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J. Risk Financial Manag., Volume 16, Issue 4 (April 2023) – 43 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Variance and correlation matrices contain a multi-dimensional array of numbers, representing all the information about individual variabilities and pairwise covariabilities; however, it is difficult to interpret them in a concise way. We propose a scalar measure of summarizing the volatilities and correlations in the variance (or correlation) matrix into a single number, which is desirable for easy interpretation of the overall variance (or correlation) in the multivariate system. The scalar measures can be useful tools in many research areas of economics. They can be applied to the issue of regional market comovements during the financial crisis, and they can also be practical tools for fund managers to produce clear measurements of portfolio diversification effects and risk. View this paper
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16 pages, 1970 KiB  
Article
The Generalised Extreme Value Distribution Approach to Comparing the Riskiness of BitCoin/US Dollar and South African Rand/US Dollar Returns
by Delson Chikobvu and Thabani Ndlovu
J. Risk Financial Manag. 2023, 16(4), 253; https://doi.org/10.3390/jrfm16040253 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1821
Abstract
In this paper, the generalised extreme value distribution (GEVD) model is employed to estimate financial risk in the form of return levels and the value at risk (VaR) for the two exchange rates, BitCoin/US dollar (BTC/USD) and the South African rand/US dollar (ZAR/USD). [...] Read more.
In this paper, the generalised extreme value distribution (GEVD) model is employed to estimate financial risk in the form of return levels and the value at risk (VaR) for the two exchange rates, BitCoin/US dollar (BTC/USD) and the South African rand/US dollar (ZAR/USD). The Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS) responsible for developing supervisory guidelines for banks and financial trading desks recommended that VaR be computed and reported. The maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) method is used to estimate the parameters of the GEVD. The estimated risk values are used to compare the riskiness of the two exchange rates and help both traders and investors to define their position in forex trading. This is to helping understanding the risk they are taking when they convert their savings/investments to BitCoin instead of the South African currency, the rand. The high extreme value index associated with the BTC/USD compared to the ZAR/USD implies that BitCoin is riskier than the rand. The BTC/USD has higher values of expected extreme/tail losses of 13.44%, 18.02%, and 23.41% at short (6 months), medium (12 months), and long (24 months) terms, compared to the ZAR/USD expected extreme/tail losses of 2.40%, 2.84%, and 3.28%, respectively. The computed VaR estimates for losses of USD 0.17, USD 0.22, and USD 0.38 per dollar invested in BTC/USD at 90%, 95%, and 99%, compared to ZAR/USD’s USD 0.03, USD 0.03, and USD 0.04 at the respective confidence levels, confirm the high risk associated with BitCoin. The conclusion drawn from this study is that BTC/USD is riskier than ZAR/USD, despite the rand being a developing country’s currency, hence perceived as being risky. The perception is that the rand is riskier than BitCoin and perceptions do influence exchange rates. Kupiec’s backtest results confirmed the model’s adequacy. These findings are helpful to investors, traders, and risk managers when deciding on trading positions for the two currencies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Financial Econometrics and Models)
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20 pages, 2665 KiB  
Article
Determinants of Financial Literacy: Analysis of the Impact of Family and Socioeconomic Variables on Undergraduate Students in the Slovak Republic
by Patrik Böhm, Gabriela Böhmová, Jana Gazdíková and Viktória Šimková
J. Risk Financial Manag. 2023, 16(4), 252; https://doi.org/10.3390/jrfm16040252 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 4297
Abstract
Technological progress and the development of electronic services make financial services one of the fastest-growing sectors. The role of the current education system is to ensure that all users of an ever-increasing variety of products and services understand them and are able to [...] Read more.
Technological progress and the development of electronic services make financial services one of the fastest-growing sectors. The role of the current education system is to ensure that all users of an ever-increasing variety of products and services understand them and are able to use them efficiently. However, in terms of gender, socioeconomic, and demographic factors, the existing system of financial literacy education exhibits considerable disparity. The main goal of this research was to identify which factors had the greatest impact on the level of financial literacy and to analyse the magnitude of that impact. The study involved 363 first-year undergraduate students at the University of Žilina, Slovakia, and consisted of two parts—a questionnaire and a test that evaluated the impact of five groups of factors on the level of financial literacy. The research results suggest that the student’s gender, father’s education, family’s financial background, and student’s part-time work experience were among the most important determinants of financial literacy. Identifying these factors can aid in the adjustment of financial literacy education to reduce identified inequalities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Financial Literacy and Financial Inclusion)
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4 pages, 241 KiB  
Communication
ν-Generalized Hyperbolic Distributions
by Lev Klebanov and Svetlozar T. Rachev
J. Risk Financial Manag. 2023, 16(4), 251; https://doi.org/10.3390/jrfm16040251 - 20 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 766
Abstract
A new class of probability distributions closely connected to generalized hyperbolic distributions is introduced. It is better adapted for studying the distributions of sums of a random number of random variables. The properties of these distributions are studied. It seems that this class [...] Read more.
A new class of probability distributions closely connected to generalized hyperbolic distributions is introduced. It is better adapted for studying the distributions of sums of a random number of random variables. The properties of these distributions are studied. It seems that this class may be useful for modeling asset returns. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mathematical and Empirical Finance)
21 pages, 369 KiB  
Article
Risk Measure between Exchange Rate and Oil Price during Crises: Evidence from Oil-Importing and Oil-Exporting Countries
by Mouna Ben Saad Zorgati
J. Risk Financial Manag. 2023, 16(4), 250; https://doi.org/10.3390/jrfm16040250 - 20 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1372
Abstract
This study investigates the risk spillover effect between the exchange rate of importing and exporting oil countries and the oil price. The analysis is supported by the utilization of a set of double-long memories. Thereafter, a multivariate GARCH type model is adopted to [...] Read more.
This study investigates the risk spillover effect between the exchange rate of importing and exporting oil countries and the oil price. The analysis is supported by the utilization of a set of double-long memories. Thereafter, a multivariate GARCH type model is adopted to analyze the dynamic conditional correlations. Moreover, the Gumbel copula is employed to define the nonlinear structure of dependence and to evaluate the optimal portfolio. The conditional Value-at-Risk (CoVaR) is adopted as a risk measure. Findings indicate a long-run dependence and asymmetry of bidirectional risk spillover among oil price and exchange rate and confirm that the risk spillover intensity is different between the former and the latter. They show that the oil price has a stronger spillover effect in the case of oil exporting countries and the lowest spillover effect in the case of oil importing countries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forecasting and Time Series Analysis)
26 pages, 2544 KiB  
Article
Contract Farming and Food Insecurity in an Open Competitive Economy: Growth, Distribution, and Government Policy
by Gouranga Das, Ranajoy Bhattacharyya and Sugata Marjit
J. Risk Financial Manag. 2023, 16(4), 249; https://doi.org/10.3390/jrfm16040249 - 19 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1614
Abstract
The paper explores the emergence and consequence of contract farming as a new subsector of agriculture in a small open developing economy, applying the theory of finite change in a general equilibrium framework. In this paper, we analyze the entry of a cash [...] Read more.
The paper explores the emergence and consequence of contract farming as a new subsector of agriculture in a small open developing economy, applying the theory of finite change in a general equilibrium framework. In this paper, we analyze the entry of a cash crop-producing foreign contract farming (CF) subsector within the agricultural sector of a country. Entry requires a cash crop price that is substantially above the price of the food crop already being produced within the country. CF (a) increases GDP and hence aggregate economic welfare; (b) may make income distribution more skewed; (c) reduces domestic production of food and hence, (d) increases food import and hence food insecurity. Thus, CF might imply a trade-off between inequality and growth. We employ a variant of the 3 × 3 mixed specific factor-Heckscher Ohlin general equilibrium model of production and trade where introduction of a new policy may lead to the emergence of a new sector resulting in finite changes where we show the possibilities of sectoral diversification with combinations of contract farming vis-à-vis traditional agriculture under some plausible conditions. Our results seem to be consistent when compared to some empirically robust conclusions found in the literature and some secondary data available on the FAO website. We also argue that the food insecurity problem gets aggravated as more and more countries engage in contract farming. Policy simulations identify critical parameters confirming the dominance of distribution over the growth effect in terms of a social welfare function. Simulations imply that there could be a food insecurity problem, as rises in GDP could result in increasing inequality so that government—to preserve social welfare—could restrict the extent of contract farming if non-food-producing sectors expand, causing terms-of-trade deterioration of food-importing nations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainability and Finance)
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38 pages, 3017 KiB  
Article
Insights on Crypto Investors from a German Personal Finance Management App
by Fabian Nemeczek and Daniel Weiss
J. Risk Financial Manag. 2023, 16(4), 248; https://doi.org/10.3390/jrfm16040248 - 18 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1556
Abstract
This study investigates the socio-economic characteristics, behavioral preferences, and consumption of individuals who own crypto-assets. Our empirical analysis utilizes data from a German personal finance management app where users connect their bank accounts and depots. We conducted a survey and elicited behavioral factors [...] Read more.
This study investigates the socio-economic characteristics, behavioral preferences, and consumption of individuals who own crypto-assets. Our empirical analysis utilizes data from a German personal finance management app where users connect their bank accounts and depots. We conducted a survey and elicited behavioral factors for financial decision-making. By combining survey with account and security account data, we identify crypto investors’ preferences for financial decision-making and financial advice. Our results suggest that, in particular, students or self-employed, young, and male individuals who are risk-seeking and impatient are more likely to have invested in crypto-assets. Most crypto owners have less experience with financial advisory. They see it as too time-consuming and qualitatively poor, and instead, they prefer to decide on their own as they have self-reported high financial literacy. Investigating their consumption in more detail we conclude that crypto investors more often spend on travelling, electronics, and food delivery and less on health. Our findings suggest policymakers in identifying high-risk consumers and investors, and help financial institutions develop appropriate products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Financial Technology and Innovation)
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22 pages, 907 KiB  
Article
A Conceptual Model to Share Resources and Align Goals: Building Blockchain Application to Support Care Continuity Outside a Hospital
by Mohan R. Tanniru, Carson Woo and Kaushik Dutta
J. Risk Financial Manag. 2023, 16(4), 247; https://doi.org/10.3390/jrfm16040247 - 18 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1151
Abstract
The increased use of advanced technologies by consumers and hospitals is moving care closer to patients, and the challenge is one of how patient data can be shared with external care providers and patients. To support care continuity, patient data include both clinical [...] Read more.
The increased use of advanced technologies by consumers and hospitals is moving care closer to patients, and the challenge is one of how patient data can be shared with external care providers and patients. To support care continuity, patient data include both clinical data used by external care providers and non-clinical data used by social care providers. Care coordination of a patient outside a hospital requires peer-to-peer connectivity among a number of these clinical and social care providers, using a digital platform that aligns their goals and assigns their resource sharing responsibilities. With no single entity supporting such care coordination, most hospitals currently distribute this responsibility to several of its provider partners and patients. Such a division of responsibility with no real time feedback leads to discontinuous resource sharing, localized data analysis, and challenges in tailoring care to improve health outcomes. The goal of this paper is to propose a blockchain architecture model that uses a number of constructs for creating and assigning ownership to patient data so it can support peer-to-peer resource sharing and uses smart contracts to support goal alignment. Using two blockchain applications implemented in Hyperledger and illustrating their potential representation using the constructs in multi-chain, we develop a conceptual model for developing blockchain applications in general to support continuity of care. The generalizability of this model is illustrated by applying these constructs to four additional healthcare applications. Finally, we conclude the paper with a discussion of the limitations and directions for future research. Full article
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22 pages, 1791 KiB  
Article
Coupling the Empirical Wavelet and the Neural Network Methods in Order to Forecast Electricity Price
by Heni Boubaker and Nawres Bannour
J. Risk Financial Manag. 2023, 16(4), 246; https://doi.org/10.3390/jrfm16040246 - 18 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1105
Abstract
This paper aims to evaluate the forecast capability of electricity markets, categorized by numerous major characteristics such as non-stationarity, nonlinearity, highest volatility, high frequency, mean reversion and multiple seasonality, which give multifarious forecasts. To improve it, this investigation proposes a new hybrid approach [...] Read more.
This paper aims to evaluate the forecast capability of electricity markets, categorized by numerous major characteristics such as non-stationarity, nonlinearity, highest volatility, high frequency, mean reversion and multiple seasonality, which give multifarious forecasts. To improve it, this investigation proposes a new hybrid approach that links a dual long-memory process (Gegenbauer autoregressive moving average (GARMA) and generalized long-memory GARCH (G-GARCH)) and the empirical wavelet transform (EWT) and local linear wavelet neural network (LLWNN) approaches, forming the k-factor GARMA-EWLLWNN model. The future hybrid model accomplished is assessed via data from the Polish electricity markets, and it is matched with the generalized long-memory k-factor GARMA-G-GARCH process and the hybrid EWLLWNN, to demonstrate the robustness of our approach. The obtained outcomes show that the suggested model presents important results to define the relevance of the modeling approach that offers a remarkable framework to reproduce the inherent characteristics of the electricity prices. Finally, it is presented that the adopted methodology is the most appropriate one for prediction as it realizes a better prediction performance and may be an answer for forecasting electricity prices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forecasting and Time Series Analysis)
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17 pages, 1935 KiB  
Article
Tourism Development and Italian Economic Growth: The Weight of the Regional Economies
by Giorgio Colacchio and Anna Serena Vergori
J. Risk Financial Manag. 2023, 16(4), 245; https://doi.org/10.3390/jrfm16040245 - 17 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1975
Abstract
This research aims to study the relationship between economic growth and the increase in the tourism sector in Italy. Unlike most of the literature, we use the value added in the main economic sectors involved in tourism activity as a proxy for tourism [...] Read more.
This research aims to study the relationship between economic growth and the increase in the tourism sector in Italy. Unlike most of the literature, we use the value added in the main economic sectors involved in tourism activity as a proxy for tourism development. The use of the tourism value added allows us to analyze the effect of both international and domestic tourism on per capita GDP growth. The main working hypothesis we tested is whether the relationship between GDP growth and the expansion of the tourism sector is in any way influenced by the geographic area referenced and/or the time period considered. Accordingly, we conducted our analysis at both the national and subnational (cluster) levels, splitting the original sample into two equal subperiods (1997–2008 and 2009–2019). The panel VAR analysis shows that for the country as a whole, tourism growth depends on the past value of the economic growth rate, especially for the subperiod 2009–2019. The cluster analysis clarifies that these outcomes are strongly determined by the cluster that covers the wealthiest Italian regions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Economic and Econometric Analysis of Tourism and Hospitality Industry)
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17 pages, 386 KiB  
Article
Board Characteristics, Social Trust and ESG Performance in the European Banking Sector
by Bruna Miranda, Catarina Delgado and Manuel Castelo Branco
J. Risk Financial Manag. 2023, 16(4), 244; https://doi.org/10.3390/jrfm16040244 - 17 Apr 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2166
Abstract
The aim of this study is to examine the impacts of board size, gender diversity and independence on ESG performance whilst also examining the impact of country-level social trust on such performance. We perform a panel data analysis and the least squares method [...] Read more.
The aim of this study is to examine the impacts of board size, gender diversity and independence on ESG performance whilst also examining the impact of country-level social trust on such performance. We perform a panel data analysis and the least squares method for a sample of 75 European banks and a time span of 4 years from 2016 to 2019. We find that ESG performance is positively associated with board gender diversity and independence, and negatively associated with board size. Surprisingly, we find a negative relationship between country-level social trust and ESG performance. This is an important finding that we interpret as being related to the loss of confidence in the banking sector in the wake of the 2008 financial crisis. To regain such trust, the banking sector is likely to have suffered higher social pressure to engage in ESG activities in countries where social trust is lower. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Development and CSR – Perfect Match?)
20 pages, 1327 KiB  
Article
Bank Profitability Analysis in China: Stochastic Frontier Approach
by Bingbing Shen, Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Perfilev, Lidiya Pavlovna Bufetova and Xueyan Li
J. Risk Financial Manag. 2023, 16(4), 243; https://doi.org/10.3390/jrfm16040243 - 16 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2366
Abstract
China’s banking system has a relatively high level of state control, while an important task in regulating the banking system is to manage the profitability of banks. Using the stochastic frontier approach to assess the profitability of commercial banks not only allows for [...] Read more.
China’s banking system has a relatively high level of state control, while an important task in regulating the banking system is to manage the profitability of banks. Using the stochastic frontier approach to assess the profitability of commercial banks not only allows for the bank’s ability to generate profits relative to the leading banks in the industry to be assessed but also takes into account the specifics of the management technologies used and the influence of the market environment. This article analyzes the profitability of the Chinese banking system for the period 2012–2020 using the stochastic frontier approach from the position of the central bank. The specifics of the analysis from the bank’s perspective imply a focus on the position of most banks regarding the level of best practices and trends in changing the overall level of profitability. Analysis may be of interest to banking regulators and researchers. In general, the Chinese banking system demonstrates a high level of profit efficiency and cost efficiency, although the dynamics of these indicators are negative. The reason for the negative dynamics is a decrease in the economic growth rate of the economy, the instability of the financial market and ongoing reforms. State-owned commercial banks are becoming highly profitable, while national joint-stock commercial banks are facing increasing competition and reducing efficiency of profitability. City and rural commercial banks maintain a high level of profitability due to state support. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Banking and the Economy I)
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11 pages, 585 KiB  
Article
Supply Chain Risk Management in a Digital Era: Evidence from SMEs of Clothing Retailers in Australia
by Mehadi Mamun
J. Risk Financial Manag. 2023, 16(4), 242; https://doi.org/10.3390/jrfm16040242 - 15 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2251
Abstract
With the increased globalisation and disruptions faced by businesses in this digital era and the occurrence of natural disasters such as floods and disease outbreaks in the world, supply chain risks and management of those risks are major challenges for businesses, especially for [...] Read more.
With the increased globalisation and disruptions faced by businesses in this digital era and the occurrence of natural disasters such as floods and disease outbreaks in the world, supply chain risks and management of those risks are major challenges for businesses, especially for SMEs of clothing retailers in Australia. This study, hence, is carried out using an exploratory case study research method, and the data have been collected through semi-structured face-to-face interviews with key informants from managerial levels of 20 Australian SMEs of clothing retailing businesses to identify various supply chain risks and their management processes. This study finds five supply chain risks, namely supply risk, demand risk, financial risk, environmental risk, and operational risk, that the SMEs of clothing retailers mostly face in the supply chain. This study also finds that most of the investigated retailers lack a formal risk identification approach, though they informally use the reactive and proactive methods of risk identification. Furthermore, the assessment methods are not well established in most of the participating firms, and supplier monitoring receives more attention compared to their own performance to deal with their supply chain risks. This study contributes to the body of knowledge by being one of the first empirical studies to explore the SMEs of clothing retailers’ supply chain risks and their management processes in the Australian business context, which can add value in guiding supply chain design decisions for SMEs in other sectors. Full article
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13 pages, 1437 KiB  
Article
Investigation and Modelling of Economic Systematic Risk and Capital Requirement: A Monte Carlo Simulation
by Adel Benhamed and Mohamed Sadok Gassouma
J. Risk Financial Manag. 2023, 16(4), 241; https://doi.org/10.3390/jrfm16040241 - 13 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1275
Abstract
This paper tests the ability of the regulatory capital requirement to cover credit losses at default, as carried out by the economic (optimal) capital requirement in Tunisian banks. The common factor in borrowers that leads to a credit default is systematic risk. However, [...] Read more.
This paper tests the ability of the regulatory capital requirement to cover credit losses at default, as carried out by the economic (optimal) capital requirement in Tunisian banks. The common factor in borrowers that leads to a credit default is systematic risk. However, the sensitivity to these factors differs between borrowers. To this end, we derived two kinds of sensitivity to systematic risk: the first is recognised by the Basel Committee; the second is derived from an economic approach. Hence, we can observe the impact of sensitivity to systematic risk on capital requirements. Empirically, we studied a sample of 100 individual borrowers from a Tunisian deposit bank that had credit in January 2020. We estimated the default probability for each borrower and then simulated their systematic risk sensitivity using the Monte Carlo approach, and compared them with the regulatory risk sensitivity. Then, we tested their effects on the economic and regulatory capital requirements. The results indicate that regulatory capital overestimates economic capital. This is due to the overestimation of borrowers’ contagion in terms of default risk, as shown by the superiority of their regulatory sensitivity systematic risk compared to the simulated risk. This leads banks to devote more capital than is really necessary to reach the regulatory standard. Hence, there was an increase in capital costs and the possibility of an arbitrage opportunity. Full article
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18 pages, 4207 KiB  
Review
Towards a Truly Decentralized Blockchain Framework for Remittance
by Kevin Coutinho, NeerajKumari Khairwal and Pornpit Wongthongtham
J. Risk Financial Manag. 2023, 16(4), 240; https://doi.org/10.3390/jrfm16040240 - 12 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3354
Abstract
Blockchain is a revolutionary technology that is constructively transforming many traditional industries, including financial services. Blockchain demonstrates immense potential in bringing substantial benefits to the remittance industry. Although the remittance industry has crossed the mark of USD 600 billion in 2021, remittance cost [...] Read more.
Blockchain is a revolutionary technology that is constructively transforming many traditional industries, including financial services. Blockchain demonstrates immense potential in bringing substantial benefits to the remittance industry. Although the remittance industry has crossed the mark of USD 600 billion in 2021, remittance cost is still substantially high, around 6% on average, indirectly limiting financial inclusion and promoting de-risking. The involvement of multiple intermediaries in global remittances makes cross-border payments more expensive. Many projects, including Ripple and Stellar, employ blockchain technology to provide alternative infrastructure for cross-border payments. However, the decentralization of blockchain networks in both solutions is debatable. This paper examines the market characteristics impacting remittance cost, a prominent factor driving the evolution of the remittance industry. A truly decentralized blockchain framework viz. LayerOneX, which provides remittance services at a reduced cost, is proposed in this paper. Devices with low computation and memory capacity can act as transaction validators in this solution. A universal wallet across homogeneous and heterogeneous blockchains is proposed to facilitate fast and inexpensive remittance services. Thus, a novel framework for true decentralization of blockchain-based remittance services, resulting in reduced cost and, therefore, better financial inclusion, is proposed in this paper. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Financial Technology (Fintech) and Sustainable Financing Volume II)
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13 pages, 820 KiB  
Article
Profiling Turkish Cryptocurrency Owners: Payment Users, Crypto Investors and Crypto Traders
by Lennart Ante, Florian Fiedler, Fred Steinmetz and Ingo Fiedler
J. Risk Financial Manag. 2023, 16(4), 239; https://doi.org/10.3390/jrfm16040239 - 12 Apr 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2699
Abstract
With ownership estimates of up to 25%, Turkey is at the forefront of cryptocurrency adoption, rendering it an interesting example to study the proclaimed use cases of cryptocurrencies. Using exploratory factor analysis based on a sample of 715 Turkish cryptocurrency owners, we identified [...] Read more.
With ownership estimates of up to 25%, Turkey is at the forefront of cryptocurrency adoption, rendering it an interesting example to study the proclaimed use cases of cryptocurrencies. Using exploratory factor analysis based on a sample of 715 Turkish cryptocurrency owners, we identified 3 different owner groups and their underlying motives. The first group (payment users) looks at cryptocurrency as an option for payments, thereby disregarding its speculative element, while the second group (crypto investors) can best be described as experienced investors holding cryptocurrency as part of their investment strategy. The third group (crypto traders) consists of risk-tolerant traders. Further analyses show that groups not only differentiate by demographics, income and education, but also by factors such as ideology, purchase intention and the use of domestic or foreign exchanges. The results contribute to the understanding of Turkish cryptocurrency owners, their intrinsic and extrinsic motivations and can be incorporated into the pending regulatory processes in the country. The findings suggest that cryptocurrencies have outgrown the use case of mere speculation in Turkey. Those in the group of Turkish payment users are identified as potential lead users whose current needs may represent common needs for crypto users in similar markets in the future. These findings motivate further research on the diffusion and usage patterns of cryptocurrency in emerging markets and innovation in general in the context of lead markets. Full article
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27 pages, 689 KiB  
Article
What’s Math Got to Do with It?: Establishing Nuanced Relations between Math Anxiety, Financial Anxiety, and Financial Literacy
by Andie Storozuk and Erin A. Maloney
J. Risk Financial Manag. 2023, 16(4), 238; https://doi.org/10.3390/jrfm16040238 - 12 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2118
Abstract
We investigate the relations between math anxiety, financial anxiety, and financial literacy while extending previous research in three ways. First, we examine the distinct subconstructs that comprise financial literacy (i.e., financial knowledge, confidence, attitudes, and behaviour). Second, we distinguish between financial knowledge items [...] Read more.
We investigate the relations between math anxiety, financial anxiety, and financial literacy while extending previous research in three ways. First, we examine the distinct subconstructs that comprise financial literacy (i.e., financial knowledge, confidence, attitudes, and behaviour). Second, we distinguish between financial knowledge items that are confounded with numeracy versus items that are not. Third, we control for trait anxiety. Using survey data from Canadian adults (N = 241), we demonstrate that math anxiety is negatively related to mathematical financial knowledge but is not related to conceptual financial knowledge, financial confidence, or financial behaviour. Financial anxiety, conversely, is negatively related to both mathematical and conceptual financial knowledge, financial confidence, and ideal financial behaviour. Our data suggest that, when considering financial literacy holistically, financial anxiety is more important than previously thought. These findings highlight the importance of distinguishing between the subconstructs that comprise financial literacy when attempting to understand individual differences that relate to financial literacy. Educators and policymakers looking to improve financial literacy would seemingly benefit from employing a targeted approach to decrease anxiety toward both math and finances. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Financial and Economic Literacy—Implications for Education)
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12 pages, 307 KiB  
Article
Unveiling the Link between Corporate Board Attributes, Board Behavior, and Financial Leverage: Insights from Malaysia
by Hussain Tahir, Mahfuzur Rahman, Md. Abdul Kaium Masud and Mohammed Mizanur Rahman
J. Risk Financial Manag. 2023, 16(4), 237; https://doi.org/10.3390/jrfm16040237 - 11 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1725
Abstract
The aim of this paper is to examine the characteristics and conduct of boards in non-financial Malaysian firms, with a particular emphasis on the companies’ financial leverage, using panel data spanning from 2012 to 2018. Overall, the study reveals that the relationship between [...] Read more.
The aim of this paper is to examine the characteristics and conduct of boards in non-financial Malaysian firms, with a particular emphasis on the companies’ financial leverage, using panel data spanning from 2012 to 2018. Overall, the study reveals that the relationship between board attributes and a firm’s financial leverage is significant, but mixed. Notably, we find that extremely small or large boards are ineffective in maintaining the optimal financial leverage level that benefits all stakeholders. Our study concludes that board independence is negatively correlated with financial leverage, whereas the tenure of board members is negatively associated with financial leverage. Additionally, board diversity exhibits a statistically significant and positive correlation with financial leverage. Currently, the Malaysian corporate governance code advocates announcing regulations to regulate corporate structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Applied Economics and Finance)
21 pages, 3991 KiB  
Article
Picking Winners: Identifying Features of High-Performing Special Purpose Acquisition Companies (SPACs) with Machine Learning
by Caleb J. Williams
J. Risk Financial Manag. 2023, 16(4), 236; https://doi.org/10.3390/jrfm16040236 - 11 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1603
Abstract
Special Purpose Acquisition Companies (SPACs) are publicly listed “blank check” firms with a sole purpose: to merge with a private company and take it public. Selecting a target to take public via SPACs is a complex affair led by SPAC sponsors who seek [...] Read more.
Special Purpose Acquisition Companies (SPACs) are publicly listed “blank check” firms with a sole purpose: to merge with a private company and take it public. Selecting a target to take public via SPACs is a complex affair led by SPAC sponsors who seek to deliver investor value by effectively “picking winners” from the private sector. A key question for all sponsors is what they should be searching for. This paper aims to identify the characteristics of SPACs and their target companies that are relevant to market performance at sponsor lock-up windows. To achieve this goal, the study breaks market performance into a binary classification problem and uses a machine learning approach comprised of decision trees, logistic regression, and LASSO regression to identify features that exhibit a distinct relationship with market performance. The obtained results demonstrate that corporate or private equity backing in target firms greatly improves the odds of market outperformance one-year post-merger. This finding is novel in indicating that characteristics of target firms may also be deterministic of SPAC performance, in addition to SPACs, transaction, and the market features identified in the prior literature. It further suggests that a viable sponsor strategy could be constructed for generating outsized market returns at share lock-up windows by simply “following the money” and choosing target firms with prior involvement from corporate or private equity investors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Machine Learning Applications in Finance)
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23 pages, 939 KiB  
Article
Examining the Determinants of Credit Risk Management and Their Relationship with the Performance of Commercial Banks in Nepal
by Tribhuwan Kumar Bhatt, Naveed Ahmed, Muhammad Babar Iqbal and Mehfooz Ullah
J. Risk Financial Manag. 2023, 16(4), 235; https://doi.org/10.3390/jrfm16040235 - 10 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 9955
Abstract
In recent years, after the global financial crisis, the issue of credit risk management has received increased attention from international regulators. Credit risk management frameworks are often not sufficiently integrated within the organization, there is no unified approach, and there is no holistic [...] Read more.
In recent years, after the global financial crisis, the issue of credit risk management has received increased attention from international regulators. Credit risk management frameworks are often not sufficiently integrated within the organization, there is no unified approach, and there is no holistic view of all risks. Likewise, where they exist, sound risk management practices have helped institutions to weather financial crises better than others. Therefore, the current study aimed to examine the determinants of credit risk management and their relationship with the performance of commercial banks in Nepal. It also examines the mediating role of credit risk management on the performance of commercial banks in Nepal. The results indicate that there is a positive relationship between environmental risk and credit risk management. It is also found that credit appraisal measurements have a significant effect on credit risk management. The results reveal that market risk analysis has a significant effect on credit risk management. The results show that credit risk management mediates the relationship between environmental risk, credit appraisal measurements, market risk analysis, and the performance of commercial banks. Therefore, managers should strive to impart risk prevention and control mechanisms to reduce credit risk and achieve good financial performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Financial Applications to Business and Financial Risk Management)
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21 pages, 1195 KiB  
Article
The Optimal Level of Financial Growth in View of a Nonlinear Macroprudential Policy Regime Model: A Bayesian Approach
by Sifundo Ntokozo Dlamini, Lindokuhle Talent Zungu and Nomusa Yolanda Nkomo
J. Risk Financial Manag. 2023, 16(4), 234; https://doi.org/10.3390/jrfm16040234 - 07 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1218
Abstract
A panel data analysis of nonlinear financial growth dynamics in a macroprudential policy regime was conducted on a panel of 10 African emerging countries from 1985–2021, where there had been a non-prudential regime from 1985–1999 and a prudential regime from 2000–2021. The paper [...] Read more.
A panel data analysis of nonlinear financial growth dynamics in a macroprudential policy regime was conducted on a panel of 10 African emerging countries from 1985–2021, where there had been a non-prudential regime from 1985–1999 and a prudential regime from 2000–2021. The paper explored the validity of the inverted U-shape hypothesis in the prudential policy regime as well as the threshold level at which excessive finance boosts growth using the Bayesian Spatial Lag Panel Smooth Transition Regression (BSPSTR) model. The BSPSTR model was adopted due to its ability to address the problems of endogeneity and heterogeneity in a nonlinear framework. Moreover, as the transition variable often varies across time and space, the effect of the independent variables can also be time- and space-varying. The results reveal evidence of a nonlinear effect between finance and growth, where the optimal level of financial development is found to be 92% of GDP, above which financial development decreases growth. The findings confirmed the Greenwood and Jovanovic hypothesis of an inverted U-shape relationship. Macroprudential policies were found to trigger the finance–growth relationship. The policy recommendation is that the financial sector should be given adequate consideration and recognition by, for example, implementing appropriate financial reforms, developing a suitable investment portfolio, and keeping spending on technological investment in Africa’s emerging countries below the threshold. Again, caution is needed when introducing macroprudential policies at a low level of the financial system. Full article
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15 pages, 746 KiB  
Article
The Changes in the Perceptions of Women towards the Symbolic Value of Gold: Marketing and Financial Implications
by Berislav Andrlić, Mario Hak and Girish S. Pathy
J. Risk Financial Manag. 2023, 16(4), 233; https://doi.org/10.3390/jrfm16040233 - 07 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1047
Abstract
Gold is a sought-after good across the globe, particularly among Asian countries. The demand for gold is influenced by symbolic, utilitarian, and hedonic values. One of the critical values among these is symbolic value, which refers to the meanings associated with a commodity. [...] Read more.
Gold is a sought-after good across the globe, particularly among Asian countries. The demand for gold is influenced by symbolic, utilitarian, and hedonic values. One of the critical values among these is symbolic value, which refers to the meanings associated with a commodity. This study attempts to identify the impact of cultural dynamism on the perceptions of women towards the symbolic value of gold. Cultural dynamism is a definite outcome of globalization; it refers to the changes in cultural beliefs and practices as an outcome of exposure to the elements of other cultures. These cultural changes will have an impact on the consumption of all types of goods, particularly those goods that are demanded due to a region’s culture. The present study attempts to identify the direction of cultural dynamics and its impact on gold in India as an outcome of the economy opening up in 1990. The perceptions of two sets of samples have been compared and contrasted in this study: one is a set of females born and married (this is because marriage has a vital role in determining perceptions towards gold) before the advent of globalization and its impacts in India, and the second set is the daughters (to ensure that other elements, such as socioeconomic aspects, are not affecting the perception) of the first set of customers. This study adopts a multidimensional scaling technique to analyze the data; this is due to the sound method that it is, and also due to the ability to provide a visual depiction of the outcomes. It could reveal evidence of polarization regarding perceptions towards the symbolic value of gold; it opened a research gap. A similar study with which to identify perceptions towards hedonic and symbolic values is suggested as an outcome of the study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Financial Markets)
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12 pages, 514 KiB  
Article
The Link between Bitcoin Price Changes and the Exchange Rates in European Countries with Non-Euro Currencies
by Bogdan Andrei Dumitrescu, Carmen Obreja, Ionel Leonida, Dănuț Georgian Mihai and Ludovic Cosmin Trifu
J. Risk Financial Manag. 2023, 16(4), 232; https://doi.org/10.3390/jrfm16040232 - 06 Apr 2023
Viewed by 2043
Abstract
This paper contributes to the literature dedicated to the interlinkages between cryptocurrencies and currencies by investigating whether Bitcoin price movements affect the exchange rates of a sample of nine European countries with non-euro currencies. By resorting to the novel unconditional quantile regression, we [...] Read more.
This paper contributes to the literature dedicated to the interlinkages between cryptocurrencies and currencies by investigating whether Bitcoin price movements affect the exchange rates of a sample of nine European countries with non-euro currencies. By resorting to the novel unconditional quantile regression, we show that there is a statistically significant link between Bitcoin price movements and changes in nominal exchange rates. In normal market conditions, an increase in the price of Bitcoin can be associated with an appreciation of the currencies from our sample, while during the COVID-19 pandemic, the relationship inversed. In addition, we find heterogeneities in this relationship, depending on the level of change in the nominal exchange rate. The results emphasize the relevance of Bitcoin price movements to the conduct of monetary policy through the exchange rate channel and that investors in cryptocurrencies and various financial assets denominated in the currencies from our sample can benefit from diversification by including both types of assets in their portfolios. Full article
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17 pages, 342 KiB  
Article
Environmental, Social, and Governance Considerations in WTI Financialization through Energy Funds
by Alper Gormus, Saban Nazlioglu and Steven L. Beach
J. Risk Financial Manag. 2023, 16(4), 231; https://doi.org/10.3390/jrfm16040231 - 06 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1148
Abstract
This study investigates interactions between energy funds and the oil market and examines the influence of environmental, social, and governance (ESG) criteria in dynamic responses by fund managers and investors. We test for price and volatility transmission (also referred to as “spillover”) between [...] Read more.
This study investigates interactions between energy funds and the oil market and examines the influence of environmental, social, and governance (ESG) criteria in dynamic responses by fund managers and investors. We test for price and volatility transmission (also referred to as “spillover”) between energy funds and the oil market using recently developed econometric techniques. After identifying specific information flows, we investigate whether certain fund characteristics, including several ESG dimensions, are associated with the existence of information transmissions. Then, in logit regressions, we seek to identify if energy fund managers and their investors make decisions using information regarding ESG metrics, including fossil fuel involvement. The results confirm bidirectional price and volatility transmission between energy funds and the oil market, consistent with evidence of the financialization of energy markets that has been identified in recent studies. Several ESG dimensions are shown to influence investor sentiment and affect price and volatility interactions. Dynamic investor decisions in funds in reaction to oil prices do not appear to be strongly influenced by the fossil fuel involvement of the funds. Fund flows do appear to influence the oil market, with fund fossil fuel involvement being an important factor. This paper evaluates the impact of granular ESG characteristics on energy mutual fund flows, price, and volatility interactions with the oil market. While our results support the findings from previous studies, they also provide several new insights into the impacts of ESG criteria and investor behavior, particularly the dynamic response by fund managers and energy market investors related to the fossil fuel involvement of the funds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue ESG-Investing and ESG-Finance)
20 pages, 307 KiB  
Article
Impact of Financial Technology on Improvement of Banks’ Financial Performance
by Hafez Baker, Thair A. Kaddumi, Mahmoud Daoud Nassar and Riham Suleiman Muqattash
J. Risk Financial Manag. 2023, 16(4), 230; https://doi.org/10.3390/jrfm16040230 - 05 Apr 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 7042
Abstract
This study investigates the main financial technologies adopted by banks to improve their financial performance. The study population consists of commercial banks listed on the Amman Stock Exchange and Abu Dhabi Securities Exchange, and includes financial information and data from 2012 to 2020. [...] Read more.
This study investigates the main financial technologies adopted by banks to improve their financial performance. The study population consists of commercial banks listed on the Amman Stock Exchange and Abu Dhabi Securities Exchange, and includes financial information and data from 2012 to 2020. A total of 115 questionnaires, consisting of five questionnaires for each bank, were distributed to the study population in Jordan and the United Arab Emirates. The dependent variable is financial performance, while the independent variable is financial technology (FinTech). Multiple linear regression analysis was conducted to test the hypotheses. The results showed that FinTech has a positive effect on both total deposit and net profits. This study recommends that banks be encouraged to adopt inclusive strategies to attain sustainable development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stability of Financial Markets and Sustainability Post-COVID-19)
16 pages, 653 KiB  
Article
Effect of Remittance-Sending Countries’ Type on Financial Development in Recipient Countries: Can the Pandemic Make a Difference?
by Md. Abdur Rahman Forhad, Gazi Mahabubul Alam and Md. Toabur Rahman
J. Risk Financial Manag. 2023, 16(4), 229; https://doi.org/10.3390/jrfm16040229 - 04 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1556
Abstract
This study examines the effect of remittances on selected recipient countries’ financial development. Using weights for bilateral remittances from 1990 to 2015, this study calculates the weighted gross national income per capita of remittance-sending countries. This study then uses the weighted gross national [...] Read more.
This study examines the effect of remittances on selected recipient countries’ financial development. Using weights for bilateral remittances from 1990 to 2015, this study calculates the weighted gross national income per capita of remittance-sending countries. This study then uses the weighted gross national income as an instrument to address the endogeneity between remittance and financial development. Using the instrument variable (IV) model, this study finds that remittances from low-skilled migrant-abundant sending countries have different effects than the highly skilled labor-abundant sending countries. Assuming the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries as a source of low-skilled and the Group of Seven (G7) as the source of high-skilled labor-abundant sending countries, remittance from relatively low-skilled emigrants has a greater impact on financial inclusion in the recipient countries than their high-skilled counterparts. In contrast, remittance from high-skilled countries has a greater impact on the development of the stock market. Similar types of effects of remittance on financial development have also been observed during the COVID-19 pandemic. The results suggest that policymakers should provide better foreign employment opportunities and improved transaction and investment policies in the home financial markets. Full article
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24 pages, 717 KiB  
Article
Equity Investment Decisions of Operating Firms: Evidence from Property and Liability Insurers
by Sunghan Bae, Andre P. Liebenberg and Ivonne A. Liebenberg
J. Risk Financial Manag. 2023, 16(4), 228; https://doi.org/10.3390/jrfm16040228 - 04 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1163
Abstract
During the 2007–2009 financial crisis, almost 10% of Property and Liability (P&L) insurers completely liquidated their equity portfolios, and more than half of them never resumed equity market investments. In contrast, those P&L insurers that continued investing in equities after the crisis, increased [...] Read more.
During the 2007–2009 financial crisis, almost 10% of Property and Liability (P&L) insurers completely liquidated their equity portfolios, and more than half of them never resumed equity market investments. In contrast, those P&L insurers that continued investing in equities after the crisis, increased their portfolio allocation substantially. To understand these findings, we develop and estimate models that explain P&L insurers’ dynamic equity investment decisions, in terms of firm, group, and market characteristics over the period 2002–2018. We study three different approaches to equity investments, a pure investment strategy, internal capital market contributions, and an outsourcing option and find that the factors driving the decision to invest in equities differ from those that explain the extent of their equity investments. Moreover, we find that while equity portfolio losses drive the decision to temporarily cease investments in equities, the decision to permanently exit equity markets is driven by both equity market losses and underwriting losses. These findings shed some light on the factors driving the demand for equity investments by operating firms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Corporate Finance, Governance, and Social Responsibility)
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17 pages, 351 KiB  
Article
Protect or Compete? Evidence of Firms’ Innovation from Import Penetration
by Changjie Hu and Ming Liu
J. Risk Financial Manag. 2023, 16(4), 227; https://doi.org/10.3390/jrfm16040227 - 04 Apr 2023
Viewed by 960
Abstract
This paper reassesses the long-debated relationship between market competition and firms’ innovation. While competition is traditionally measured at the industry level using historical data, our study utilizes two recently developed text-based measures of competitive threats which are forward-looking and constructed at the level [...] Read more.
This paper reassesses the long-debated relationship between market competition and firms’ innovation. While competition is traditionally measured at the industry level using historical data, our study utilizes two recently developed text-based measures of competitive threats which are forward-looking and constructed at the level of individual firms. We address the potential endogeneity concerns and provide causal inference using instrumental variables including import tariffs and trade-weighted exchange rates, along with the propensity score matching (PSM) of firms that experienced exogenous shock from import competition. Our results show that an increase in competition unambiguously promotes firms’ innovation in terms of both quality and quantity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Global Business Strategy)
19 pages, 3224 KiB  
Article
Enhancing Financial Market Analysis and Prediction with Emotion Corpora and News Co-Occurrence Network
by Shawn McCarthy and Gita Alaghband
J. Risk Financial Manag. 2023, 16(4), 226; https://doi.org/10.3390/jrfm16040226 - 04 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2604
Abstract
This study employs an improved natural language processing algorithm to analyze over 500,000 financial news articles from sixteen major sources across 12 sectors, with the top 10 companies in each sector. The analysis identifies shifting economic activity based on emotional news sentiment and [...] Read more.
This study employs an improved natural language processing algorithm to analyze over 500,000 financial news articles from sixteen major sources across 12 sectors, with the top 10 companies in each sector. The analysis identifies shifting economic activity based on emotional news sentiment and develops a news co-occurrence network to show relationships between companies even across sectors. This study created an improved corpus and algorithm to identify emotions in financial news. The improved method identified 18 additional emotions beyond what was previously analyzed. The researchers labeled financial terms from Investopedia to validate the categorization performance of the new method. Using the improved algorithm, we analyzed how emotions in financial news relate to market movement of pairs of companies. We found a moderate correlation (above 60%) between emotion sentiment and market movement. To validate this finding, we further checked the correlation coefficients between sentiment alone, and found that consumer discretionary, consumer staples, financials, industrials, and technology sectors showed similar trends. Our findings suggest that emotional sentiment analysis provide valuable insights for financial market analysis and prediction. The technical analysis framework developed in this study can be integrated into a larger investment strategy, enabling organizations to identify potential opportunities and develop informed strategies. The insights derived from the co-occurrence model may be leveraged by companies to strengthen their risk management functions, making it an asset within a comprehensive investment strategy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neural Networks for Financial Derivatives)
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17 pages, 400 KiB  
Article
An Analysis of the Use of Accounting Information by Portuguese SMEs
by Ana Catarina Santos, Rui Pires and Maria-Ceu Alves
J. Risk Financial Manag. 2023, 16(4), 225; https://doi.org/10.3390/jrfm16040225 - 04 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1930
Abstract
Despite the significant economic contribution of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), little is known about the extent to which they make use of accounting information (AI). Although AI is considered one of the main sources of information for SMEs, many continue to ignore [...] Read more.
Despite the significant economic contribution of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), little is known about the extent to which they make use of accounting information (AI). Although AI is considered one of the main sources of information for SMEs, many continue to ignore its potential, considering that this information is only intended to meet tax obligations. The literature stresses the influence of several factors on AI usage. However, the conclusions of the studies are fragmented, contradictory, and not very enlightening. Following these studies, the purpose of this paper is to explore which characteristics of decision makers, companies, and accounting services influence the importance and use of AI in SMEs. Data were collected through an online questionnaire survey applied to Portuguese SMEs. The findings show that the decision makers’ level of education, as well as their educational background, influence the importance they attribute to AI. It has also been found that smaller companies and SMEs that use outsourced accounting services make the least use of AI. Therefore, in addition to providing empirical evidence on the importance and use of AI, a debate that has been mainly theoretical, and on the importance of SMEs in any economy, this paper aims to raise awareness of the need to further study the decision-making process in such firms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Financial and Sustainability Reporting in a Digital Era)
15 pages, 369 KiB  
Article
Investment Efficiency and Earnings Quality: European Evidence
by Cristina Gaio, Tiago Cruz Gonçalves and João Cardoso
J. Risk Financial Manag. 2023, 16(4), 224; https://doi.org/10.3390/jrfm16040224 - 03 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2140
Abstract
This study aims to analyze the relationship between earnings quality and investment efficiency in the European context, in order to understand whether higher earnings quality mitigates investment inefficiencies. To further understand the relationship between earnings quality and investment efficiency, the roles of cash [...] Read more.
This study aims to analyze the relationship between earnings quality and investment efficiency in the European context, in order to understand whether higher earnings quality mitigates investment inefficiencies. To further understand the relationship between earnings quality and investment efficiency, the roles of cash and financial constraints are also analyzed. We use firm-year data based on unbalanced panel data, and control for country, year, and industry fixed effects using a sample composed of listed and unlisted European companies from 19 countries and 17 industries for the period 2010–2018. The results show a positive and significant relationship between earnings quality and investment efficiency. In both scenarios of investment inefficiency, overinvestment and underinvestment, the results suggest that a higher quality of reported earnings mitigates investment inefficiencies. The results also suggest that the negative relationship holds for cash-constrained and unconstrained firms, and that in firms that are financially unconstrained (higher levels of cash and lower levels of leverage) the combined effect with earnings quality is associated with a lower investment efficiency. Full article
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