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Energies, Volume 15, Issue 13 (July-1 2022) – 425 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Using simulation technology combining the theories of optimal design and reliability design, the problem of shifting gears and the shifting gears of the gear box-type shifting mechanism is effectively solved. The phenomenon of tooth beating and damage to the main shaft during shifting is avoided, thereby improving the reliability and stability of the gearbox. View this paper
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Article
Artificial Intelligence-Based Protection for Smart Grids
Energies 2022, 15(13), 4933; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15134933 - 05 Jul 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2013
Abstract
Lately, adequate protection strategies need to be developed when Microgrids (MGs) are connected to smart grids to prevent undesirable tripping. Conventional relay settings need to be adapted to changes in Distributed Generator (DG) penetrations or grid reconfigurations, which is a complicated task that [...] Read more.
Lately, adequate protection strategies need to be developed when Microgrids (MGs) are connected to smart grids to prevent undesirable tripping. Conventional relay settings need to be adapted to changes in Distributed Generator (DG) penetrations or grid reconfigurations, which is a complicated task that can be solved efficiently using Artificial Intelligence (AI)-based protection. This paper compares and validates the difference between conventional protection (overcurrent and differential) strategies and a new strategy based on Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), which have been shown as adequate protection, especially with reconfigurable smart grids. In addition, the limitations of the conventional protections are discussed. The AI protection is employed through the communication between all Protective Devices (PDs) in the grid, and a backup strategy that employs the communication among the PDs in the same line. This paper goes a step further to validate the protection strategies based on simulations using the MATLABTM platform and experimental results using a scaled grid. The AI-based protection method gave the best solution as it can be adapted for different grids with high accuracy and faster response than conventional protection, and without the need to change the protection settings. The scaled grid was designed for the smart grid to advocate the behavior of the protection strategies experimentally for both conventional and AI-based protections. Full article
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Article
Mesoporous VCN Nanobelts for High-Performance Flexible Zn-Ion Batteries
Energies 2022, 15(13), 4932; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15134932 - 05 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1127
Abstract
Vanadium nitride (VN) with a wide working window has been identified as a promising electrode material candidate for batteries due to the high specific capacitance and the excellent electrical conductivity. Here, we have successfully prepared VCN nanobelts, which display mesoporous structure with high [...] Read more.
Vanadium nitride (VN) with a wide working window has been identified as a promising electrode material candidate for batteries due to the high specific capacitance and the excellent electrical conductivity. Here, we have successfully prepared VCN nanobelts, which display mesoporous structure with high specific surface area (54.4 m2 g−1) and the total pore volume was 0.266 cm3 g−1. Furthermore, the prepared flexible Zn-ion battery (FZIB) with VCN-5 not only exhibited high specific capacitance (81 μAh cm−2), excellent rate capability, and long cyclic durability (77% after 1000 cycles at 0.6 mA cm−2) but also had the characteristics of flexibility. This FZIB is important to reduce the difficulty in thermal management and can be used in a series of applications, including wearable electric devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Thermal Management and Cooling Technologies)
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Article
Method for Determining Sensor Location for Automated Shading Control in Office Building
Energies 2022, 15(13), 4931; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15134931 - 05 Jul 2022
Viewed by 872
Abstract
Shading facilities are important technology to enable the adjustment of the indoor light and heat environment, and the control logic of the technology relies on data collected by sensors. The sensor position is generally arranged on the work surface, which is only suitable [...] Read more.
Shading facilities are important technology to enable the adjustment of the indoor light and heat environment, and the control logic of the technology relies on data collected by sensors. The sensor position is generally arranged on the work surface, which is only suitable for single rooms with fixed locations. For open-plan offices or other large offices, more study of detailed designs for the sensor position is required. Therefore, various sensor locations for different spaces will be investigated. Based on existing research, the UDI2000 lux [50%] and UDI450–2000 lux [50%] are the key indices for measuring sensor location. The Entropy Weight method is used to determine the weight of each index, and the ideal point method (TOPSIS method) is used to select the best sensor location. Based on the results, recommendations are provided for different space scales, window-to-wall ratios, and building orientations of offices for shading control sensor location. Full article
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Review
A Comparative Review of Lead-Acid, Lithium-Ion and Ultra-Capacitor Technologies and Their Degradation Mechanisms
Energies 2022, 15(13), 4930; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15134930 - 05 Jul 2022
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 3246
Abstract
As renewable energy sources, such as solar systems, are becoming more popular, the focus is moving into more effective utilization of these energy sources and harvesting more energy for intermittency reduction in this renewable source. This is opening up a market for methods [...] Read more.
As renewable energy sources, such as solar systems, are becoming more popular, the focus is moving into more effective utilization of these energy sources and harvesting more energy for intermittency reduction in this renewable source. This is opening up a market for methods of energy storage and increasing interest in batteries, as they are, as it stands, the foremost energy storage device available to suit a wide range of requirements. This interest has brought to light the downfalls of batteries and resultantly made room for the investigation of ultra-capacitors as a solution to these downfalls. One of these downfalls is related to the decrease in capacity, and temperamentality thereof, of a battery when not used precisely as stated by the supplier. The usable capacity is reliant on the complete discharge/charge cycles the battery can undergo before a 20% degradation in its specified capacity is observed. This article aims to investigate what causes this degradation, what aggravates it and how the degradation affects the usage of the battery. This investigation will lead to the identification of a gap in which this degradation can be decreased, prolonging the usage and increasing the feasibility of the energy storage devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Energy Storage Systems for Renewable Energy)
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Article
Flexible Operation of Concentrating Solar Power Plant with Thermal Energy Storage Based on a Coordinated Control Strategy
Energies 2022, 15(13), 4929; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15134929 - 05 Jul 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1223
Abstract
With the ambition of achieving carbon neutrality worldwide, renewable energy is flourishing. However, due to the inherent uncertainties and intermittence, operation flexibility of controllable systems is critical to accommodate renewables. Existing studies mainly focus on improving the flexibility of conventional plants, while no [...] Read more.
With the ambition of achieving carbon neutrality worldwide, renewable energy is flourishing. However, due to the inherent uncertainties and intermittence, operation flexibility of controllable systems is critical to accommodate renewables. Existing studies mainly focus on improving the flexibility of conventional plants, while no attention has been paid to the flexible operation of concentrating solar power with thermal energy storage (CSP-TES) systems. To this end, the ultimate goal of this work is to investigate the potentiality and realization of CSP-TES systems to flexibly operate in grid system regulation. With this goal, the dynamic characteristics of a 50 MW parabolic trough collector CSP plant with molten-salt-based TES is analyzed, and its dominant control characteristics are concluded to demonstrate the possibility of the ideal. After that, a coordinated control strategy is proposed. Specifically, a disturbance observer-based feedforward–feedback control scheme and a feedforward–feedback controller are designed, respectively, for the solar field and the energy storage subsystems, while the power block subsystem is regulated by a two-input and two-output decoupled controller. Based on the decentralized structure, three simulation cases are, respectively, performed to testify the capacity of the CSP-TES system to wide-range load variation tracking, strong disturbance rejection, or both. The results show that the CSP-TES system can adequately track the grid commands based on the proposed coordinated control strategy, even under strong fluctuation of irradiation, demonstrating the flexibility of CSP-TES participating in grid regulation. In the context of continuous penetration of renewable energy into the grid system, research on the role transition of the CSP-TES system from its own optimization to grid regulator is of great importance. Full article
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Article
Information and Public Knowledge of the Potential of Alternative Energies
Energies 2022, 15(13), 4928; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15134928 - 05 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1015
Abstract
The objective of this research project is to study the economic development model of the Angolan economy in order to analyze the adoption of an alternative strategy capable of leveraging the economy, based essentially on alternative energies, and therefore, to demonstrate and prove [...] Read more.
The objective of this research project is to study the economic development model of the Angolan economy in order to analyze the adoption of an alternative strategy capable of leveraging the economy, based essentially on alternative energies, and therefore, to demonstrate and prove the need to diversify Angola’s economic model, highlighting the benefits of a diversified versus a non-diversified economy with respect to sustainability. The first stage of the design of this empirical study involved establishing a focus group in order to construct and adjust a data collection instrument in the form of a questionnaire to be applied to a broader set of managers and informed professionals with a critical view of the country’s future and the models and alternatives to economic development and diversification of the economy on a sustainable basis. Energy plays a fundamental role in Angola’s economic and social development. Excessive dependency on the oil sector and inefficient production due to high costs, combined with changes in global environmental and energy policies, make it essential to reflect on the evolution of the country’s energy sector, equating a different economic development model, the diversification of the economy, and the exploration of other sources of energy, such as biofuels. Renewable energies emerge as a safe, healthy, environmentally friendly and economically viable energy alternative that could bring the Angolan economy closer to that of developed countries. Biofuels have become popular and have begun to be seen as a valid alternative to fossil fuels because they have lower production costs and they cause less impact on nature. Furthermore, since they are biodegradable, they can be commercialized at a lower cost from renewable sources. According to the respondents, the research results show that the best energy alternatives to reduce oil dependency are solar energy, biodiesel, hydraulic energy, and bioethanol. An assessment of the attractiveness and potential of biofuels show that the best alternative is bioethanol, followed by biodiesel. Full article
Article
Numerical Investigation of Flow and Heat Transfer in Rectangular Microchannels with and without Semi-Elliptical Protrusions
Energies 2022, 15(13), 4927; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15134927 - 05 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1113
Abstract
Micro-cooling is a growing trend in the field of turbine blade cooling. Technical difficulties in the experiments of large-aspect-ratio rectangular microchannels that are commonly used in the turbine blades cause the rareness of related literature. In this study, the flow characteristics and heat [...] Read more.
Micro-cooling is a growing trend in the field of turbine blade cooling. Technical difficulties in the experiments of large-aspect-ratio rectangular microchannels that are commonly used in the turbine blades cause the rareness of related literature. In this study, the flow characteristics and heat transfer performance of the microchannels with and without semi-ellipsoidal protrusions, whose height is 0.6 mm and width is 9 mm, are numerically investigated. In the microchannel without protrusions, when 2214 < Re < 3589, the velocity has a Λ-shaped distribution, resulting in a Λ-shaped Nu distribution on the wall. When Re > 3760, it is worth noting that from the sidewall to the middle of the channel, Nu first decreases and then increases. In the microchannel with protrusions, when Re < 1214, the turbulence formed by the protrusion is almost all behind it and does not spread to both sides. When 1214 < Re < 2374, the turbulence caused by the protrusions gradually spreads to the middle and both sides of the channel with the increase in Re. When 2374 < Re < 3815, the turbulence caused by two columns of protrusions meet in the middle of the channel and forms stronger turbulence downstream. When Re > 3815, the flow is all turbulent. The protrusions enhance the irreversibility of heat transfer and friction. The performance evaluation criteria (PEC) increases first and then decreases with Re and the maximum value is 1.80 at Re = 2004. In this work, the details that are difficult to obtain in experiments are fully analyzed to provide suggestions for the design of micro-cooling structures in gas turbine blades. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights of Gas Turbine Cooling Systems)
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Review
Interpretative Review of Diesel Spray Penetration Normalized by Length and Time of Breakup (Similarity Law of Diesel Spray and Its Application)
Energies 2022, 15(13), 4926; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15134926 - 05 Jul 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1636
Abstract
Tip penetration of diesel spray is one of the most useful parameters to evaluate diesel combustion dynamics. It has strong relationships with ignition delay, premix/diffusion combustion and engine performance, including exhaust emissions. To discuss general combustion physics in various size sprays, non-dimensional expression [...] Read more.
Tip penetration of diesel spray is one of the most useful parameters to evaluate diesel combustion dynamics. It has strong relationships with ignition delay, premix/diffusion combustion and engine performance, including exhaust emissions. To discuss general combustion physics in various size sprays, non-dimensional expression of spray tip penetration is reviewed. Length and time of injected fuel jet breakup can be considered as characteristic length and timescale of diesel spray. Then, normalized penetration by length and time of breakup was proposed for the scaling of various diesel sprays. Using the proposed scaling method and similarity law, tip penetrations of various size sprays are collapsed into one simple expression. It becomes a base of similarity law of diesel spray. For example, local or average A/F is uniquely expressed by the normalized length and time of breakup. Penetration of a wall impingement spray is also expressed uniquely by this normalization method and physical parameters affecting the wall impingement spray are explained. Injection rate shaping effect at an initial stage of injection is clearly demonstrated by using this scaling. Further, mixing degrees of diesel spray at an ignition timing and in a combustion phase can be reasonably explained by the equivalence ratio change with non-dimensional elapsed time after injection start. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Research on Internal Combustion Engines and Engine Fuels)
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Article
Labour Productivity as a Factor of Tangible Investment in Companies Producing Wind Energy Components and Its Impacts: Case of Lithuania
Energies 2022, 15(13), 4925; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15134925 - 05 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1537
Abstract
This paper aims at justifying the significance of investment in the improvement of labour productivity (LP) and importance of the latter on economic performance of companies manufacturing wind energy components (WEC) in Lithuania in terms of value added ( [...] Read more.
This paper aims at justifying the significance of investment in the improvement of labour productivity (LP) and importance of the latter on economic performance of companies manufacturing wind energy components (WEC) in Lithuania in terms of value added (VA) created, profitability and wage earned. The time period covered is 2000–2020. The following methods have been employed: analysis of legal acts, programmes, strategies, and business structure and finance indicators, interdependence (correlation and regression), trend, case analysis, logical economical reasoning and graphical representation. The research results of current status analysis showed that the business of WEC manufacturing is small in regard to their variety of products but increasing in terms of VA and employment in Lithuania. Investment has been found as a driver of improvement in LP. The calculated historical ratio of change in LP to investment showed that, on average, after 1000 EUR per employee has been invested in tangible assets (TA), the LP increased by 0.13 EUR/h. A higher than average ratio was found in the manufacture of other transport and repair and installation of machinery and equipment (1.41), such as rubber, plastic and other non-metallic mineral products (0.17), but lower in the manufacture of electronic and communication (0.12) and metal (0.06) products. Taking into account the linear curves of LP to investment in TA curve and the average volumes of investment in different manufacturing activities, it is estimated that LP could grow by 5.3% a year in the manufacture of electronic products, and communication equipment are expected to increase by two-fold to 33 EUR/h in 2030, but it could grow only by 2.0% a year in the manufacture of rubber, plastic and other non-metallic mineral products to reach 28 EUR/h in 2030. Due to investment related changes in LP, the VA created by WEC companies could increase by 5.9% a year and account to 2.9 billion EUR during 2021–2030. Net profitability and real wages (and salaries) could also increase in future. Seeking to use the potential of companies to manufacture WEC for domestic wind installations and exports, investment supporting programmes are of high importance in the fields of promotion of innovations, development of human capital and adaptation of new technologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Development, Energy Economics and Economic Analysis)
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Article
A Practical Approach to Launch the Low-Cost Monitoring Platforms for Nearly Net-Zero Energy Buildings in Vietnam
Energies 2022, 15(13), 4924; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15134924 - 05 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1733
Abstract
Buildings with solar rooftops have become vital objects in the energy transition in Vietnam. In this context, the demand for research on energy management solutions to use energy efficiently and increase PV energy absorption capacity is rising. In this paper, we present a [...] Read more.
Buildings with solar rooftops have become vital objects in the energy transition in Vietnam. In this context, the demand for research on energy management solutions to use energy efficiently and increase PV energy absorption capacity is rising. In this paper, we present a practical route to developing a low-cost monitoring platform to meet the building energy management in the country. First, our project built a monitoring architecture with high-density wireless sensors in an office building in Vietnam. Next, we discussed the influence of significant obstacles such as technical issues, users, and cost on the resilience and reliability of the monitoring system. Then, we proposed essential solutions for data quality improvement by testing sensors, detecting wireless sensor network errors, and compensating for data losses by embedding machine learning. We found the platform’s potential in developing a rich database of building characteristics and occupants. Finally, we proposed plans exploiting the data to reduce wasted energy in equipment operation, change user behaviors, and increase auto-consumption PV power. The effectiveness of the monitoring platform was an approximate 62% energy reduction in the first year. The results are a cornerstone for implementing advanced research as modeling and real-time optimal control toward nearly zero-energy buildings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Efficiency of Buildings at the District Scale)
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Article
Faulty Section Location Method Based on Dynamic Time Warping Distance in a Resonant Grounding System
Energies 2022, 15(13), 4923; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15134923 - 05 Jul 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1038
Abstract
When a single-phase grounding fault occurs in a resonant grounding system, the determination of the fault location remains a significant challenge due to the small fault current and the instability of the grounding arc. In order to solve the problem of low protection [...] Read more.
When a single-phase grounding fault occurs in a resonant grounding system, the determination of the fault location remains a significant challenge due to the small fault current and the instability of the grounding arc. In order to solve the problem of low protection sensitivity when a high-resistance grounding fault occurs in a resonant grounding system, this paper proposes a fault location method based on the combination of dynamic time warping (DTW) distance and fuzzy C-means (FCM) clustering. By analyzing the characteristics of the zero-sequence current upstream and downstream of the fault point when a single-phase grounding fault occurs in the resonant grounding system, it is concluded that the waveform similarity on both sides of the fault point is low. DTW distance can be used to measure the similarity of two time series, and has the characteristics of good fault tolerance and synchronization error tolerance. According to the rule that the DTW value of faulty section is much larger than that of nonfaulty sections, FCM clustering is used to classify the DTW value of each section. The membership degree matrix and cluster centers are obtained. In the membership degree matrix, the section corresponding to the data in a class of their own is the faulty section, and all other data correspond to the nonfaulty section; otherwise, it is a fault occurring at the end of the line. The simulation results of MATLAB/Simulink and the field data test show that the method can accurately locate the faulty section. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section F: Electrical Engineering)
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Article
Detection of Electric Vehicles and Photovoltaic Systems in Smart Meter Data
Energies 2022, 15(13), 4922; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15134922 - 05 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1243
Abstract
In the course of the switch to renewable energy sources, there is a shift from a few large energy sources (power plants) to a large number of small, distributed energy sources (e.g., photovoltaic systems) and energy storage devices (e.g., electric vehicles). This results [...] Read more.
In the course of the switch to renewable energy sources, there is a shift from a few large energy sources (power plants) to a large number of small, distributed energy sources (e.g., photovoltaic systems) and energy storage devices (e.g., electric vehicles). This results in the need to know and identify these energy sources and sinks as soon as new devices are installed, in order to ensure grid stability. This paper presents an approach to identify energy sources and energy storage in smart meter data, using photovoltaic systems and electric vehicles as examples. For this purpose, the Pecan Street dataset is used, which has been extended by charging processes from the ACN dataset. The presented approach comprises a combination of a Convolutional Neural Network and a Multilayer Perceptron, which decides separately, on the basis of the smart meter data of a household, whether an electric vehicle and a photovoltaic system are present. It is shown that the combination of both classifiers achieves accuracy of 90.50% in the case of electric vehicle detection and 96.37% in the case of photovoltaic systems. It is also shown that the power levels lower than 0 kW in the case of the photovoltaic system and higher than 5 kW in the case of the electric vehicles have the largest influence on the output of the Multilayer Perceptron branch, which uses the power balance distribution as input. Full article
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Article
Evaluation of Gas-Based EOR Methods in Gas-Invaded Zones of Fractured Carbonate Reservoir
Energies 2022, 15(13), 4921; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15134921 - 05 Jul 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1260
Abstract
More than half of all recoverable oil reserves are found in carbonate rocks. Most of these fields are highly fractured and develop different zonations during primary and secondary recovery stages; therefore, they require a different developmental approach than conventional reservoirs. Experimental results for [...] Read more.
More than half of all recoverable oil reserves are found in carbonate rocks. Most of these fields are highly fractured and develop different zonations during primary and secondary recovery stages; therefore, they require a different developmental approach than conventional reservoirs. Experimental results for water-alternating gas injection [WAG] and foam-assisted water-alternating gas [FAWAG] injection under secondary and tertiary recovery conditions were used to investigate these enhanced oil recovery [EOR] methods in gas-invaded reservoirs. The relative permeability curves of the cores and the fitting foam parameters were derived from these experiments through history matching. These findings were then used in a quarter five-spot, cross-sectional, and a sector model of a carbonate reservoir where a double five-spot setup was implemented. The fracture and matrix properties’ impact on the recovery was illustrated through the cross-sectional model. The gas mobility reduction effect of the FAWAG was more noticeable than that of WAG. The apparent viscosity of the gas was increased due to the foam presence, which caused a diversion of the gas from the fractures into the matrix blocks. This greatly enhanced the sweep efficiency and led to higher oil recovery. The gas front was much sharper, and gravity overrides by the gas were much less of a concern. The properties of the fracture network also had a significant effect on the recovery. Oil recovery was found to be most sensitive to fracture permeability. At the same time, sweep efficiency increased substantially, improving the recovery rate in the early injection stages, and differed slightly at the ultimate recovery. However, a lower fracture permeability facilitated gas entry into the matrix blocks. The results of the reservoir sector model were similar to the core and pilot. However, the WAG injection recovered more of the uppermost layers, whereas significant portions of the lowest layer were not effectively recovered. In contrast, FAWAG was more effective in the lowest layer of the reservoir. The FAWAG was a beneficial aid in the recovery of gas-invaded fractured reservoirs, increasing the oil recovery factor with respect to WAG. Full article
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Article
Estimation Accuracy of the Electric Field in Cable Insulation Based on Space Charge Measurement
Energies 2022, 15(13), 4920; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15134920 - 05 Jul 2022
Viewed by 1040
Abstract
Space charge measurement accuracy is crucial when assessing the suitability of cables for high-voltage direct current (DC) systems. This study assembled state-of-the-art analysis technologies, including time-domain deconvolution, to mark electric field estimation accuracy, which the present techniques achieve. The pulse electroacoustic method was [...] Read more.
Space charge measurement accuracy is crucial when assessing the suitability of cables for high-voltage direct current (DC) systems. This study assembled state-of-the-art analysis technologies, including time-domain deconvolution, to mark electric field estimation accuracy, which the present techniques achieve. The pulse electroacoustic method was applied to a 66 kV-class extruded cable, and waveforms were obtained and analyzed to reproduce the electric field distribution. The DC voltage was set to be sufficiently low so that the analysis results can be compared with Laplace’s equation. The statistical analysis of 81 waveforms under a DC voltage of 30 kV showed that the estimation accuracy was −0.3% ± 19.9% with a 95.4% confidence interval, even with the deconvolution parameter optimized. The estimated accuracy using the “reference” waveform is applied to waveforms at higher voltages since similar estimation accuracies were confirmed for waveforms obtained under a DC voltage of 45 kV. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section F: Electrical Engineering)
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Article
Engineering Possibility Studies of a Novel Cylinder-Type FOWT Using Torus Structure with Annular Flow
Energies 2022, 15(13), 4919; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15134919 - 05 Jul 2022
Viewed by 1139
Abstract
This paper proposes and researches a novel cylinder-type FOWT using a neutrally buoyant double-layer torus structure with annular flow; its oscillatory motion in severe sea conditions is controlled by a spinning top device designed as a neutrally buoyant double-layer torus structure with annular [...] Read more.
This paper proposes and researches a novel cylinder-type FOWT using a neutrally buoyant double-layer torus structure with annular flow; its oscillatory motion in severe sea conditions is controlled by a spinning top device designed as a neutrally buoyant double-layer torus structure with annular flow water in a torus structure with a small internal radius, and welded to the periphery of the cylinder-type FOWT underwater buoyancy-providing part. The rotational axis retention effect and the gyroscopic effect are considered appropriate approaches to suppress the oscillating motion of FOWT. To obtain a better hydrodynamic response, the scale of the torus structure, such as its radius, the radius of the internal annular flow water, and the angular velocity of the annular flow water are taken as the design parameters, and a large number of comparative calculations based on the fluid–solid coupling theory of potential flow are carried out to determine the appropriate design parameters. Eventually, on the basis of the obtained suitable design parameters, the proposed conceptual design approach is demonstrated to be feasible in view of the energy consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Turbine Structural Control and Health Monitoring)
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Article
An Improved Data-Efficiency Algorithm Based on Combining Isolation Forest and Mean Shift for Anomaly Data Filtering in Wind Power Curve
Energies 2022, 15(13), 4918; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15134918 - 05 Jul 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1053
Abstract
A wind turbine working in a harsh environment is prone to generate abnormal data. An efficient algorithm based on the combination of an Isolation Forest (I-Forest) and a mean-shift algorithm is proposed for data cleaning in wind power curves. The I-Forest is used [...] Read more.
A wind turbine working in a harsh environment is prone to generate abnormal data. An efficient algorithm based on the combination of an Isolation Forest (I-Forest) and a mean-shift algorithm is proposed for data cleaning in wind power curves. The I-Forest is used for detecting the local anomalies in each power and wind speed interval after data preprocessing. The contamination of I-Forest can be flexibly adjusted according to the data distribution of the wind turbine data. The remaining stacked data is eliminated by the mean-shift algorithm. To verify the filtering performance of the proposed combined method, five different algorithms, including the quartile and k-means (QK), the quartile and density-based spatial clustering (QD), the mathematical morphology operation (MMO), the fast data cleaning algorithm (FA), and the proposed one, are applied to the wind power curves of a prototype wind farm for comparisons. The numerical results have positively confirmed the reliability of the universal framework provided by the proposed algorithm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section A3: Wind, Wave and Tidal Energy)
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Article
System Dynamics Modeling and Fuzzy MCDM Approach as Support for Assessment of Sustainability Management on the Example of Transport Sector Company
Energies 2022, 15(13), 4917; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15134917 - 05 Jul 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 1331
Abstract
Contemporary challenges for development should involve a sustainable approach. One of the important sectors where such challenges are observed is transport. In a wide range of studies addressing environmental, social, and economic dimensions of sustainability, an approach that combines these dimensions as an [...] Read more.
Contemporary challenges for development should involve a sustainable approach. One of the important sectors where such challenges are observed is transport. In a wide range of studies addressing environmental, social, and economic dimensions of sustainability, an approach that combines these dimensions as an integrated technique to assess sustainable development of passenger rail transport organizations is still lacking. The first aim of the presented research is to offer a relatively comprehensive collection of railway sustainability indicators as well as a novel causal loop. The second aim is to assess and improve sustainable management using a case study of a passenger rail transport company. To model the relationships inside and around the transport company, the system dynamics (SD) methodology was chosen, being the primary contribution of the study. Additionally, the Fuzzy-TOPSIS logic is required to find the most appropriate scenarios that may change future strategies by making them more socially and environmentally friendly. The proposed research may support experts in assessing sustainability management in transport companies and improve their performance considerably. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Development: Policies, Challenges, and Further)
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Article
Optimal Allocation Method of Source and Storage Capacity of PV-Hydrogen Zero Carbon Emission Microgrid Considering the Usage Cost of Energy Storage Equipment
Energies 2022, 15(13), 4916; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15134916 - 05 Jul 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1205
Abstract
Aiming to meet the low-carbon demands of power generation in the process of carbon peaking and carbon neutralization, this paper proposes an optimal PV-hydrogen zero carbon emission microgrid. The light–electricity–hydrogen coupling utilization mode is adopted. The hydrogen-based energy system replaces the carbon-based energy [...] Read more.
Aiming to meet the low-carbon demands of power generation in the process of carbon peaking and carbon neutralization, this paper proposes an optimal PV-hydrogen zero carbon emission microgrid. The light–electricity–hydrogen coupling utilization mode is adopted. The hydrogen-based energy system replaces the carbon-based energy system to realize zero carbon emissions. Firstly, the mathematical models of photovoltaic, hydrogen and electric energy storage systems in a microgrid are built. Then, the optimal allocation model of the microgrid source storage capacity is established, and a scheduling strategy considering the minimum operational cost of energy storage equipment is proposed. The priority of equipment output is determined by comparing the operational costs of the hydrogen energy storage system and the electric energy storage system. Finally, the proposed scheme is compared with the scheduling scheme of the battery priority and the hydrogen energy system priority in an actual microgrid. It is verified that the scheme can ensure stable power-generating, zero carbon operation of a microgrid system while reducing the total annual power costs by 9.8% and 25.1%, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section A1: Smart Grids and Microgrids)
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Article
Networked Microgrid Energy Management Based on Supervised and Unsupervised Learning Clustering
Energies 2022, 15(13), 4915; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15134915 - 05 Jul 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1181
Abstract
Networked microgrid (NMG) is a novel conceptual paradigm that can bring multiple advantages to the distributed system. Increasing renewable energy utilization, reliability and efficiency of system operation and flexibility of energy sharing amongst several microgrids (MGs) are some specific privileges of NMG. In [...] Read more.
Networked microgrid (NMG) is a novel conceptual paradigm that can bring multiple advantages to the distributed system. Increasing renewable energy utilization, reliability and efficiency of system operation and flexibility of energy sharing amongst several microgrids (MGs) are some specific privileges of NMG. In this paper, residential MGs, commercial MGs, and industrial MGs are considered as a community of NMG. The loads’ profiles are split into multiple sections to evaluate the maximum load demand (MLD). Based on the optimal operation of each MG, the operating reserve (OR) of the MGs is calculated for each section. Then, the self-organizing map as a supervised and a k-means algorithm as an unsupervised learning clustering method is utilized to cluster the MGs and effective energy-sharing. The clustering is based on the maximum load demand of MGs and the operating reserve of dispatchable energy sources, and the goal is to provide a more efficient system with high reliability. Eventually, the performance of this energy management and its benefits to the whole system is surveyed effectively. The proposed energy management system offers a more reliable system due to the possibility of reserved energy for MGs in case of power outage variation or shortage of power. Full article
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Article
The Importance of Introducing Zero- and Low-Carbon Solutions in Urban Bus Transport
Energies 2022, 15(13), 4914; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15134914 - 05 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1131
Abstract
The aim of this paper is to find the most important aspects of introducing zero-emission and low-carbon solutions in urban bus transport, as well as their availability. Beyond the economic aspects related to energy sources and consumption, the paper focuses on their impact [...] Read more.
The aim of this paper is to find the most important aspects of introducing zero-emission and low-carbon solutions in urban bus transport, as well as their availability. Beyond the economic aspects related to energy sources and consumption, the paper focuses on their impact on people and the environment. There is also an attempt to estimate the scale of the impact of changes in the structure of the energy sources of buses in urban transport compared with all the means of transport operating in a given area, as well as a justification for these changes. We also conducted a survey of bus passengers to check their awareness of the changes taking place and their attitude towards them. Full article
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Article
A Theoretical Evaluation of the Efficiencies of Metal-Free 1,3,4-Oxadiazole Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: Insights from Electron–Hole Separation Distance Analysis
Energies 2022, 15(13), 4913; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15134913 - 05 Jul 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1150
Abstract
Herein, some novel metal-free 1,3,4-oxadiazole compounds O1O7 were evaluated for their photovoltaic properties using density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations to determine if they can serve as metal-free organic dyes in the use of dye-sensitized solar [...] Read more.
Herein, some novel metal-free 1,3,4-oxadiazole compounds O1O7 were evaluated for their photovoltaic properties using density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations to determine if they can serve as metal-free organic dyes in the use of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). To understand the trends in the relative efficiencies of the investigated compounds as dyes in DSSCs, their electron contributions, hole contributions, and electron–hole overlaps for each respective atom and fragment within the molecule were analyzed with a particular focus on the electron densities on the anchoring segments. As transition density matrices (TDM) provide details about the departure of each electron from its corresponding hole during excitations, which results in charge transfer (CT), the charge separation distance (Δr) between the electron and its corresponding hole was studied, in addition to the degree of electron–hole overlap (Λ). The latter, single-point excitation energy of each electron, the percentage electron contribution to the anchoring segments of each compound, the incident-photon-conversion-efficiency (IPCE), charge recombination, light harvesting efficiency (LHE), electron injection (Φinj), and charge collection efficiency (ncollect) were then compared to Δr to determine whether the expected relationships hold. Moreover, parameters such as diffusion constant (Dπ) and electron lifetime (t), amongst others, were also used to describe electron excitation processes. Since IPCE is the key parameter in determining the efficiency, O3 was found to be the best dye due to its highest value. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Tandem Architectures toward High-Efficiency Solar Cells)
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Article
Prospect of PM Vernier Machine for Wind Power Application
Energies 2022, 15(13), 4912; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15134912 - 05 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1295
Abstract
This paper investigates the prospect of permanent magnet vernier machine (PMVM) technology for wind power applications. Two types of PMVMs are defined based on the winding arrangements and resultant gear ratio ranges. A comprehensive design study of the selected PMVM topologies is conducted [...] Read more.
This paper investigates the prospect of permanent magnet vernier machine (PMVM) technology for wind power applications. Two types of PMVMs are defined based on the winding arrangements and resultant gear ratio ranges. A comprehensive design study of the selected PMVM topologies is conducted at 1 and 3 MW power levels. The optimized candidate designs of the PMVMs are then evaluated and also compared against the equivalent permanent magnet synchronous machine (PMSM) in terms of performance, costs, size and mass. While the existing research publications mainly focused on the PMVM designs of (Gr=5), this study reveals that the pole/slot combinations of PMVMs with (Gr5) are more appealing as there is a good trade-off between a reasonable power factor and high power density in these designs. It shows, in this paper, that the PMVM is a promising alternative to common PMSM technology for utility-scale wind-turbine drive-train applications. Full article
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Review
Blockchain-Based Smart Renewable Energy: Review of Operational and Transactional Challenges
Energies 2022, 15(13), 4911; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15134911 - 05 Jul 2022
Viewed by 1711
Abstract
Blockchain has peculiar characteristics among various digital technologies due to its decentralised and cryptographic properties. The combination of intelligent energy systems and blockchain can innovate new forms of transactive energy and navigate the digital journey to transform the future of renewable energy systems. [...] Read more.
Blockchain has peculiar characteristics among various digital technologies due to its decentralised and cryptographic properties. The combination of intelligent energy systems and blockchain can innovate new forms of transactive energy and navigate the digital journey to transform the future of renewable energy systems. This review studies various blockchain implementations in the smart energy domain and presents the findings on operational and transactional challenges in a blockchain-based smart renewable energy system. We also identify the differences between operations and transactions in smart energy systems. Furthermore, we identify the most pronounced cryptocurrencies in different studies. The findings highlighted various challenges concerning the implementation of blockchain-based smart energy systems. We identified how these challenges spawn across operational and transactional deliverables. Building on these findings, we discuss various challenges impacting the operational and transactional domains, which we believe have significant value for researchers, practitioners, policy makers, entrepreneurs, and start-ups. It will provide long-term benefits to humankind in fulfilling energy requirements, promoting sustainable energy use by developing countermeasures to combat identified challenges and leveraging the optimal use of blockchain technology. Full article
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Article
Evaluation of Heat Transfer Rates through Transparent Dividing Structures
Energies 2022, 15(13), 4910; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15134910 - 05 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1346
Abstract
In this paper, heat transfer and airflow in the gap between the panes of a central part of a double-glazed window were investigated using mathematical modeling. It has been shown that the cyclical airflow regime, in the form of ascending and descending boundary [...] Read more.
In this paper, heat transfer and airflow in the gap between the panes of a central part of a double-glazed window were investigated using mathematical modeling. It has been shown that the cyclical airflow regime, in the form of ascending and descending boundary layers, loses stability and changes to a vortex regime under certain conditions depending on the gap width, transverse temperature gradient, inclination angle and window height, as in Rayleigh–Bernard convection cells. The study made it possible to determine the critical values of the Rayleigh number (Ra) at which the air flow regime in the gap between the panes of a window changes (in the range of values 6.07 × 103 < Ra < 6.7 × 103). As a result of the modeling, the values of the thermal resistance of a central part of double-glazed window were determined as a function of the width of the gap between the panes, the angle of inclination and the transverse temperature gradient. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Latest Research of Building Heat and Mass Transfer)
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Article
Numerical Simulation of Premixed Methane–Air Explosion in a Closed Tube with U-Type Obstacles
Energies 2022, 15(13), 4909; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15134909 - 05 Jul 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1158
Abstract
Given the spatial structures and functional requirements, there are a number of different types of obstacles in long and narrow confined spaces that will cause a premixed gas explosion to produce greater overpressure and influence the flame behavior for different obstacles. Because the [...] Read more.
Given the spatial structures and functional requirements, there are a number of different types of obstacles in long and narrow confined spaces that will cause a premixed gas explosion to produce greater overpressure and influence the flame behavior for different obstacles. Because the volume fraction of unburned gas changes with the changing height of the U-type obstacles, we can further study the influence on the volume fraction of the unburned premixed gas for the characteristics of the overpressure and the flame behaviors in the closed tube with the obstacles. The results show that after the premixed gas is successfully ignited in the pipe, the overpressure in the pipe greatly increases as the unburned premixed gas burns between the adjacent plates. Moreover, the increase of the overpressure in the closed duct becomes faster when the decrease of unburned gas becomes faster. The high-pressure areas between the plates move inversely compared with the direction of flame propagation when the height of the U-type increases, whereas the high pressure in the front of the flame moves further when the flame propagation passes all obstacles. In addition, the reversed flow structure of the flame is a coupling result for the overpressure caused by the flame propagation and the vortex between the plates. From the perspective of production safety, this study is a significant basic subject about the characteristics of overpressure and flame behaviors in a closed tube with obstacles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Clean Energies)
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Article
Accelerating Efficient Installation and Optimization of Battery Energy Storage System Operations Onboard Vessels
Energies 2022, 15(13), 4908; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15134908 - 05 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1426
Abstract
Emerging large battery energy storage systems (BESSs) are key enablers in the electrification of the shipping sector. With huge government investments in BESSs, there are large gaps between the government supported BESS initiatives and actual BESS integration results on vessels. This study aims [...] Read more.
Emerging large battery energy storage systems (BESSs) are key enablers in the electrification of the shipping sector. With huge government investments in BESSs, there are large gaps between the government supported BESS initiatives and actual BESS integration results on vessels. This study aims to close these gaps, allowing BESSs to become the preferred solution for ship owners without needing government support. Firstly, this industry-driven study reviews both the industrial approaches to achieve CO2 emission reductions and the fuel savings and emission reductions from 500 BESS installations on various vessels. Secondly, a 630 kWh BESS retrofitted onto a hybrid-electric vessel is used to quantitively identify the improvement requirements for installations and operations. The installations required many custom designs that were expensive and have high failure risks. The standardization of interfaces’ between BESSs and vessels is thus urgently required. The BESS was intended for spinning reserve capacity and peak shaving but in practice was under-used in terms of energy throughput (shallow cycles and low equivalent full cycles of 80 versus the design specification of 480 yearly). Thirdly, this study develops new, integrated BESS operational models by learning from large operational data, balancing BESS degradation against fuel saving and utilizing onshore/offshore green power supply/charging. The R&D of BESS is required to deal with the increasing safety requirements and further CO2 emission reductions. Finally, four BESS acceleration scenarios were established to facilitate the technical and operational transferability through utilizing digitalization. Full article
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Article
Use before You Choose: What Do EV Drivers Think about V2G after Experiencing It?
Energies 2022, 15(13), 4907; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15134907 - 05 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1896
Abstract
This study aims to investigate the consumer acceptance of Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) charging of electric vehicle (EV) drivers. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first V2G acceptance study that is based on actual users’ experience of V2G charging. A test [...] Read more.
This study aims to investigate the consumer acceptance of Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) charging of electric vehicle (EV) drivers. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first V2G acceptance study that is based on actual users’ experience of V2G charging. A test set up with a V2G charge point at a solar carport was constructed at the Delft University of Technology. Seventeen participants in the study were given access to a V2G-compatible Nissan LEAF and the constructed V2G charging facilities, after which they were interviewed. Clear communication of the impacts of V2G charging cycles on EV batteries, financial compensation covering these impacts, real-time insight on the battery state-of-charge and the ability to set operational parameters through a user-friendly interface were all found to foster acceptance. The main barriers for acceptance were the uncertainty associated with battery state-of-charge, the increased need for planning charging and trips, the increased anxiety about the ability of the vehicle to reach its destination, economic and performance-related effects on the EV’s battery and the restriction of the freedom that users associated with their personal vehicles. The participants were found to be divided across high, conditional and low acceptance of V2G charging. The use of V2G charging over the trial period was found to inform their opinions: tangible factors such as range anxiety and the user interface were given more importance than abstract concepts such as lack of standards that were discussed by users without experience of V2G charging. Our study indicates that V2G charging in its current form is acceptable to a section of current EV users. The discussion provides insights on extending the relevance of our findings across other user groups and over further developments in the field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social License for Digital Energy)
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Review
The Utilization of Ultrasound for Improving Oil Recovery and Formation Damage Remediation in Petroleum Reservoirs: Review of Most Recent Researches
Energies 2022, 15(13), 4906; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15134906 - 05 Jul 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2014
Abstract
The ultrasound method is a low-cost, environmentally safe technology that may be utilized in the petroleum industry to boost oil recovery from the underground reservoir via enhanced oil recovery or well stimulation campaigns. The method uses a downhole instrument to propagate waves into [...] Read more.
The ultrasound method is a low-cost, environmentally safe technology that may be utilized in the petroleum industry to boost oil recovery from the underground reservoir via enhanced oil recovery or well stimulation campaigns. The method uses a downhole instrument to propagate waves into the formation, enhancing oil recovery and/or removing formation damage around the wellbore that has caused oil flow constraints. Ultrasonic technology has piqued the interest of the petroleum industry, and as a result, research efforts are ongoing to fill up the gaps in its application. This paper discusses the most recent research on the investigation of ultrasound’s applicability in underground petroleum reservoirs for improved oil recovery and formation damage remediation. New study areas and scopes were identified, and future investigations were proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Management of High Water Cut and Mature Petroleum Reservoirs)
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Article
In-Situ Efficiency Estimation of Induction Motors Based on Quantum Particle Swarm Optimization-Trust Region Algorithm (QPSO-TRA)
Energies 2022, 15(13), 4905; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15134905 - 05 Jul 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1255
Abstract
The accuracy estimation of induction motors’ efficiency is beneficial and crucial in the industry for energy savings. The requirement for in situ machine efficiency estimation techniques is increasing in importance because it is the precondition to making the energy-saving scheme. Currently, the torque [...] Read more.
The accuracy estimation of induction motors’ efficiency is beneficial and crucial in the industry for energy savings. The requirement for in situ machine efficiency estimation techniques is increasing in importance because it is the precondition to making the energy-saving scheme. Currently, the torque and speed identification method is widely applied in online efficiency estimation for motor systems. However, the higher precision parameters, such as stator resistance Rs and equivalent resistance of iron losses Rfe, which are the key to the efficiency estimation process with the air gap torque method, are of cardinal importance in the estimation process. Moreover, the computation burden is also a severe problem for the real-time data process. To solve these problems, as for the torque and speed-identification-based efficiency estimation method, this paper presents a lower time burden method based on Quantum Particle Swarm Optimization-Trust Region Algorithm (QPSO-TRA). The contribution of the proposed method is to transform the disadvantages of former algorithms to develop a reliable hybrid algorithm to identify the crucial parameters, namely, Rs and Rfe. Sensorless speed identification based on the rotor slot harmonic frequency (RSHF) method is adopted for speed determination. This hybrid algorithm reduces the computation burden by about 1/3 compared to the classical genetic algorithm (GA). The proposed method was validated by testing a 5.5 kW motor in the laboratory and a 10 MW induction motor in the field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Condition Monitoring and Failure Prevention of Electric Machines)
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Article
Socioeconomic and Environmental Aspects of Traditional Firewood for Cooking on the Example of Rural and Peri-Urban Mexican Households
Energies 2022, 15(13), 4904; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15134904 - 05 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1639
Abstract
Firewood is a solid biofuel that is widely used for cooking in Mexico’s residential sector. This study seeks to identify relevant factors in firewood consumption patterns, and their implications for climate change, gender, and health, and for energy poverty in Mexico, by climate [...] Read more.
Firewood is a solid biofuel that is widely used for cooking in Mexico’s residential sector. This study seeks to identify relevant factors in firewood consumption patterns, and their implications for climate change, gender, and health, and for energy poverty in Mexico, by climate region and socioeconomic level. For this purpose, a statistical analysis was conducted of recently published official information. We estimate that a total of 31.3 million Mexicans—26% of the total population—use firewood, and we have identified three main types of users: (i) exclusive firewood users (30%); (ii) mixed firewood users using firewood as their primary fuel (18%) and (iii) mixed firewood users using firewood as their secondary fuel source (52%). Total consumption of firewood was estimated at 116.6 PJ, while estimated greenhouse gas emissions were 8.1 million tCO2e. Out of all the households studied, 53% were in the tropical climate region; 59% were categorized as being in the “low” socioeconomic level; and 75% were in population centers comprising fewer than 2500 inhabitants. Some 68% of households do not pay for the acquisition of firewood, and for those households that do pay for the resource, estimated transactions total USD 286.9 million. Expenditures on firewood for energy represent up to 10% of household income. Finally, it was estimated that 15.7 million direct users of firewood are women who use the resource in three-stone fires, in which they expose themselves to health risks in doing so. In conclusion, main universal findings, the study’s limitations, and future research are presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rural Renewable Energy Utilization and Electrification)
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