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Article

Heat Transfer Enhancement in Cooling Jacket of Liquid Cooled Spark Ignition Engine

1
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Institute of Space Technology, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan
2
Department of Mechatronics Engineering, College of Electrical and Mechanical Engineering, National University of Science and Technology, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan
3
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of UTAH Asia Campus, Incheon 21985, Republic of Korea
4
School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 46241, Republic of Korea
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2023, 16(13), 5126; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16135126
Submission received: 21 March 2023 / Revised: 6 May 2023 / Accepted: 26 June 2023 / Published: 3 July 2023
(This article belongs to the Topic Advanced Engines Technologies)

Abstract

:
Thermal stresses due to long running of spark ignition engine often results in wear and tear of cylinder near the top dead center (TDC). These high thermal stresses at TDC arise due to the high temperature gradient during spark ignition. This situation eventually decreases the life and efficiency of an engine. In this study, the numerical and analytical analysis was carried out on 1298 cc in line four stroke spark ignition (SI) engine having a power output of 63 kW to drop the peak temperature at TDC. to reduce the peak value of temperature, square pin fins were used on the surface of engine cylinder wall near TDC. A parametric study is performed to get an optimal solution for removal of the peak temperature load at TDC. The results showed that the fins with dimension of 4 × 4 × 4  m m 3  along with uniform spacing of 2 mm provide the optimum solution. It has been observed that the peak temperature at TDC dropped down considerably from 160 °C to 133 °C (a percentage reduction of 16.87%) for the pin fins case as compared to without the fin case. Furthermore, the heat transfer effectiveness for the optimum case was calculated as 3.32, whereas for numerical and analytical study it was calculated as 3.43. The error recorded between both the values was limited to 3.2%.

1. Introduction

In the past few decades, the automobile industry has grown exponentially and is still progressing day by day. For efficient engine operation, it is essential to run an engine within standard operating temperature range. Over the period of time, different cooling systems have been introduced to enhance cooling characteristics as per the environmental conditions. However, this temperature distribution remains uneven inside the cylinder block. The top dead center (TDC) becomes hotter during combustion strokes as compared to the bottom dead center (BDC). this situation results in the thermal stresses due to cyclic heat load and eventually effect the material at the TDC. This can be minimized by reducing the peak temperature load from TDC. One way to reduce this peak temperature load is to enhance the heat transfer rate at TDC from the engine block to the coolant by introducing the fins at the coolant side. These extended fins increase the contact area with the fluid which results in greater forced convection.
Several studies demonstrated the use of pin fins in different applications for the enhancement of the heat transfer rate. Wei et al. [1] investigated heat transfer characteristics of heat recovery unit numerically. Heat transfer performance of the finned tube was found to be greater as compared to smooth tubes. Serge et al. [2] performed analytical and numerical calculations to optimize the finned heat exchanger. Heat transfer efficiency was found greater using finned surfaces. Tian et al. [3] examined numerically the staggered circular pin finned tube. They found positive thermal hydraulic performance of fin length, fin diameter and number of fins. Lemouedda et al. [4] investigated the performance of serrated finned tube heat exchanger numerically. The main investigation was carried for serrated fins, serrated twisted fins, and number of serrated fins in comparison without fin. Piotr Wais [5] investigated numerically the fin tube heat exchanger with different fin thickness. Singh et al. [6] performed numerical study to investigate the heat transfer and pressure loss characteristics by varying fin geometries. Three different cross sections (rectangular, trapezoidal and triangular) were used for fin geometry. Ali and Briggs [7] performed experimental study for condensation of ethylene glycol by using pin fin tubes. Effect of circumferential pin fin spacing and its thickness was studied. A. Briggs [8] performed experiments on the condensation of R-113 and steam by the introduction of pin fin tubes. Enhancement in heat transfer co-efficient on vapor side was noted to be 3.6 and 9.9 for R-113 and between 2.4 and 2.9 for steam in comparison with plain tube.
O.N. Sara [9] analyzed square pin fins with varying cross-sections in staggered and in line arrangement. The results showed enhancement in heat transfer via square pin finned. Zia Ud din et al. [10] numerically investigates the performance of moving longitudinal and exponential fins with variable thermal conductivity, thermal emissivity, and heat transfer coefficient. Their findings indicate that the exponential fin exhibits higher heat transfer rates compared to the trapezoidal fin. Wei et al. [11] carried out experiments on a silicon chip dipped in a pool of gas dissolved FC-72. Square micro pinned fins of six varying dimensions were introduced to enhance heat flux from the silicon chips. The results revealed considerable increment in heat flux with a maximum increase of 4.2 times as compared to the smooth silicon chip. Chyu and Hsing [12] analyzed experimentally pin fins with a variation in array configuration and cross-section area. Results showed that square pin fins equipped with better heat transfer as compared to diamond and circular pin fins. Peltonen et al. [13] performed numerical and experimental study of plate and pin fin heat exchangers. Results revealed that due to localized vortex shedding, rate of heat transfer for pin fins increased twice as compared to the planar fins. Jeng and Tzeng [14] performed experiments to analyze pressure drop and rate of heat transfer by introducing square and circular pin fins inside rectangular duct with staggered and in-line fin arrangement. The in-line square pin fin array proved to have lower pressure drop and higher heat transfer as compared to circular pin fins. E. M. A. Mokheimer [15] evaluated the performance of annular fins with various profiles.
Saha and Acharya [16] performed numerical analysis for heat transfer characteristics in a channel with an array of cubical pin fins. With the introduction of pin fins, rate of heat transfer observed twice as compared to the smooth duct. Tariq et al. investigated the conjugate heat transfer problem for cellular structures using air [17], water [18], and Al2O3-H2O, CuO-H2O nano-fluids [19]. Anwar et al. [20] performed numerical calculation to analyse mini channel heat sink using CuO-H2O nano-fluids as a coolant. Xie et al. [21] studied numerically the heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of mini channel heat sink. Tariq et al. [22] investigated the effect of slab thickness in miniature devices.
It has been observed that pin fins have been extensively used for heat transfer enhancement in different applications. Pin fins may have also been utilized to enhance the heat transfer inside the engine. Hitachi et al. [23] performed numerical analysis to optimize the liquid cooling performance of automotive compact insulate gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) module. Square fins were preferred over round fins due to their outstanding heat dissipation and velocity flow performance. Selim et al. [24] performedan experimental study to increase heat transfer by introducing the fins inside the coolant passages of cylinder head. Heat transfer coefficient was enhanced up to 180%. The effect of fin length, number of fins, and fins material were studied. A review paper by Bhattad et al. [25] examined the hydrothermal performance of heat exchangers used in engine applications, when utilizing mono/hybrid nanofluids. A review study by Sachar et al. [26] provide insights of certain alterations in material, type, design, number of fins, and other parameters that can improve the efficiency of fins and further enhance the performance of engines. Rao et al. [27] investigated the use of aluminum alloy 6061, A204, and Magnesium alloy for rectangular and circular fins with thicknesses of 2.5 mm and 3 mm. A comparison using Pro-E and ANSYS 16.0 software revealed that, reducing the fin thickness and utilizing circular fins resulted in increased efficiency and effectiveness of the fins.
As evident from the literature, the addition of pin fins has a significant impact on heat transfer. However, taking the benefits of adding pin fins on the periphery of cylinder can reduce the peak temperature load which needed to be addressed. In this context, this study aimed to minimize the peak temperature load at TDC by enhancing heat transfer rate while introducing square pin fins on coolant side cylinder wall. We performed detailed parametric investigation to obtain optimal parameters for square pin fins. The square pin fins of varying cross-sectional area, fin height, fin width and fin spacing have been numerically analyzed and compared. Finally, we compared the results for optimal design with the analytical results and found the percentage error between them.

2. Analytical Analysis

The analysis was carried out on 1298cc in line four stroke Spark Ignition (SI) Engine having power output of 63 kW, bore of 74 mm and stroke of 75.5 mm, its thermal resistance circuit is shown in Figure 1 and its cylindrical block in Figure 2. Cylinder block and sleeve was made up of aluminum alloy T6 and cast iron, respectively. Thermal conductivity of aluminum alloy T6 and cast iron were taken as 109 W/mK and 46 W/mK, respectively. The water flow rate in the engine was considered constant as 12LPM (2.57 m/s) when the engine was revolving at 1500 rpm. The inner and outer radius of sleeve was 37 mm and 39.5 mm, respectively. The coolant moves in annulus between radii of 45 mm to 53.5 mm. The peripheral length where fins were installed was 32.76 mm. Sleeve, cylinder block and water are shown by red, grey and blue spectrum, respectively, in the thermal circuit diagram Figure 1. The properties of block and sleep are provided in Table 1.
Following assumptions were considered for the analytical analysis.
  • Flow is steady
  • Fin spacing is uniform in the longitudinal as well as in horizontal direction
  • One cylinder is assumed for the sake of simplicity
  • Heat transferred to the surrounding by the engine is 35% [28]

Data Reduction

We adopt the following procedure for data reduction as:
Heat supplied to the engine was calculated using Equation (1) taken from [29],
T h e r m a l   E f f i c i e n c y = Ƞ t h = W o u t Q i n
Thermal resistance that encounters the flow of heat through the cylinder wall was calculated using Equation (2) taken from [29],
R t h = l n ( r o / r i ) / 2 k l
Temperature of coolant side cylinder wall i.e., base temperature ‘Tb’ at TDC as shown in Figure 1 was calculated using Equation (3) taken from [29],
H e a t   t r a n s f e r   t h r o u g h   w a l l = Q w a l l = T 1 T b R t h ˙
Reynolds number and Prandtl number for the fluid flowing across the circular annulus having pin fins was calculated from Equation (4) and Equation (5), respectively, taken from [29],
R e y n o l d n u m b e r = R E = V D h υ
P r a n d t l n u m b e r = P r = µ C p K
Convective heat transfer coefficient was calculated from Equation (6) taken from [29],
h c = π r 2 = k N u D h
Fin efficiency was calculated from Figure 1b in Ref. [15] using empirical relations given in Equations (7) and (8) as:
m = h h u + h l k s w
R r a t i o = r o / r i
Heat transferred trough pin finned was calculated from Equation (9) taken from [29],
Q f i n = ˙ Ƞ f i n Q f i n m a x i m u m
Rate of heat transfer from pin finned surface was calculated from Equation (10) taken from [29],
fin = ηfinhAfin(Tb − T)
Heat transferred through un-finned surface was calculated from Equation (11) taken from [29],
Q U n f i n = ˙ h A U n f i n ( T b T )
Gross rate of heat transfer was calculated from Equation (12) taken from [29],
Q T ˙ = Q f i n ˙ + Q U n f i n ˙
Heat transfer without fins was calculated from Equation (13) taken from [29],
Q N o F i n ˙ = h c A n o f i n ( T b T )
Fin effectiveness was calculated from Equation (14) taken from [29],
ε f i n = Q T Q N o F i n

3. Numerical Analysis

We utilized the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach to vitalize the conjugate heat transfer problem. We used an ANSYS design modeler for modelling of geometry according to dimensions, ANSYS meshing for CFD mesh and ANSYS fluent as a CFD solver. ANSYS 16.0 commercial software was used to solve conservation equations from (15)–(19) [21,30]. Pressure based solver, absolute velocity formulation, and transport equation for Realizable k-ε model were used. Pressure and velocity coupling were controlled by a semi-implicit method for pressure-linked equations (SIMPLE). A second-order spatial discretization scheme was used for the pressure while for the discretization of momentum, turbulent kinetic energy and turbulent dissipation rate second order upwind scheme was used. Heat transfer connection was set from cast iron sleeve to aluminum alloy block, and then from aluminum block to water. To evaluate thermal and flow characteristics in numerical study, the following assumptions were used:
  • The flow is incompressible, turbulent, 3D and in steady state
  • Fluid thermal properties are considered constant throughout the flow
  • There is no heat generation inside the structure and no viscous heating
Governing equations on the basis of above assumptions are as follows for conservation of mass, momentum, energy, turbulence kinetic energy and turbulence dissipation rate:
For conservation of mass [30]
x i ρ u i = 0
For conservation of momentum [30]
x i ρ u i u j = p x j + x i μ + μ t μ j x i + x i μ + μ t μ i x j w h e r e   j = 1,2 , 3
For conservation of energy [30]
x i ρ u i T = x i λ c p + μ t σ T T x i
For conservation of turbulence kinetic energy (k) [30]
x i ρ k u i = x i μ + μ t σ k k x i + G k ρ ε
For conservation of turbulence dissipation rate (ε) [30]
x i ρ ε u i = x i μ + μ t σ ε ε x i + ε k c 1 G k c 2 ρ ε
Gk is generation of turbulence kinetic energy which can be described as
G k = ρ u i u j u j x i
µt is turbulent viscosity and is described as
μ t = ρ C μ k 2 ε
Cµ is described as
C μ = 1 / A o + A s k U * ε
As is described as
A s = 6 c o s
where C2 = 1.9, σk = 1, σε = 1.2, Ao = 4.04 are constants
The following boundary conditions were used for numerical study as:
  • Flow inlet velocity as 2.57 m/s
  • Pressure outlet at 0 gauge
  • Cast iron sleeve inner wall temperature is kept constant at 185 °C [28]
  • Incoming flow is assumed at ambient 300 K temperature

3.1. Mesh Independent Study

Mesh was considered to be independent when the temperature difference shows no more than 1% of deviation with the number of elements. Results were examined for the temperature difference between water inlet temperature and sleeve inner cylinder wall temperature with varying number of elements. Once the number of elements crossed 7 million, a negligible temperature difference was observed. Therefore, the minimum threshold was set to 7 million for the whole parametric study. Variation of temperature difference versus the number of elements is described in Figure 3.

3.2. Parametric Study

In this section, parameters of square pin fins were varied and discussed in detail. The scheme followed the effect of fin cross-section, effect of fin spacing and effect of height to compute fin effectiveness for each case. An optimal structure was evaluated after detailed parametric study. A single cylinder was considered for the ease of numerical analysis. Square pin fins were introduced in the passage of coolant jacket to enhance rate of heat transfer. Ten cases were studied (i.e., from case-1 to case-10) while a no fin case was assumed as case-0. The isometric view of cylinder block is shown in Figure 4.

3.2.1. Effect of fin Cross-Section Area

In this section, three cases were analyzed by changing the cross-section area of square pin fins from case-1 to case-3, while keeping the fin spacing and fin height constant. Geometric dimensions are given in Table 2.
Case-3 was proven to be the optimal solution having cross section of 0.0153 m2 with fin effectiveness of 1.67 followed by case-2 and case-1 with the fin effectiveness of 1.57 and 1.41, respectively. The details of the results are given in Table 3.

3.2.2. Effect of Fin Spacing

In this section, the effect of fin spacing is studied with constant fin cross-section area and fin height. Four cases were studied from case-4 to case-7 to obtain optimized fin spacing. Geometric dimensions are given in Table 4.
Case-4 was proven to be the best solution having fin spacing of 2 mm with fin effectiveness of 1.72 followed by case-5, case-6, and case-7 with the fin effectiveness of 1.64, 1.46, and 1.28, respectively. The detailed results are given in Table 5.

3.2.3. Effect of fin height

In this section, the effect of fin height is studied by keeping the fin cross-section area and fin spacing constant. Geometric dimensions from case-8 to case-10 are given in Table 6.
Case-10 with fin height of 4 mm proved to be best case with a fin effectiveness of 3.43 followed by case-9 and case-8 with a fin effectiveness of 2.91 and 1.72, respectively. The red region shows the hotter inner side of sleeve while blue color shows the temperature contour at coolant side in Figure 5. The detailed results are given in Table 7.

4. Results and Discussions

4.1. Effect of Pressure Drop

The effect of pressure drop with surface area is shown in Figure 6. With an increase in surface area using fin surfaces, the pressure drop gradually increases. More fins eventually shorten the fin spacing which allows the coolant to pass through them. This in fact causes the blockage in the flow and results in increased pressure drop across inlet to outlet. Minimum pressure drop was observed for case-1 464 Pa while the maximum pressure drop was observed for case-9 as 573 Pa in comparison to no-fin case-0.

4.2. Temperature Distribution across the Wall

Within an internal combustion engine (IC Engine), the combustion of the air-fuel mixture generates temperatures that can rise as high as 2000 °C, posing the risk of melting the cylinder body and engine head. Inadequate cooling can result in the combustion of lubricating oil, leading to engine part seizure and damage to oil rings and compression rings [31]. The addition of fins shows a significant reduction in internal temperature. Temperature distribution across the wall at TDC is shown in Figure 7. The location of five different points P1, P2, P3, P4, and P5 at vicinity are shown in Figure 8. The inner wall temperature of sleeve was kept constant as 185 °C. The temperature gradually decreases starting from the sleeve inner side up to cylinder outer wall surface. It is evident from the results that for case-0 with no fin, the temperature drop is from 185 °C to 159.6 °C, while for the case-10, maximum temperature drop was observed (i.e., from 185 °C to 133 °C). Maximum and minimum drop in temperature was measured as 26.6 °C and 14.9 °C, respectively, in comparison to case-0.
Temperature contour of inner side of cylinder block made of aluminum alloy for case-0 and case-10 is shown in Figure 9. It can be clearly observed that temperature drops from red color (which is high) for case-0 to orange color for case 10 at TDC. This clearly signifies the importance of adding fins on top periphery of cylinder. Peak temperature value drops using pin fins as compared to no fin, which will further result in reduction of thermal stresses on TDC.

4.3. Effect of Surface Area on Heat Transfer Rate

The effect of heat transfer rate with surface area is shown in Figure 10. With increase in surface area using finned surfaces, the rate of heat transfer increases gradually. Case-0 represents a minimal rate of heat transfer with respect to other cases. Case-4 and case-5 show a reasonable enhancement of rate of heat transfer as surface area increases. Case-8 and case-9 provide a fair increment in the rate of heat transfer. Maximum and minimum heat transfer rate was recorded for case-10 and case-7, respectively.

4.4. Fin Effectiveness

The fin effectiveness plays a significant role in finding the performance of fins utilized, as compared with a no fin surface area. Analytical and numerical data of fin effectiveness for the optimal case i.e., case-10 is shown in Figure 11. The effectiveness of the case-10 was recorded as 3.32 and 3.43 analytically and numerically, respectively. Certainly, the rate of heat transfer is improved as the effectiveness of case-10 is greater than 1. The error recorded between analytical and numerical results was 3.2%.

5. Conclusions

The temperatures generated due to the combustion of the air-fuel mixture within an internal combustion engine (IC engine) can reach up to 2000 °C, which can affect the cylinder body and engine head (as they may melt). If the cooling system is not sufficient, the lubricating oil can ignite and cause damage to the engine parts, such as oil rings and compression rings, resulting in seizure. In this study, we investigated the effect of square pin fins on heat transfer to reduce the peak temperature load at TDC. The maximum pressure drop was observed for case-10 due to a greater area which creates hindrance for the flow, while better minimum pressure drop was offered by case-1 in comparison to case-0. The base temperature dropped down from 160 °C (case-0) to 133 °C (case-10), which is 16.87% lower as compared to case-0. The heat transfer effectiveness for case-10 was found to be 3.32 and 3.43 for the analytical and numerical data, respectively. The error noted between both the values was 3.2%, predicting the significance of the numerical study. A significant drop in peak temperature load was observed for the case-10 when compared with no fin case-0, demonstrating the value of this study. Case-10 was found to be the best among all other cases studied in this work.

Author Contributions

Methodology, H.A.T., H.E., M.R.B., T.I.K. and M.U.; Software, F.M.; Formal analysis, M.A. and T.I.K.; Investigation, F.M. and H.A.T.; Resources, H.E.; Data curation, M.R.B.; Writing—original draft, M.A., A.I. and U.G.; Writing—review & editing, M.A., A.I., U.W.Q. and U.G.; Visualization, M.U. and U.W.Q.; Supervision, M.A.; Project administration, M.R.B.; Funding acquisition, M.R.B. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.

Funding

This work was supported by the National Research Foundation (NRF) of Korea through the Auspices of the Ministry of Science and ICT, Republic of Korea, under Grant NRF-2020R1G1A1012741.

Data Availability Statement

No supporting data required.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Nomenclature

AsSurface Area of heat transfer surface, mm2
AfinSurface Area of introduced fins, mm2
Aun-finSurface area leftover by fins, mm2
AcCross-section area of fin
CpSpecific heat, kJ/kgK
Mass flow rate, kg/s
ΔPPressure Difference, Pa
Heat transfer rate, W
finHeat transfer rate through introduced fins, W
unfinHeat transferred left over by the fins, W
TCombined heat transfer through fin and finned surface, W
nofinHeat transfer without fins, W
QVolumetric flow rate, m3/s
RthThermal resistance, °C/W
TTemperature (°C)
TbBase temperature of the surface where fins are attached, (°C)
TFluid Inlet Temperature, °C
ToFluid Outlet Temperature, °C
tWall thickness, mm
u,v,wVelocity in x,y,z, respectively (m/s)
huConvective heat transfer coefficient for upper surface, W/m2 K
hlConvective heat transfer coefficient for lower surface, W/m2 K
mDimensionless parameter
ksThermal conductivity of fin, W/mK
RratioRadius ratio
roouter diameter, mm
riinner diameter, mm
REReynolds number
DhHydraulic diameter, mm
νKinematic viscosity,
PrPrandtl number
µDynamic viscosity
kThermal conductivity, W/mK
KThermal diffusivity
hcConvective heat transfer coefficient, W/m2 K
hFin height, mm
wFin width, mm
LPMLitres per minute
ε f i n Fin effectiveness
WoutOutput of the engine produced, W
QinHeat supplied to the engine, W
Greek symbol
αsfSurface area density
ρDensity (kg/m3)
µtTurbulence viscosity (kg/ms)

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Figure 1. Thermal circuit diagram.
Figure 1. Thermal circuit diagram.
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Figure 2. Model of cylindrical block.
Figure 2. Model of cylindrical block.
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Figure 3. Mesh independent study.
Figure 3. Mesh independent study.
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Figure 4. Cylinder block isometric view.
Figure 4. Cylinder block isometric view.
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Figure 5. Simulation results with no fins (Case-0).
Figure 5. Simulation results with no fins (Case-0).
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Figure 6. Variation of pressure drop with surface area.
Figure 6. Variation of pressure drop with surface area.
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Figure 7. Temperature distribution across the wall at TDC.
Figure 7. Temperature distribution across the wall at TDC.
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Figure 8. Points location along x-axis across the wall.
Figure 8. Points location along x-axis across the wall.
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Figure 9. Temperature contour of cylinder block inner side; Left case-0, Right case-10.
Figure 9. Temperature contour of cylinder block inner side; Left case-0, Right case-10.
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Figure 10. Variation of heat transfer rate with surface area.
Figure 10. Variation of heat transfer rate with surface area.
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Figure 11. Fin Effectiveness (1: Analytically, 2: Numerically).
Figure 11. Fin Effectiveness (1: Analytically, 2: Numerically).
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Table 1. Properties of engine block and sleeve.
Table 1. Properties of engine block and sleeve.
Part DetailMaterial Density   ( Kg / m 3 ) Thermal Conductivity (W/m K)Specific Heat Constant (KJ/Kg K)
BlockAluminum Alloy T627681090.896
SleeveGray Cast Iron7200460.46
Table 2. Fin dimensions.
Table 2. Fin dimensions.
Fin Cross Section
Ac (mm2)
Fin Spacing
w (mm)
Fin Height
h (mm)
Case-1432
Case-2932
Case-31632
Table 3. Effect of fin cross-section comparison.
Table 3. Effect of fin cross-section comparison.
Total Surface Area As (m2)Fin Cross-Section Area Ac (mm2) Heat   Transfer   without   Fin   Q ˙   ( W ) Heat   Transfer   with   Fin   Q ˙   ( W ) Fin   Effectiveness   ε f i n
Case-10.01314185.58262.511.41
Case-20.01489185.58291.911.57
Case-30.015316185.58306.471.65
Table 4. Effects of fin spacing.
Table 4. Effects of fin spacing.
Fin Cross Section
Ac (mm2)
Fin Spacing
w (mm)
Fin Height
h (mm)
Case 41622
Case 51632
Case 61642
Case 71652
Table 5. Effect of fin spacing comparison.
Table 5. Effect of fin spacing comparison.
Total Surface Area As (m2)Fin Spacing w (mm) Heat   Transfer   without   Fin   Q ˙   ( W ) Heat   Transfer   with   Fin   Q ˙   ( W ) Fin   Effectiveness   ε f i n
Case-40.01122185.58319.341.72
Case-50.01563185.58305.571.64
Case-60.01374185.58271.321.46
Case-70.01125185.58238.601.28
Table 6. Effects of fin height.
Table 6. Effects of fin height.
Fin Cross Section
Ac (mm2)
Fin Spacing
w (mm)
Fin Height
h (mm)
Case-81622
Case-91623
Case-101624
Table 7. Effect of fin height comparison.
Table 7. Effect of fin height comparison.
Total Surface Area
As (m2)
Fin Height
h (mm)
Heat   Transfer   without   Fin   Q ˙   ( W ) Heat   Transfer   with   Fin   Q ˙   ( W ) Fin   Effectiveness   ε f i n
Case-80.01672185.58319.341.72
Case-90.02053185.58540.232.91
Case-100.02384185.58638.303.43
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mehmood, F.; Tariq, H.A.; Anwar, M.; Elahi, H.; Bhutta, M.R.; Khan, T.I.; Israr, A.; Umer, M.; Qazi, U.W.; Ghafoor, U. Heat Transfer Enhancement in Cooling Jacket of Liquid Cooled Spark Ignition Engine. Energies 2023, 16, 5126. https://doi.org/10.3390/en16135126

AMA Style

Mehmood F, Tariq HA, Anwar M, Elahi H, Bhutta MR, Khan TI, Israr A, Umer M, Qazi UW, Ghafoor U. Heat Transfer Enhancement in Cooling Jacket of Liquid Cooled Spark Ignition Engine. Energies. 2023; 16(13):5126. https://doi.org/10.3390/en16135126

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mehmood, Faisal, Hussain Ahmed Tariq, Muhammad Anwar, Hassan Elahi, Muhammad Raheel Bhutta, Talha Irfan Khan, Asif Israr, Muhammad Umer, Usama Waleed Qazi, and Usman Ghafoor. 2023. "Heat Transfer Enhancement in Cooling Jacket of Liquid Cooled Spark Ignition Engine" Energies 16, no. 13: 5126. https://doi.org/10.3390/en16135126

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