# Evaluation Method of Naturalistic Driving Behaviour for Shared-Electrical Car

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## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Data Acquisition and Treatment

#### 2.1. Data Acquisition

#### 2.2. Data Treatment

#### 2.3. The Indexes for Driving Behaviour

## 3. Quantity Estimation of Driving Behaviour Data

## 4. Study on the Relationship between Different Driving Behaviour Parameters

#### 4.1. Statistical Characteristics of the Main Driving Behaviour Parameters

^{2}. The average values of acceleration and deceleration were 2.05 and 2.72 m/s

^{2}, respectively. Compared to deceleration, acceleration was mainly located within the small value sections, which was mainly attributed to the heavy traffic.

#### 4.2. Statistical Characteristics of Parameters at Different Vehicle Speed

## 5. Evaluation Method of Driving Behaviour

#### 5.1. Confirmation of Weight and Scoring Rule

#### 5.2. Proposed Driving Behaviour Evaluation Method

## 6. Conclusions

- The NDS data were collected from the OBD−II interface via CAN bus with the rate of 10 Hz. This sampling frequency satisfies the requirement of transient process analysis. The sliding-window averaging filter and the box diagram method were used to improve the data quality. Eleven indexes were selected to evaluate the driving behaviour, including vehicle running data, driver operation data and power consumption of the vehicles.
- KL divergence was applied to confirm the appropriate data quantity for the driving behaviour analysis. The result showed that the minimum data quantity for vehicle speed, acceleration, steering wheel angle and steering wheel speed were 20 × 10
^{5}, 63 × 10^{5}, 10 × 10^{5}, 231 × 10^{5}, respectively, with the variation value of KL lower than 1 × 10^{5}. - The changing trend of acceleration and deceleration, steering wheel angle and steering wheel speed versus vehicle speed were compared. Based on the distribution characteristics, the thresholds of aberrant driving were determined in correlation with vehicle speed to enhance the recognition accuracy of the aberrant driving behaviour. The thresholds can be used to evaluate the aberrant driving behaviour.
- The weights for the 11 indexes were obtained by combining the AHP and EWM methods. The scoring rules of the 11 indexes were confirmed based on the distribution of the indexes. An evaluation method of driving behaviour was proposed and verified according to the driving behaviour data of the car-hiring driver.

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Institutional Review Board Statement

## Informed Consent Statement

## Data Availability Statement

## Conflicts of Interest

## Abbreviations

AHP | Analytic Hierarchy Process |

CAN | Controller Area Network |

ECU | Electronic Control Units |

EWM | Entropy Weight Method |

GPS | Global Positioning System |

ICE | Internal Combustion Engine |

IMU | Inertial Measurement Unit |

KL | Kullback–Leibler |

NDS | Naturalistic Driving Study |

OBD | On-Board Diagnostics |

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**Figure 4.**The comparison of the signal with different treat method: (

**a**) Sliding-window averaging filter; (

**b**) The box diagram method.

**Figure 10.**The distribution characteristic of acceleration and deceleration versus vehicle speed: (

**a**) Overall trend; (

**b**) Comparison of distribution characteristic.

**Figure 13.**The comparison of distribution and quantile for steering wheel angle at different speeds.

**Figure 14.**The comparison of distribution and quantile for steering wheel speed at different speeds.

**Figure 16.**The distribution of different indexes: (

**a**) The number of rapid accelerations per 100 km; (

**b**) The number of sudden brakings per 100 km; (

**c**) The number of rapid turns per 100 km; (

**d**) The number of speeding occurences during steering per 100 km; (

**e**) Standard deviation of vehicle speed; (

**f**) Average value of acceleration; (

**g**) Standard deviation of acceleration; (

**h**) Average value of deceleration; (

**i**) Standard deviation of deceleration; (

**j**) Driving time per trip; (

**k**) Power consumption.

**Figure 18.**The evaluation result of driving behaviour: (

**a**) The score distribution of driving events; (

**b**) The score for every driver.

**Figure 19.**The comparison of scores for four indexes (numbers from 1 to 4 represent the number of rapid accelerations per 100 km, the number of sudden brakings per 100 km, the number of rapid turns per 100 km and the number of speeding occurrences during steering per 100 km, respectively).

Signal Type | The Primary Parameters |
---|---|

Vehicle operation | Vehicle speed, mileage, position of the acceleration and brake pedal, steering wheel angle. |

Power battery status | Total voltage and current of the battery pack, insulation resistance and temperature. |

Motor operation | Voltage, current, motor speed, motor torque and temperature. |

Vehicle accessories status | Voltage and current of the air conditioner, Voltage and current of the DC-DC. |

Vehicle alert | Alert signal of power battery, motor and thermal management system. |

Number | Index | Symbol | Definition | Unit |
---|---|---|---|---|

1 | Standard deviation of vehicle speed | ${v}_{std}$ | ${v}_{std}=\sqrt{\frac{{\displaystyle \sum _{i=1}^{n}{({v}_{i}-{v}_{m})}^{2}}}{n}}$ | km/h |

2 | Average value of acceleration | ${a}_{m}{}^{+}$ | ${a}_{m}{}^{+}=\frac{{\displaystyle \sum _{i=1}^{n}{a}_{i}{}^{+}}}{n}$ | m/s^{2} |

3 | Average value of deceleration | ${a}_{m}{}^{-}$ | ${a}_{m}{}^{-}=\frac{{\displaystyle \sum _{i=1}^{n}{a}_{i}{}^{-}}}{n}$ | m/s^{2} |

4 | Standard deviation of acceleration | ${a}_{std}{}^{+}$ | ${a}_{std}{}^{+}=\sqrt{\frac{{\displaystyle \sum _{i=1}^{n}{({a}_{i}{}^{+}-{a}_{m}{}^{+})}^{2}}}{n}}$ | m/s^{2} |

5 | Standard deviation of deceleration | ${a}_{std}{}^{-}$ | ${a}_{std}{}^{-}=\sqrt{\frac{{\displaystyle \sum _{i=1}^{n}{({a}_{i}{}^{-}-{a}_{m}{}^{-})}^{2}}}{n}}$ | m/s^{2} |

6 | The number of rapid acceleration per 100 km | ${F}_{a}$ | ${F}_{a}=\frac{{N}_{a}}{D}\times 100$ | times/100 km |

7 | The number of sudden braking per 100 km | ${F}_{d}$ | ${F}_{d}=\frac{{N}_{d}}{D}\times 100$ | times/100 km |

8 | The number of rapid turning per 100 km | ${F}_{t}$ | ${F}_{t}=\frac{{N}_{t}}{D}\times 100$ | times/100 km |

9 | The number of speeding during steering per 100 km | ${F}_{st}$ | ${F}_{st}=\frac{{N}_{st}}{D}\times 100$ | times/100 km |

10 | Driving time per trip | $T$ | - | hour |

11 | Power consumption per 100 km | ${P}_{m}$ | ${P}_{m}=\frac{W}{D}\times 100$ | kW·h/100 km |

_{i}is the vehicle speed of each sample point, v

_{m}is the average speed in a complete driving event, ${a}_{i}^{+}$ is the acceleration of each sample point, ${a}_{i}^{-}$ is the deceleration of each sample point, N

_{a}, N

_{d}, N

_{t}and N

_{st}are the number of occurrences of rapid acceleration, sudden braking, rapid turning and speeding during steering, respectively, in a complete driving event, D is the mileage in a complete driving event, and W is the power consumption in a complete driving event.

Coefficient | 50% | 85% | 90% | 95% | 99% | 99.9% |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

β_{1} | −0.0042 | −0.0090 | −0.0102 | −0.0118 | −0.0150 | −0.0238 |

β_{2} | 0.5312 | 1.2056 | 1.4002 | 1.7076 | 2.5000 | 3.5534 |

R^{2} | 0.9123 | 0.9351 | 0.9386 | 0.9477 | 0.9708 | 0.9930 |

Coefficient | 50% | 85% | 90% | 95% | 99% | 99.9% |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

β_{1} | −0.0087 | −0.0128 | −0.0146 | −0.0182 | −0.030 | −0.0565 |

β_{2} | −0.2903 | −0.8529 | −1.0147 | −1.2648 | −1.8500 | −2.6433 |

β_{3} | 0.0047 | 0.0105 | 0.012 | 0.0144 | 0.0220 | 0.0301 |

β_{4} | −0.5456 | −1.3544 | −1.5801 | −1.9741 | −3.150 | −4.57 |

R^{2} | 0.8266 | 0.8263 | 0.8402 | 0.8838 | 0.9494 | 0.9220 |

Coefficient | 50% | 85% | 90% | 95% | 99% | 99.9% |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

a | 0.97 | 5.82 | 7.64 | 9.83 | 19.56 | 3.80 |

b | −53.27 | −209.30 | −270.77 | −373.06 | −680.00 | −692.02 |

c | 0.948 | 0.940 | 0.936 | 0.936 | 0.935 | 0.949 |

R^{2} | 0.9932 | 0.9982 | 0.9985 | 0.9985 | 0.9942 | 0.9935 |

Criterion Layer | Index Layer | Symbol of the Index |
---|---|---|

vehicle operation $\left({u}_{1}\right)$ | The number of rapid accelerations per 100 km | ${u}_{11}$ |

The number of sudden brakings per 100 km | ${u}_{12}$ | |

The number of rapid turns per 100 km | ${u}_{13}$ | |

The number of speeding occurrences during steering per 100 km | ${u}_{14}$ | |

driving action $\left({u}_{2}\right)$ | Standard deviation of vehicle speed | ${u}_{21}$ |

Average value of acceleration | ${u}_{22}$ | |

Average value of deceleration | ${u}_{23}$ | |

Standard deviation of acceleration | ${u}_{24}$ | |

Standard deviation of deceleration | ${u}_{25}$ | |

fatigue driving/power consumption $\left({u}_{3}\right)$ | Time of a driving event | ${u}_{31}$ |

Power consumption per 100 km | ${u}_{32}$ |

Criterion Layer | Index Layer |
---|---|

$\begin{array}{cccc}\mu & {\mu}_{1}& {\mu}_{2}& {\mu}_{3}\\ {\mu}_{1}& 1& 3& 2\\ {\mu}_{2}& 1/3& 1& 1/2\\ {\mu}_{3}& 1/2& 2& 1\end{array}$ | $\begin{array}{ccccc}{\mu}_{1}& {\mu}_{11}& {\mu}_{12}& {\mu}_{13}& {\mu}_{14}\\ {\mu}_{11}& 1& 2& 1/2& 1/2\\ {\mu}_{12}& 1/2& 1& 1/3& 1/3\\ {\mu}_{13}& 2& 3& 1& 1\\ {\mu}_{14}& 2& 3& 1& 1\end{array}$ |

$\begin{array}{cccccc}{\mu}_{2}& {\mu}_{21}& {\mu}_{22}& {\mu}_{23}& {\mu}_{24}& {\mu}_{25}\\ {\mu}_{21}& 1& 2& 1& 2& 1\\ {\mu}_{22}& 1/2& 1& 1/2& 1& 1/2\\ {\mu}_{23}& 1& 2& 1& 2& 1\\ {\mu}_{24}& 1/2& 1& 1/2& 1& 1/2\\ {\mu}_{25}& 1& 2& 1& 2& 1\end{array}$ | |

$\begin{array}{ccc}{\mu}_{3}& {\mu}_{31}& {\mu}_{32}\\ {\mu}_{31}& 1& 2\\ {\mu}_{32}& 1/2& 1\end{array}$ |

Index | Weight (W _{j}) | Value (Percentage) |
---|---|---|

The number of rapid accelerations per 100 km | 0.0858 | 9 |

The number of sudden brakings per 100 km | 0.0677 | 7 |

The number of rapid turns per 100 km | 0.1580 | 16 |

The number of speeding occurrences during steering per 100 km | 0.2280 | 22 |

Standard deviation of vehicle speed | 0.0428 | 4 |

Average value of acceleration | 0.0233 | 2 |

Average value of deceleration | 0.0206 | 2 |

Standard deviation of acceleration | 0.0434 | 4 |

Standard deviation of deceleration | 0.0333 | 4 |

Driving time per trip | 0.1525 | 15 |

Power consumption per 100 km | 0.1445 | 15 |

Index | Unit | Score | Score Rule |
---|---|---|---|

The number of rapid acceleration per 100 km | times/100 km | 9 | $y=\{\begin{array}{l}9-0.18x;0\le x\le 50\\ 0;x>50\end{array}$ |

The number of sudden braking per 100 km | times/100 km | 7 | $y=\{\begin{array}{l}7-0.28x;0\le x\le 25\\ 0;x>25\end{array}$ |

The number of rapid turning per 100 km | times/100 km | 16 | $y=\{\begin{array}{l}16-0.32x;0\le x\le 50\\ 0;x>50\end{array}$ |

The number of speeding during steering per 100 km | times/100 km | 22 | $y=\{\begin{array}{l}22-0.88x;0\le x\le 25\\ 0;x>25\end{array}$ |

Standard deviation of vehicle speed | km/h | 4 | $y=\{\begin{array}{l}4;0\le x\le 20\\ 2;20<x\le 35\\ 0;x>35\end{array}$ |

Average value of acceleration | m/s^{2} | 2 | $y=\{\begin{array}{l}2;0\le x\le 0.5\\ 1;0.5<x\le 0.7\\ 0;x>0.7\end{array}$ |

Standard deviation of acceleration | m/s^{2} | 4 | $y=\{\begin{array}{l}4;0\le x\le 0.4\\ 2;0.4<x\le 0.8\\ 0;x>0.8\end{array}$ |

Average value of deceleration | m/s^{2} | 2 | $y=\{\begin{array}{l}2;-0.35\le x\le 0\\ 1;-0.5\le x<0.35\\ 0;x<-0.5\end{array}$ |

Standard deviation of deceleration | m/s^{2} | 4 | $y=\{\begin{array}{l}4;0\le x\le 0.4\\ 2;0.4<x\le 0.8\\ 0;x>0.8\end{array}$ |

Driving time per trip | hour | 15 | $\begin{array}{l}y=\{\begin{array}{l}15;t\le 4\\ 5;4<t<8\\ 0;t\ge 8\end{array}\\ \end{array}$ |

Power consumption | kW·h/100 km | 15 | $y=\{\begin{array}{l}15;0<x\le 15\\ 15-3(x-15);15<x\le 20\\ 0;x>20\end{array}$ |

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## Share and Cite

**MDPI and ACS Style**

Ji, S.; Zhang, K.; Tian, G.; Yu, Z.; Lan, X.; Su, S.; Cheng, Y.
Evaluation Method of Naturalistic Driving Behaviour for Shared-Electrical Car. *Energies* **2022**, *15*, 4625.
https://doi.org/10.3390/en15134625

**AMA Style**

Ji S, Zhang K, Tian G, Yu Z, Lan X, Su S, Cheng Y.
Evaluation Method of Naturalistic Driving Behaviour for Shared-Electrical Car. *Energies*. 2022; 15(13):4625.
https://doi.org/10.3390/en15134625

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Ji, Shaobo, Ke Zhang, Guohong Tian, Zeting Yu, Xin Lan, Shibin Su, and Yong Cheng.
2022. "Evaluation Method of Naturalistic Driving Behaviour for Shared-Electrical Car" *Energies* 15, no. 13: 4625.
https://doi.org/10.3390/en15134625