# Study on the Performance of Photovoltaic/Thermal Collector–Heat Pump–Absorption Chiller Tri-Generation Supply System

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## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

#### 1.1. Motivation and Incitement

#### 1.2. Literature Review and Research Gap

#### 1.3. Contributions and Paper Organization

## 2. System Description

## 3. System Model

#### 3.1. Building Model

^{2}. Figure 4 shows that the average radiation intensity is small due to the cloudy and rainy weather in summer. The heating load of the dormitory model is shown in Figure 5. When the load type is a heating load, the output value is negative, and the value of the cooling load is positive. The maximum heating load is 84.6 kW. Figure 6 shows the annual cooling load. The maximum cooling load is 71.4 kW.

#### 3.2. Modeling and Analysis

- The boiling or condensation of working fluid was not regarded;
- The energy loss and fluid leakage caused by the pipe and valve between the equipment connection are considered negligible;
- Potential energy and a change in kinetic energy are ignored.

#### 3.2.1. Balance of Energy and Exergy

#### 3.2.2. PV/T Analysis

^{2}) indicates the received solar radiation intensity, $P$ (W) is the electrical power of the PV/T, ${\tau}_{g}$ is the glass cover plate transmittance, ${c}_{p}$ (J/(kg·K)) is the specific heat capacity, $\dot{m}$ (kg/s) is the mass flow rate, ${T}_{\mathit{out}}$ and ${T}_{\mathit{in}}$ (K) are the outlet and inlet temperature.

#### 3.2.3. Heat Pump Analysis

#### 3.2.4. Absorption Chiller Analysis

#### 3.2.5. Connection Component Analysis

#### 3.2.6. System Comprehensive Evaluation Indicator

## 4. Validation

## 5. Results and Discussion

#### 5.1. Energy Analysis

#### 5.2. Exergy Analysis

#### 5.3. Economic Analysis

#### 5.4. Comparisons with Relevant Research

#### 5.5. Parametric Analysis

- (1)
- Effect of solar radiation intensity

- (2)
- Effect of variable PV/T area

- (3)
- Influence of variable LHP capacity

## 6. Conclusions

- (1)
- The system can satisfy the building load, which is crucial for verifying the feasibility of the proposed system.
- (2)
- In terms of system performance evaluation, the layout based on a PV/T, a heat pump, and an absorption chiller achieves an average energy efficiency of 32.98% and an average exergy efficiency of 17.62%. Additionally, the payback period of the proposed system is 7.77 years. Compared to the systems in the other literature, the proposed system in this paper has certain performance advantages.
- (3)
- Increasing the area of the PV/T shortened the payback period of the system, which has a positive impact on the tri-generation system. However, the PV/T area is restricted to the actual area of the building roof; thus, the layout of the PV/T should be reasonably arranged to achieve a maximum installed area. Furthermore, increasing the LHP capacity brings an increase in the energy efficiency and exergy efficiency and a decrease in the payback period.

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Data Availability Statement

## Conflicts of Interest

## Abbreviations

CNY | Chinese yuan |

COP | Coefficient of performance |

CRC | Capital recovery factor |

CT | Cooling tower |

HP | Heat pump |

HX | Heat exchanger |

OM | Operation and maintenance |

PV/T | Photovoltaic/thermal |

TES | Thermal energy storage |

Symbols | |

${A}_{pv}$ | Area of photovoltaic panel (m^{2}) |

${C}_{F}$ | Annual net profit of system (CNY) |

${C}_{Con}$ | Annual energy consumption cost (CNY) |

${c}_{p}$ | Specific heat capacity (J/kg·K) |

$E$ | Annual overall net product (kWh) |

$\dot{En}$ | Energy rate (W) |

$\dot{Ex}$ | Exergy rate (W) |

$G$ | Received solar radiation intensity, (W/m^{2}) |

$IR$ | Interest rate (%) |

$\dot{m}$ | Mass flow rate (kg/s) |

$n$ | System life (years) |

$P$ | Electric power (W) |

$PP$ | Payback period (years) |

$\dot{Q}$ | Thermal capacity (W) |

$T$ | Temperature (K) |

$UPC$ | Unit product exergy cost (CNY/kWh) |

$\dot{W}$ | Power consumption (W) |

$Y$ | Unit product energy profit (CNY/kWh) |

$\dot{Z}$ | Equipment cost rate (CNY/h) |

${Z}_{0}$ | Overall initial investment cost of system (CNY) |

${Z}_{k}$ | Investment cost of each component (CNY) |

Greek Letters | |

${\gamma}_{k}$ | Maintenance factor |

$\xi $ | Exergy efficiency (%) |

$\eta $ | Energy efficiency (%) |

$\tau $ | Operating hour (h) |

${\tau}_{g}$ | Transmittance of the glass cover plate |

${\psi}_{s}$ | Conversion coefficient of solar radiation exergy |

Subscripts | |

$0$ | Dead state |

$a$ | Ambient |

$c$ | Cooling |

$C$ | Condenser |

$con$ | Consumption |

$d$ | Destruction |

$E$ | Evaporator |

$el$ | Electrical |

$f$ | Fuel |

G | Generator |

$h$ | Heating |

$in$ | Inlet |

$k$ | kth component |

$l$ | Loss |

$out$ | Outlet |

$p$ | Product |

$sys$ | System |

$th$ | Thermal |

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**Figure 22.**Variation between system energy efficiency and exergy efficiency with different area of PV/T.

Parameter | Value |
---|---|

PV/T (Type 50b) | |

Collector area | 500 m^{2} |

Collector fin efficiency factor | 0.96 |

Absorptance of collector plate | 0.92 |

Emittance of collector plate | 0.09 |

Bottom and edge losses coefficient | 1.1 kJ/(h·m^{2}·K) |

Collector slope | 38° |

Temperature coefficient of PV cell | 0.0032 K^{−1} |

Nominal Temperature for cell | 25 °C |

Nominal cell efficiency | 21% |

Low-temperature heat pump (Type 927) | |

Rated heating capacity | 15 kW |

Rated heating power | 3 kW |

Number of identical heat pumps | 4 |

High-temperature heat pump (Type 927) | |

Rated heating capacity | 10 kW |

Rated heating power | 3 kW |

Number of identical heat pumps | 10 |

Absorption chiller (Type 107) | |

Rated capacity | 65 kW |

Rated C.O.P. | 0.6 |

Auxiliary power | 0.5 kW |

Thermal storage tank (Type 39) | |

Overall tank volume | 20 m^{3} |

Tank circumference | 1.5 m |

Cross section area | 4.0 m^{2} |

Average loss coefficient | 5.0 kJ/(h·m^{2}·K) |

Parameter | Value | Unit |
---|---|---|

Overall area | 2142 | m^{2} |

Floor | 3 | - |

Living room area | 18 | m^{2} |

Room height | 3.3 | m |

South window–wall ratio | 30.30 | % |

North window–wall ratio | 30.30 | % |

West window–wall ratio | 4.33 | % |

East window–wall ratio | 4.33 | % |

Rated power of computer | 320 | W |

Number of computers in each room | 4 | - |

Parameter | Value | Unit |
---|---|---|

External wall | 0.349 | W/(m^{2}·K) |

Internal wall | 1.531 | W/(m^{2}·K) |

Floor | 0.663 | W/(m^{2}·K) |

Ceiling | 0.896 | W/(m^{2}·K) |

Roof | 0.304 | W/(m^{2}·K) |

Window | 1.08 | W/(m^{2}·K) |

Parameter | Value | Unit | |
---|---|---|---|

Specific cost of equipment | PV/T | 680.34 | CNY/m^{2} |

LHP | 266.67 | CNY/kW | |

HHP | 500.00 | CNY/kW | |

AC | 1065.60 | CNY/kW | |

TES | 325.00 | CNY/ton | |

Specific profit of production | Space heating | 80.00 [53] | CNY/GJ |

Cooling | 0.13 | CNY/kWh | |

Power generation | 0.37 | CNY/kWh | |

Other parameters | Specific cost for electricity purchase | 0.50 [53] | CNY/kWh |

Operation and maintenance factor | 1.0% | ||

Interest rate | 5.4% [51] | ||

System operation life | 20 | years |

PP (Years) | Cost Rate of the System (CNY/h) | Unit Product Energy Profit (CNY/kWh) | Unit Product Exergy Cost (CNY/kWh) |
---|---|---|---|

7.77 | 5.32 | 0.050 | 0.120 |

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## Share and Cite

**MDPI and ACS Style**

Yue, H.; Xu, Z.; Chu, S.; Cheng, C.; Zhang, H.; Chen, H.; Ai, D. Study on the Performance of Photovoltaic/Thermal Collector–Heat Pump–Absorption Chiller Tri-Generation Supply System. *Energies* **2023**, *16*, 3034.
https://doi.org/10.3390/en16073034

**AMA Style**

Yue H, Xu Z, Chu S, Cheng C, Zhang H, Chen H, Ai D. Study on the Performance of Photovoltaic/Thermal Collector–Heat Pump–Absorption Chiller Tri-Generation Supply System. *Energies*. 2023; 16(7):3034.
https://doi.org/10.3390/en16073034

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Yue, Han, Zipeng Xu, Shangling Chu, Chao Cheng, Heng Zhang, Haiping Chen, and Dengxin Ai. 2023. "Study on the Performance of Photovoltaic/Thermal Collector–Heat Pump–Absorption Chiller Tri-Generation Supply System" *Energies* 16, no. 7: 3034.
https://doi.org/10.3390/en16073034