# A Study on Performance and Characteristic Analysis According to the Operating Point of IPMSM Drive

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## Abstract

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## 1. Introduction

## 2. Pulse-Width Modulation Method

#### 2.1. Sinusoidal Pulse-Width Modulation

#### 2.2. Third-Harmonic Pulse-Width Modulation

#### 2.3. Space Vector Pulse-Width Modulation

#### 2.4. Discontinuous Pulse-Width Modulation

## 3. The Offset Voltage Injection Method

#### 3.1. SPWM and THPWM

#### 3.2. Space Vector Pulse-Width Modulation

#### 3.3. Sixty-Degrees Discontinuous Pulse-Width Modulation

#### 3.4. Other Discontinuous Pulse-Width Modulations

## 4. Test Results of the IPMSM

#### 4.1. Simulation Results

#### 4.2. Experimental Results

## 5. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Data Availability Statement

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 1.**SPWM technique for phase a of a motor (

**a**) reference phase voltage and triangular carrier wave; (

**b**) switching state; (

**c**) output voltage of the inverter.

**Figure 3.**

**The**60° discontinuous PWM technique: (

**a**) 60° DPWM; (

**b**) 60° (+30°) DPWM; (

**c**) 60° (−30°) DPWM.

**Figure 5.**Control block for IPMSM speed control: (

**a**) IPMSM control algorithm; (

**b**) switching function for injecting the offset voltage.

**Figure 10.**Voltage relations of other DPWMs: (

**a**) +30° DPWM; (

**b**) 120° (on) DPWM; (

**c**) 120° (off) DPWM.

**Figure 12.**Simulation results of motor torque in steady state at 400 rpm and 1.6 Nm of load torque: (

**a**) SPWM; (

**b**) THPWM; (

**c**) SVPWM; (

**d**) 60° DPWM; (

**e**) 30° DPWM; (

**f**) 120° (off) DPWM.

**Figure 14.**Simulation results of motor torque at 1500 rpm of command and 1.0 Nm of load torque: (

**a**) SPWM; (

**b**) THPWM; (

**c**) SVPWM; (

**d**) 60° DPWM; (

**e**) 30° DPWM; (

**f**) 120° (off) DPWM.

**Figure 15.**Experimental setup for IPMSM control: (

**a**) IPMSM for the experiments; (

**b**) experimental setup.

**Figure 16.**Experimental results at 400 rpm and 1.5 A depending on the PWM technique: (

**a**) SPWM; (

**b**) THPWM; (

**c**) SVPWM; (

**d**) 60° DPWM; (

**e**) 30° DPWM; (

**f**) 120° (off) DPWM.

**Figure 17.**Experimental results at 1000 rpm and 3 A depending on the PWM technique: (

**a**) SPWM; (

**b**) THPWM; (

**c**) SVPWM; (

**d**) 60° DPWM; (e) 30° DPWM; (

**f**) 120° (off) DPWM.

**Figure 18.**Spectrum of phase current depending on the PWM technique: (

**a**) fundamental component at 400 rpm and 1.5 A; (

**b**) harmonics at 400 rpm and 1.5 A; (

**c**) fundamental component at 1000 rpm and 3 A; (

**d**) harmonics at 1000 rpm and 3 A; (

**e**) fundamental component at 1200 rpm and 3 A; (

**f**) harmonics at 1200 rpm and 3 A.

**Figure 19.**Experimental results of torque per MI depending on the PWM technique at (

**a**) 200 rpm; (

**b**) 600 rpm; (

**c**) 1000 rpm; (

**d**) 1200 rpm.

**Figure 20.**Experimental results of the inverter efficiency depending on the PWM technique at (

**a**) 200 rpm; (

**b**) 600 rpm; (

**c**) 1000 rpm; (

**d**) 1200 rpm.

Variables | Value | Unit |
---|---|---|

Resistance | 2.85 | Ohm |

Rated speed | 1250 | rpm |

DC Supply Voltage | 100 | V |

Rated current | 3.25 | A |

Number of Poles | 8 | - |

d-axis inductance | 20.26 | mH |

q-axis inductance | 22.67 | mH |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Park, H.-J.; Ahn, H.-W.; Go, S.-C.
A Study on Performance and Characteristic Analysis According to the Operating Point of IPMSM Drive. *Energies* **2023**, *16*, 1219.
https://doi.org/10.3390/en16031219

**AMA Style**

Park H-J, Ahn H-W, Go S-C.
A Study on Performance and Characteristic Analysis According to the Operating Point of IPMSM Drive. *Energies*. 2023; 16(3):1219.
https://doi.org/10.3390/en16031219

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Park, Hyun-Jong, Han-Woong Ahn, and Sung-Chul Go.
2023. "A Study on Performance and Characteristic Analysis According to the Operating Point of IPMSM Drive" *Energies* 16, no. 3: 1219.
https://doi.org/10.3390/en16031219