# Study on Surface Configurations and Force Transfer Mechanism of Dual-Wedge Shaped Slips for Liner Hanger

^{1}

^{2}

^{*}

## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Theoretical Study on Force Transfer Characteristics of Hanging Mechanism

#### 2.1. Mechanical Model of Conventional Slips and Cone

#### 2.2. Mechanical Model of Dual-Wedge Slips and Slip-Seat

#### 2.2.1. Main Geometrical Parameters and Force Analysis

_{1}and f

_{2}are the friction forces that acted on the wedge faces of the slip; N

**and N**

_{1}**are the normal forces that acted on the wedge faces of the slip; N is the radial force that acted on the top face of the slip by casing; P is the penetration force of the slip; T is the axial force that acted on the top face of slip by casing; W**

_{2}_{L}is the weight of liner.

#### 2.2.2. Force Vectors and Rotation Matrix Multiplication

#### 2.2.3. Static Equilibrium

_{L}is the liner weight, n is the slip number, α is Eulerian angle about the x axe, γ is Eulerian angle about the z axe, and μ is the friction coefficient.

## 3. Numerical Simulation of Interaction between Dual-Wedge Slips and Casing

#### 3.1. Finite Element Model

#### 3.2. Simulation Results

## 4. Experimental Research

#### 4.1. Experimental Setup and Equipment

#### 4.2. Experimental Results

#### 4.3. Comparison of Theoretical Calculation and Test Results

_{φ}is the circumferential stress, a is the inner diameter of casing, b is the outer diameter of casing, q is the average contact stress.

## 5. Discussion

#### 5.1. Effects of Geometrical Parameters on the Slip Penetration Force

_{L}and friction coefficient μ. In order to study the effects of several parameters on the penetration force P, the control variate method was introduced.

#### 5.1.1. Eulerian Angle α

_{L}, the second Eulerian angle γ, and friction coefficient μ are considered as constants, the relationship between the penetration force P and the first Eulerian angle α is expressed as Equation (19), and the curve is shown in Figure 14.

#### 5.1.2. Eulerian Angle γ

_{L}, the first Eulerian angle α, and friction coefficient μ are considered as constants, and the relationship between the penetration force P and the second Eulerian angle γ is expressed as Equation (20), and the curve is shown in Figure 15.

#### 5.2. Effects of Friction Coefficient on the Slip Penetration Force

_{L}, the Eulerian angle α and γ are considered as constants, and the relationship between the penetration force P and the friction coefficient μ is expressed as Equation (21), and the curve is shown in Figure 16.

#### 5.3. Effect of Liner Weight W_{L}

_{L}can be expressed as:

_{L}. As the liner weight increases, the penetration force of the slips increases, and the slips are inserted deeper into the inner wall of the upper casing. When the light liner is tripped into the borehole, the weight is insufficient to achieve the action of slips, and a pre-determined minimum gripping force must be applied to avoid slippage of liner.

## 6. Conclusions

- (1)
- The formula of calculating the penetration force for dual-wedge slip was presented. The formula shows that the penetration force is affected by several parameters such as geometric parameters α and γ, liner weight W
_{L}and friction coefficient μ. - (2)
- The penetration force of dual-wedge slips increases with an increase in the liner weight and Eulerian angle γ, and it decreases with an increase in Eulerian angle α and friction coefficient. The sensitive range of Eulerian angle α is (0, 30), and the sensitive range of Eulerian angle γ is (0, 60). The geometric parameters of the dual-wedge slip can be designed to obtain an optimal penetration force, and ensure that the slip teeth penetrate into the inner wall of casing without any damage to the casing.
- (3)
- The simulation and experimental results demonstrate that the penetration force leads to an uneven stress distribution on the casing. By optimizing the bearing surface of dual-wedge slip and seat, the radial slip/casing load can be circumferentially distributed by the slip to the seat with minimal stress concentration, and this protect the liner pipe and hanger mandrel from collapse loads.

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Institutional Review Board Statement

## Informed Consent Statement

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

- API SPEC 19LH; Liner Hanger Equipment. 1st ed. API: Washington, DC, USA, 2019.
- API STD 65-Part 2; Standard for Isolating Potential Flow Zones during Well Construction. 2nd ed. API: Washington, DC, USA, 2010.
- Ramadan, M.A.; Salehi, S.; Ezeakacha, C.; Teodoriu, C. Analytical and experimental investigation of the critical length in casing–liner overlap. Sustainability
**2019**, 11, 6861. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version] - Ahmed, S.; Patel, H.; Salehi, S. Effects of wait on cement, setting depth, pipe material, and pressure on performance of liner cement. J. Petrol. Sci. Eng.
**2021**, 196, 108008. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Jiminez, C.; Soto, S.; Leon, A.; Batocchio, M.A.P.; Marval, P.; Schoener-Scott, M.F. Case histories—Implementation of new liner hanger technology in south central Venezuela significantly improves operations in complex wells. In Proceedings of the Abu Dhabi International Petroleum Exhibition and Conference, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, 3–6 November 2008. [Google Scholar]
- Berge, T.; Mathisen, K.D.; Storebø, O.; Muir, M. Expandable liner hanger milling: North Sea case histories. In Proceedings of the SPE/IADC Drilling Conference, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 5–7 March 2013. [Google Scholar]
- Zhong, A.; Moeller, D.; Maddux, S. Development of a high hang weight expandable liner hanger for deepwater applications. In Proceedings of the Offshore Technology Conference, Houston, TX, USA, 1–4 May 2017. [Google Scholar]
- Ahmed, S.; Salehi, S.; Ezeakacha, C.P.; Teodoriu, C. Evaluation of liner hanger seal assembly and cement sheath as a dual barrier system: Implications for industry standards. J. Petrol. Sci. Eng.
**2019**, 178, 1092–1103. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Kelsey, M.; Stautzenberger, A.; Einervoll, O.; Dietz, W.; Lajesic, B.; Stokes, M. Multilateral expandable metal anchoring packer design, development, and application in the North Sea. In Proceedings of the Offshore Technology Conference, Houston, TX, USA, 4–7 May 2020. [Google Scholar]
- Stolyarov, S.; Bagci, S.; Gomez, R.; Wright, B.; Yang, J. Application of cemented multi-entry frac sleeves in multistage stimulation: A case study. In Proceedings of the SPE Russian Petroleum Technology Conference, Virtual, 26–29 October 2020. [Google Scholar]
- Walvekar, T.; Jackson, A.T. Expandable technology improves reliability of conventional liner hanger systems. In Proceedings of the IADC/SPE Drilling Conference, Miami, FL, USA, 21–23 February 2006. [Google Scholar]
- Walvekar, S.; Jackson, T. Development of an expandable liner-hanger system to improve reliability of liner installations. In Proceedings of the Offshore Technology Conference, Houston, TX, USA, 30 April–3 May 2007. [Google Scholar]
- Patel, H.; Salehi, S.; Teodoriu, C.; Ahmed, R. Performance evaluation and parametric study of elastomer seal in conventional hanger assembly. J. Petrol. Sci. Eng.
**2019**, 175, 246–254. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Ahmed, S.; Patel, H.; Salehi, S. Numerical modeling and experimental study of elastomer seal assembly in downhole wellbore equipment: Effect of material and chemical swelling. Polym. Test.
**2020**, 89, 106608. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Cai, M.J.; Cao, Y.P.; Wang, X. Analysis of interaction between HTHP completion packer’s slip and the Casing Wall. Appl. Mech. Mater.
**2013**, 423–426, 866–870. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Royer, E.S.; Turney, R.A. HPHT expandable liner hanger technology with superior pressure integrity. In Proceedings of the Offshore Technology Conference, Houston, TX, USA, 6–9 May 2019. [Google Scholar]
- Cao, Y.; Tong, S.; Dou, Y. Analysis of limit setting force of casing inside slips based on cylindrical shell theory. Open Mech. Eng. J.
**2014**, 8, 234–237. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version] - Byrom, T.G. Casing and Liners for Drilling and Completion, 2nd ed.; Gulf Professional Publishing: Houston, TX, USA, 2014. [Google Scholar]
- Patel, H.; Salehi, S. Comparative evaluation of elastomer seal energization in conventional and expandable hanger assembly. In Proceedings of the ASME 2019 38th International Conference on Ocean, Offshore and Arctic Engineering, Glasgow, Scotland, UK, 9–14 June 2019. [Google Scholar]
- Ahmed, S.; Salehi, S.; Ezeakacha, C. Review of gas migration and wellbore leakage in liner hanger dual barrier system: Challenges and implications for industry. J. Nat. Gas Sci. Eng.
**2020**, 78, 103284. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Munshi, A.A.; O’Connor, K.; McMahon, S.; Carmody, M. Development of a remotely activated liner hanger system while minimizing operational risks. In Proceedings of the SPE/IATMI Asia Pacific Oil & Gas Conference and Exhibition, Jakarta, Indonesia, 17–19 October 2017. [Google Scholar]
- Patel, H.; Salehi, S. Development of an advanced finite element model and parametric study to evaluate cement sheath barrier. J. Energy Resour. Technol.
**2019**, 141, 092902. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Zhang, Z.; Sang, P.; Sang, Z.; Hou, D.; Lv, Y.; Zheng, Y.; Zhang, C. Analyzing failure of casing head slip hanger. Eng. Fail. Anal.
**2020**, 108, 104301. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Ahmed, S.; Salehi, S. Failure mechanisms of the wellbore mechanical barrier systems: Implications for well integrity. J. Energy Resour. Technol.
**2021**, 143, 073007. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Robinson, S.; Littleford, T.; Luu, T.; Wardynski, K.; Evans, A.; Horton, B.; Oman, M. Acoustic imaging of perforation erosion in hydraulically fractured wells for optimizing cluster efficiency. In Proceedings of the SPE Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference and Exhibition, The Woodlands, TX, USA, 4–6 February 2020. [Google Scholar]
- Stolyarov, S.; Casanova, G.; Xu, Y.Q.; Deng, G.; Holmes, K.; Gomez, R.; Young, A. How much can you afford to ignore casing failure during hydraulic fracturing the search for a non-damaging frac-plug. In Proceedings of the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Virtual, 26–29 October 2020. [Google Scholar]
- Tang, X.; Qian, B.; Li, B.; Liu, Y.; Zhang, Y. Development and application of a packer-type drilling-free liner hanger. Nat. Gas Ind. B
**2014**, 1, 125–128. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version] - Fay, P. Embedded Flex-Lock Slip Liner Hanger. U.S. Patent 2006/0278404 A1, 14 December 2006. [Google Scholar]
- Mohamed, A.O.; Al-Zuraigi, A. Liner hangers technology advancement and challenges. In Proceedings of the SPE Middle East Oil and Gas Show and Conference, Manama, Bahrain, 10–13 March 2013. [Google Scholar]
- Dou, Y.; Pan, H.; Tong, S.; Cao, Y.; Gao, W. Study on the interaction mechanism of packer slips and thick wall casing. Open Mech. Eng. J.
**2014**, 8, 230–233. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version] - Sinha, P.; Ranjan, A.; Srivastava, P.; Doodraj, S.; Lang, C. Unitized wellheads for rajasthan onshore development drilling—Proven safer and economical wellhead design compared to bowl and slip wellheads. In Proceedings of the IADC/SPE Asia Pacific Drilling Technology Conference, Singapore, 22–24 August 2016. [Google Scholar]
- Tikhonov, V.; Gelfgat, M.; Ring, L.; Bukashkina, O. Refinement of the drillpipe-slip mechanical model. In Proceedings of the SPE Russian Petroleum Technology Conference, Moscow, Russia, 16–18 October 2017. [Google Scholar]
- Liu, Y.; Lian, Z.; Shi, T.; Sang, P. Fracture failure analysis and research on slip of casing head. Eng. Fail. Anal.
**2019**, 97, 589–604. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Okstad, E.H.; Sangesland, S. Integrity assessment of well barriers threatened by increasing casing hanger loads. SPE Drill. Completion
**2009**, 24, 286–292. [Google Scholar] - Zhang, L.; Zhang, L.; Liang, W. Casing safety evaluation for setting liner hanger. J. Nat. Gas Sci. Eng.
**2014**, 19, 58–61. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

**Figure 3.**Conventional liner hanger profile. (

**a**) Prototype model of slips and cone; (

**b**) the forces acted on the slip.

**Figure 4.**Concept of hanging mechanism with dual-wedge slips. (

**a**) 3-D CAD model; (

**b**) cross sectional view.

**Figure 9.**Experimental setup for liner hanger test. (

**a**) Test device schematic diagram; (

**b**) the liner hanger; (

**c**) machine used to conduct the experiments.

Casing | Slip and Slip-Seat | |||
---|---|---|---|---|

Outer Diameter (mm) | Inner Diameter (mm) | Eulerian Angle α (°) | Eulerian Angle γ (°) | Contact Area (mm^{2}) |

365 | 337 | 5 | 30 | 1.8e4 |

Density (kg/m^{3}) | Elastic Modulus (GPa) | Poisson’s Ratio | Yield Stress (MPa) | Tensile Strength (MPa) |
---|---|---|---|---|

7860 | 210 | 0.3 | 835 | 985 |

Axial force (kN) | 100 | 200 | 300 | 400 | 500 | 600 | 700 | 800 | 900 | 1000 |

Contact force (kN) | 265.1 | 530.2 | 795.3 | 1060.4 | 1325.4 | 1590.5 | 1855.6 | 2120.7 | 2385.8 | 2650.9 |

Disclaimer/Publisher’s Note: The statements, opinions and data contained in all publications are solely those of the individual author(s) and contributor(s) and not of MDPI and/or the editor(s). MDPI and/or the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to people or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content. |

© 2023 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

## Share and Cite

**MDPI and ACS Style**

Han, F.; Han, H.; Zhong, P.; Zou, Y.; Huang, J.; Xue, L. Study on Surface Configurations and Force Transfer Mechanism of Dual-Wedge Shaped Slips for Liner Hanger. *Energies* **2023**, *16*, 3177.
https://doi.org/10.3390/en16073177

**AMA Style**

Han F, Han H, Zhong P, Zou Y, Huang J, Xue L. Study on Surface Configurations and Force Transfer Mechanism of Dual-Wedge Shaped Slips for Liner Hanger. *Energies*. 2023; 16(7):3177.
https://doi.org/10.3390/en16073177

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Han, Feng, Hua Han, Pengrui Zhong, Yong Zou, Jiqiang Huang, and Long Xue. 2023. "Study on Surface Configurations and Force Transfer Mechanism of Dual-Wedge Shaped Slips for Liner Hanger" *Energies* 16, no. 7: 3177.
https://doi.org/10.3390/en16073177