDBS * |
Etedali et al. [135] | SiO_{2} | DI water | CTAB *, SLS * |
Giwa et al. [136] | Al_{2}O_{3}-Fe_{2}O_{3} | DW | SDS *, NaDBS * |
Kazemi et al. [137] | G-SiO_{2} | DW | CMC * |
Gallego et al. [138] | Al_{2}O_{3} | Water | SDBS * |
Shah et al. [139] | (rGO) | EG | CTAB *, SDBS, and SDS |
Ilyas et al. [140] | GnP | Saline water | SDS * |
Author(s) | Nanoparticle/Base Fluid | Working Condition | Correlation |
---|---|---|---|
Esfe et al. [160] | Ag–MgO (50: 50)/water | φ = 0–2% | $\frac{{\mu}_{nf}}{{\mu}_{bf}}=1+32.795\varphi -7214{\varphi}^{2}+714600{\varphi}^{3}-0.1941\times 1{0}^{8}{\varphi}^{4}$ |
Asadi and Asadi [159] | MWCNT–ZnO (15:85)/engine oil | T = 5–55 °C, φ = 0.125–1.0% | ${\mu}_{nf}=796.8+76.26\varphi +12.88T+0.7965\varphi T-196.9\sqrt{T}-16.53\Phi \sqrt{T}$ |
Afrand et al. [163] | MWCNT–SiO_{2} (equal portion)/SAE40 | T = 25–60 °C, φ = 0–1% | $\frac{{\mu}_{nf}}{{\mu}_{bf}}=0.00337+\mathrm{exp}(0.07731{\varphi}^{1.452}{T}^{0.3387})$ |
Asadi et al. [166] | MWCNT–MgO (20:80)/SAE50 | T = 25–50 °C, φ = 0–2% | $\frac{{\mu}_{nf}}{{\mu}_{bf}}=\left(328201{T}^{-2.053}{\varphi}^{0.09359}\right)$ |
Dardan et al. [156] | MWCNT–Al_{2}O_{3} (25:75)/SAE40 | T = 25–50 °C, φ = 0–2% | $\frac{{\mu}_{nf}}{{\mu}_{bf}}=1.123+0.3251\varphi -0.08994T+0.002552{T}^{2}-0.00002386{T}^{3}+0.9695{\left(\frac{T}{\varphi}\right)}^{0.01719}$ |
Soltani and Akbari [157] | MWCNT–MgO/EG | T = 30–60 °C, φ = 0.1–1.0% | $\frac{{\mu}_{nf}}{{\mu}_{bf}}=\left[0.191\varphi +0.240\left({T}^{-0.342}{\varphi}^{-0.473}\right)\right]\times \mathrm{exp}\left(1.45{T}^{0.120}{\varphi}^{0.158}\right)$ |
Author(s) | Nanoparticle/Base Fluid | Working Condition | Correlation |
---|---|---|---|
Chougule and Sahu [176] | - | - | $\frac{{k}_{eff}}{{k}_{bf}}=1+\frac{{k}_{p1}{\varphi}_{1}{r}_{bf}}{{k}_{bf}{r}_{p1}\left(1-\left\{{\varphi}_{1}+{\varphi}_{2}\right\}\right)}+\frac{{k}_{p2}{\varphi}_{2}{r}_{bf}}{{k}_{bf}{r}_{p2}\left(1-\left\{{\varphi}_{1}+{\varphi}_{2}\right\}\right)}$ |
Takabi and Salehi [177] | Al_{2}O_{3}–Cu/water | φ = 0.1–2.0% | $\frac{{k}_{nf}}{{k}_{bf}}=\frac{\frac{{\varphi}_{1}{k}_{1}+{\varphi}_{2}{k}_{2}}{\varphi}+2(1-\varphi ){k}_{bf}+2({\varphi}_{1}{k}_{1}+{\varphi}_{2}{k}_{2})}{\frac{{\varphi}_{1}{k}_{1}+{\varphi}_{2}{k}_{2}}{\varphi}+(2+\varphi ){k}_{bf}-({\varphi}_{1}{k}_{1}+{\varphi}_{2}{k}_{2})}$ |
Esfe et al. [178] | CNTs–Al_{2}O_{3}/water | T = 27–57 °C, φ = 0–1% | $\frac{{k}_{nf}}{{k}_{bf}}=1.05+0.005T+0.06\varphi +0.0099\varphi T+0.00317{T}^{2}+0.026{\varphi}^{2}+0.0034{T}^{2}\varphi +0.00735T{\varphi}^{2}$ |
Esfe et al. [160] | Ag–MgO (equal)/water | φ = 0–2% | $\frac{{k}_{nf}}{{k}_{bf}}=\frac{0.1747\times 1{0}^{5}+\varphi}{0.1747\times 1{0}^{5}-0.1498\times 1{0}^{6}\varphi +0.1117\times 1{0}^{7}{\varphi}^{2}+0.1997\times 1{0}^{8}{\varphi}^{3}}$ |
Esfe et al. [179] | Cu–TiO_{2}/water–EG (60:40) | T = 30–60 °C, φ = 0.1–2.0% | $\frac{{k}_{nf}}{{k}_{bf}}=1.07+0.000589T-\frac{0.000184}{\varphi T}+4.44T\varphi \times cos\left(6.11+0.00673T+4.41\varphi T-0.0414\mathit{sin}T\right)-32.5\varphi $ |
Esfe et al. [180] | DWCNT–ZnO/water–EG (60:40) | T = 25–50 °C, φ = 0.025–1.0% | $\frac{{k}_{nf}}{{k}_{bf}}=0.0288\times \mathit{ln}\left(\varphi \right)+1.085\mathrm{exp}(0.001351T+0.13{\varphi}^{2})$ |
Harandi et al. [174] | MWCNT–Fe_{3}O_{4} (equal)/EG | T = 25–50 °C, φ = 0.1–2.3% | $\frac{{k}_{nf}}{{k}_{bf}}=1+0.0162{\varphi}^{0.7038}{T}^{0.6009}$ |
Afrand [181] | MgO–fMWCNT/EG | T = 25–50 °C, φ = 0.0–0.6% | $\frac{{k}_{nf}}{{k}_{bf}}=0.8341+1.1{\varphi}^{0.243}{T}^{-0.289}$ |
Vafaei et al. [182] | MgO–MWCNT/EG | T = 25–50 °C, φ = 0.0–0.6% | $\frac{{k}_{nf}}{{k}_{bf}}=0.9787+\mathit{exp}\left(0.3081{\varphi}^{0.3097}-0.002T\right)$ |
Esfe et al. [183] | SWCNT–MgO (20:80)/EG | T = 30–50 °C, φ = 0.0–2.0% | $\frac{{k}_{nf}}{{k}_{bf}}=0.90844-0.06613{\varphi}^{0.3}{T}^{0.7}+0.01266{\varphi}^{0.31}T$ |
Esfe et al. [184] | MWCNT–SiO_{2} (15:85)/EG | T = 30–50 °C, φ = 0.0–2.0% | $\frac{{k}_{nf}}{{k}_{bf}}=0.905+0.002069T\varphi +0.04375{\varphi}^{0.09265}{T}^{0.3305}-0.0063{\varphi}^{3}$ |
Esfe et al. [185] | MWCNT–SiO_{2} (30:70)/EG | T = 30–60 °C, φ = 0.025–0.86% | $\frac{{k}_{nf}}{{k}_{bf}}=1.01+0.007685T\varphi -0.5136{\varphi}^{2}{T}^{-0.1578}+11.5{\varphi}^{3}{T}^{-1.175}$ |
Esfe et al. [186] | DWCNT–SiO_{2}/EG | T = 30–50 °C, φ = 0.03–1.71% | $\frac{{k}_{nf}}{{k}_{bf}}=0.9896-0.07122\varphi +\left(0.02705{\varphi}^{0.7685}{T}^{0.627}\right)+1.531\times 1{0}^{-5}{T}^{2}$ |
Esfe et al. [187] | SWCNT–Al_{2}O_{3} (15:85)/EG | T = 30–50 °C, φ = 0.0–2.5% | $\frac{{k}_{nf}}{{k}_{bf}}=0.963+0.008379\left[{\varphi}^{0.4439}\times {T}^{0.9246}\right]$ |
Rostamian et al. [188] | CuO–SWCNT (50:50)/water–EG (60:40) | T = 20–50 °C, φ = 0.02–0.75% | $\frac{{k}_{nf}}{{k}_{bf}}=1+0.04056\varphi T-0.003252{\left(\varphi T\right)}^{2}+0.0001181{\left(\varphi T\right)}^{3}-0.000001431{\left(\varphi T\right)}^{4}$ |
Zadkhast et al. [189] | MWCNT–CuO/water | T = 25–50 °C, φ = 0.0–0.6% | $\frac{{k}_{nf}}{{k}_{bf}}=0.907\mathit{exp}(0.36{\varphi}^{0.3111}+0.000956T)$ |
T (°C) | Water | TiO_{2} (0.1 vol.%) | Al_{2}O_{3} (0.1 vol.%) |
---|---|---|---|
Thermal conductivity, $k$ (W/m-K) | |||
10 | 0.5823 | 0.5919 | 0.5922 |
15 | 0.5896 | 0.5979 | 0.5994 |
20 | 0.5964 | 0.6036 | 0.6047 |
25 | 0.6014 | 0.6091 | 0.6109 |
Density, $\rho $ (kg/m^{3}) | |||
10 | 997.8 | 1001.0 | 1000.7 |
15 | 996.8 | 1000.0 | 999.5 |
20 | 996.0 | 999.0 | 998.6 |
25 | 994.7 | 997.9 | 997.3 |
Viscosity, $\mu $ (mPa·S) | |||
10 | 0.9549 | 0.9684 | 0.9684 |
15 | 0.8706 | 0.8935 | 0.8786 |
20 | 0.8150 | 0.8275 | 0.8187 |
25 | 0.7493 | 0.7690 | 0.7535 |
Specific Heat, ${C}_{P}$ (J/kg·K) | |||
10 | 4183 | 4168 | 4170 |
15 | 4183 | 4169 | 4169 |
20 | 4183 | 4169 | 4169 |
25 | 4183 | 4169 | 4169 |
T (°C) | K_Test (W/m-K) | K_th (W/m-K) | $\mathit{\mu}\_\mathit{t}\mathit{e}\mathit{s}\mathit{t}$ (mPa·S) | $\mathit{\mu}\_\mathit{t}\mathit{h}$ (mPa·S) | ${\mathit{C}}_{\mathit{P}}\_\mathit{t}\mathit{e}\mathit{s}\mathit{t}$ (J/kg·K) | ${\mathit{C}}_{\mathit{P}}\_\mathit{t}\mathit{h}$ (J/kg·K) | $\mathit{\rho}\_\mathit{t}\mathit{e}\mathit{s}\mathit{t}$ (kg/m^{3}) | $\mathit{\rho}\_\mathit{t}\mathit{h}$ (kg/m^{3}) |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|
10 | 0.5922 | 0.5829 | 0.9684 | 0.9559 | 4170 | 4170 | 1000.7 | 1001 |
15 | 0.5994 | 0.5902 | 0.8786 | 0.8715 | 4169 | 4169 | 999.5 | 1000 |
20 | 0.6047 | 0.597 | 0.8187 | 0.8158 | 4169 | 4169 | 998.6 | 999 |
25 | 0.6109 | 0.602 | 0.7535 | 0.7501 | 4169 | 4169 | 997.3 | 997.7 |
Author(s) | Operating Variables | Nanofluid Characteristics | Findings |
---|---|---|---|
Pantzali et al. [274] | Nanofluid as coolant, PHE, T_{ci} = 30, T_{hi} = 50 °C, Ω_{h} = 40–56 mL/s, Ω_{c} = 10–100 mL/s | Al_{2}O_{3}, CNT, TiO_{2}, CuO/water (0.5–4.0 vol.%), surfactant: CTAB | The use of nanofluids was advantageous in laminar flow. |
Zamzamian et al. [275] | Hot side: nanofluid, PHE, cold side: water, Ω_{h}: 3 lpm, Ω_{c}: 2.5 lpm, T_{hi} = 45–75 °C | Al_{2}O_{3}, CuO/EG (0.1–1.0 wt.%), surfactant: SDS, SDBS, and CTAB | HTC increased with increasing concentration and temperature by 3% to 49%. |
Kabeel et al. [276] | Hot side: nanofluid, PHE, cold side: water, laminar flow, T_{hi} = 40 °C, Ω_{c} = 3 m^{3}/h | Al_{2}O_{3}/water (1–4 vol.%) | HTC and pump work increased with $\phi $. For 4.0 vol.%, HTC increased by 13%. |
Tiwari et al. [277] | Nanofluid as coolant, PHE, Ω_{h} = 3 lpm, Ω_{c} = 1.0–4.0 lpm, T_{ci} = (25–50 °C), T_{hi} = 70 °C | CeO_{2}/water (0.5–3.0 vol.%) | HTC increased by 39% at 0.75 vol.% with almost no pressure drop. |
Khairul et al. [278] | PHE, nanofluid as coolant, Ω_{c} = 2–5 lpm, Ω_{h} = 2 lpm,T_{ci} = 300 K | CuO/water (0.5–1.5 vol.%) | HTC increased by 27.20%, while exergy loss was reduced by 24% at 1.5 vol.%. |
Huang et al. [279] | Hot side: nanofluid, PHE, cold side: water, counter flow, Re = 58–624, Ω = 0–0.16 lps, T_{hi} = 33 °C, T_{ci} = 22 °C | Al_{2}O_{3}/water (0.56–2.84 vol.%) and MWCNT/water (0.0111–0.0555 vol.%) | HTC and the pressure drop increased with concentration. |
Tabari and Heris [280] | PHE, hot side: nanofluid, cold side: milk, counter flow, Pe = 300–1100, T_{hi} = 68–72 °C | MWCNT/water (0.25–0.55 wt.%) | HTC and heat transfer rates increased upon adding MWCNTs to the base fluid. |
Abed et al. [281] | PHE, height = 2.5–5 mm, pitch = 6–12 mm, constant heat flux: 6 kW/m^{2}, T_{i} = 300K, turbulent flow | Al_{2}O_{3}, CuO, SiO_{2}, and ZnO/water (0–4 vol.%) | The most desirable channel parameters were a trapezoid height of 5 mm and a vertical pitch of 6 mm. |
Behrangzade and Heyhat [282] | PHE, hot side: nanofluid, cold side: water, Ω_{c} = 2–4 lpm, Ω_{h} = 4–8 lpm, T_{hi} = 30–55 °C | Ag/water (100 ppm) | Overall, HTC increased by 16.79% for 100 ppm nanofluid. |
Sarafraz and Hormozi [283] | PHE, Re_{h} = 700–25000, T_{hi} = 50–70 °C | MWCNT/water nanofluid (0.5–1.5 vol.%) | HTC increased with flow rate and volume concentration. |
Sun et al. [284] | PHE, Re = 1000–2800 | (Cu, Fe_{2}O_{3}, and Al_{2}O_{3})/DI water (0.1–0.5%) | Overall, HTC increased with mass fraction of particles. |
Kumar et al. [285] | PHE, T_{ci} = 20 °C, T_{hi} = 50 °C, Ω_{c} = 0.5–2 lpm, Ω_{h} = 3 lpm, β = 30°/30°, 30°/60°, 60°/60° | ZnO/water (0–2 vol.%), surfactant: CTAB | The optimum increase in HTRR and HTCR, as well as reduction in exergy loss, was observed at 1.0 vol.% for β-60°/60°. |
Kumar et al. [286] | PHE, Nanofluid as coolant, T_{ci} = 20 °C, T_{hi} = 50 °C, Ω_{c} = Ω_{h} = 3 lpm, b = 2.5–10.0 mm | TiO_{2}, Al_{2}O_{3}, ZnO, CeO_{2}, GNP, MWCNT nanofluids, Cu + Al_{2}O_{3} hybrid nanofluid/DI water (0.5–2.0 vol.%), surfactant: CTAB | Exergy destruction was lowest and exergetic efficiency was maximum for 5 mm spacing at 0.75 vol.%. |
Ahmed et al. [287] | Microchannel, Re = 50–300, laminar flow | Al_{2}O_{3} and SiO_{2}/water (0.3–0.9 vol.%) | Al_{2}O_{3} had the lowest thermal resistance. SiO_{2} was preferred due to lower pressure drop. |
Ardeh et al. [288] | Microchannel, Re = 50–400, laminar flow | Al_{2}O_{3}–SiO_{2}, Al_{2}O_{3}–Cu/water (0–5 vol.%) | Al_{2}O_{3}–SiO_{2} hybrid nanofluid had a lower thermal resistance and better thermal performance. |
Wang et al. [289] | Microchannel, Re = 340–640, laminar flow | Al_{2}O_{3}/water (1–4 vol.%), D = 20–40 nm | Nanoparticles with small diameters and high concentrations provided higher heat transfer performance. |
Adio et al. [290] | Microchannel, Re = 100–700, laminar flow | Al_{2}O_{3}/water (0.5–4 vol.%) | A 43.6% enhancement in heat transfer coefficient was observed. |
Adio et al. [291] | Microchannel, Re = 100–400, laminar flow | CuO/Water (0.5–4 vol.%) | A 6.5% enhancement in heat transfer was observed. |
Ali et al. [292] | Microchannel, Re = 100–350, laminar flow | Al_{2}O_{3}/water (0–3 vol.%) | The Nusselt number at 3 vol.% and Re = 350 showed a 0.67% enhancement. |
Kumar et al. [293] | Microchannel, Re = 200–600, laminar flow | Al_{2}O_{3}/water (0.25–0.75 vol.%) | A 40% heat transfer coefficient enhancement was obserbed at 0.75 vol.% fraction. |
Elbadawy and Fayed [294] | Microchannel, Re = 200–1500, laminar flow | Al_{2}O_{3}/water (0.01–0.05 vol.%) | Cooling performance was enhanced. |
Kahani [295] | Microchannel, Re = 100–300, laminar flow | Al_{2}O_{3}/water (0–1 vol.%) | The average Nusselt number increased to 1.36 at a 1 vol.% fraction. |
Pourfattah et al. [296] | Microchannel, Re = 25–100, laminar flow | CuO/water (0.02–0.04 vol.%) | The heat transfer coefficient was highest at a 0.04 vol.% fraction. |
Kumar et al. [297] | Microchannel, Re = 100–500, laminar flow | Al_{2}O_{3}/water (2–7 vol.%), D = 10–40 nm | Nu increased and thermal resistance decreased when the nanoparticles diameter was reduced. |
Arjun and Rakesh [298] | Microchannel, turbulent flow | Al_{2}O_{3}/water (0–5 vol.%) | The heat transfer coefficient improved by about 12% to 5% particle volume fraction. |
Reddy et al. [299] | Microchannel, Re = 100–700, laminar flow | CuO/water (0–4 vol.%) | The heat transfer coefficient and viscosity increased, while the specific heat capacity decreased. |
Darzi et al. [300] | Straight-tube HEX | Al_{2}O_{3}/water | The heat transfer increased with the concentration. |
Maddah et al. [301] | Straight, twisted tape | Al_{2}O_{3}/water | The heat transfer was enhanced by 12% to 52% compared to the tube with twisted tapes. |
Sarafraz and Hormozi [302] | Straight | Silver/EG–water (0.1–1 vol.%) | The 0.1–1 vol.% fraction increased the heat transfer coefficient by 22–67%. |
Jafarimoghaddam et al. [303] | Straight | Cu/oil | The heat transfer coefficient increased by 17.32%. |
Shirvan et al. [304] | Straight | Al_{2}O_{3}/water, φ = 0.03 | The Nusselt number was enhanced by 57.7% with Re = 150 and φ = 0.03. |
Akyurek et al. [305] | Wire coil turbulator | Al_{2}O_{3}/water | The addition of a wire coil increased the Nusselt number and the heat transfer coefficient. |
Albadr et al. [306] | Shell-and-tube HEX | Al_{2}O_{3}/water, φ = 2 v% | The overall heat transfer coefficient increased by 57%. |
Godson et al. [307] | Shell-and-tube HEX | Ag/water, φ = 0.01–0.04 vol.% | There was a 12.4% rise in heat transfer coefficient. |
Dharmalingam et al. [308] | Shell-and-tube HEX | Al_{2}O_{3}/water | There was a 17% rise in overall heat transfer coefficient. |
Aghabozorg et al. [309] | Shell-and-tube HEX | Fe_{2}O_{3}–CNT/water (0.2 wt.%) | There were 34.02% and 37.50% increases in the heat transfer coefficient for laminar and turbulent flow. |
Tan et al. [310] | Shell-and-tube HEX | MWCNT/DI water, φ = 0.2–1 wt.% | There was a 24.3% increase in the heat transfer coefficient. |
Naik and Vinod [311] | Shell-and-tube HEX | Fe_{2}O_{3}, CuO, Al_{2}O_{3/}(CMC), φ = 1 wt.% | There were 26% and 29% increases in the overall heat transfer coefficient for Al_{2}O_{3} and CuO nanofluids. |
Said et al. [312] | Shell-and-tube HEX | CuO/water | A 7% increase in overall heat transfer and a 11.39% increase in convective heat transfer were observed. |
T (°C) | Water | TiO_{2} (0.1 vol.%) | Al_{2}O_{3} (0.1 vol.%) |
---|---|---|---|
10 | 10.11 | 10.19 | 10.48 |
15 | 11.05 | 11.35 | 12.21 |
20 | 12.27 | 12.68 | 13.89 |
25 | 14.35 | 14.97 | 16.71 |
Author(s) | Operating Variables | Nanofluid Characteristics | Findings |
---|---|---|---|
Liu et al. [341] | MWCNT/water, | Water chiller | Efficiency improved by 5.15%, while cooling capacity increased by 4.2%. |
Loaiza et al. [343] | Al_{2}O_{3}, TiO_{2}, CuO, and Cu/water | Vapor compression refrigeration system | The evaporator area and pressure drop decreased for fixed cooling capacity as particle size and concentration increased. |
Zhang et al. [353] | Al_{2}O_{3}, SiO_{2}/water | Ice making | With the use of nanoparticles, supercooling was reduced to a lesser extent. |
Kumaresan et al. [342] | MWCNT/(EG + water) | - | Higher temperatures and velocities increased heat transmission efficiency, preferably with 0.15% MWCNTs by volume. |
Parise and Tiecher [344] | Cu/water | Vapor compression heat pumps | When the volume fraction of nanoparticles reached 2%, COP increased by 5.4%. |
Sarkar [356,357] | Al_{2}O_{3}, TiO_{2}, CuO, SiO_{2}, and Cu/water | CO_{2} refrigerant system | The shell-and-tube gas cooler’s cooling effectiveness and capacity were enhanced. |
Jaiswal and Mishra [347] | Al_{2}O_{3}, TiO_{2}, CuO, and Cu/water | Domestic refrigeration system | The performance of the cooling system increased by 17–20%. |
Longo et al. [354] | Al_{2}O_{3}/(EG + water) | Milk dispenser | Energy consumption was reduced by 63–70%. |
Ndoye et al. [348] | Co, CuO, Fe, SiO_{2}, Al_{2}O_{3}, and TiO_{2}/water | Cold chain refrigeration plants | The cold chain became more efficient by consuming less energy and producing fewer emissions. |
Askari et al. [345] | MWCNT and graphene/water | Cooling tower | Efficiency, cooling range, and cooling tower performance were all improved with lower water use, as were the tower’s attributes. |
Kolhapure and Patil [346] | Al_{2}O_{3}/water | Air conditioning and refrigeration system | The capacitor thermal cutoff, which lowered compressor operation and used less energy, boosted COP. |
Soliman et al. [349] | Al_{2}O_{3}, Ag, TiO_{2}, Co, Cu, Au, Fe, CuO, diamond, and graphite/water | Refrigeration system | When the mass fraction was 0.1%, productivity increased by 10.5%. |
Vasconcelos et al. [350] | SWCNT/water | Vapor compression refrigeration system | Excellent COP and cooling capacity. |
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Bhattad, A.; Atgur, V.; Rao, B.N.; Banapurmath, N.R.; Yunus Khan, T.M.; Vadlamudi, C.; Krishnappa, S.; Sajjan, A.M.; Shankara, R.P.; Ayachit, N.H. Review on Mono and Hybrid Nanofluids: Preparation, Properties, Investigation, and Applications in IC Engines and Heat Transfer. Energies 2023, 16, 3189. https://doi.org/10.3390/en16073189
Bhattad A, Atgur V, Rao BN, Banapurmath NR, Yunus Khan TM, Vadlamudi C, Krishnappa S, Sajjan AM, Shankara RP, Ayachit NH. Review on Mono and Hybrid Nanofluids: Preparation, Properties, Investigation, and Applications in IC Engines and Heat Transfer. Energies. 2023; 16(7):3189. https://doi.org/10.3390/en16073189
Chicago/Turabian StyleBhattad, Atul, Vinay Atgur, Boggarapu Nageswar Rao, N. R. Banapurmath, T. M. Yunus Khan, Chandramouli Vadlamudi, Sanjay Krishnappa, A. M. Sajjan, R. Prasanna Shankara, and N. H. Ayachit. 2023. "Review on Mono and Hybrid Nanofluids: Preparation, Properties, Investigation, and Applications in IC Engines and Heat Transfer" Energies 16, no. 7: 3189. https://doi.org/10.3390/en16073189