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Pathophysiology, Volume 29, Issue 3 (September 2022) – 21 articles

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13 pages, 1687 KiB  
Article
Dysregulated Sulfide Metabolism in Multiple Sclerosis: Serum and Vascular Endothelial Inflammatory Responses
by Pooja Veerareddy, Nhi Dao, Jungmi W. Yun, Karen Y. Stokes, Elizabeth Disbrow, Christopher G. Kevil, Urska Cvek, Marjan Trutschl, Philip Kilgore, Murali Ramanathan, Robert Zivadinov and Jonathan S. Alexander
Pathophysiology 2022, 29(3), 570-582; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathophysiology29030044 - 17 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1904
Abstract
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a leading cause of neurodegenerative disability in younger individuals. When diagnosed early, MS can be managed more effectively, stabilizing clinical symptoms and delaying disease progression. The identification of specific serum biomarkers for early-stage MS could facilitate more successful treatment [...] Read more.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a leading cause of neurodegenerative disability in younger individuals. When diagnosed early, MS can be managed more effectively, stabilizing clinical symptoms and delaying disease progression. The identification of specific serum biomarkers for early-stage MS could facilitate more successful treatment of this condition. Because MS is an inflammatory disease, we assessed changes in enzymes of the endothelial hydrogen sulfide (H2S) pathway in response to inflammatory cytokines. Blotting analysis was conducted to detect Cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE), Cystathionine beta synthase (CBS), and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (MST) in human brain microvascular endothelial apical and basolateral microparticles (MPs) and cells following exposure to tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ). CSE was increased in MPs and cells by exposure to TNF-α/IFN-γ; CBS was elevated in apical MPs but not in cells or basolateral MPs; MST was not significantly affected by cytokine exposure. To test how our findings relate to MS patients, we evaluated levels of CSE, CBS, and MST in serum samples from healthy control and MS patients. We found significantly decreased levels of CBS and MST (p = 0.0004, 0.009) in MS serum samples, whereas serum levels of CSE were marginally increased (p = 0.06). These observations support increased CSE and lower CBS and MST expression being associated with the vascular inflammation in MS. These changes in endothelial-derived sulfide enzymes at sites of inflammation in the brain may help to explain sulfide-dependent changes in vascular dysfunction/neuroinflammation underlying MS. These findings further support the use of serum samples to assess enzymatic biomarkers derived from circulating MPs. For example, “liquid biopsy” can be an important tool for allowing early diagnosis of MS, prior to the advanced progression of neurodegeneration associated with this disease. Full article
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15 pages, 2133 KiB  
Review
Pigmented Fungiform Papillae (PFP) of the Tongue: A Systematic Review of Current Aetiopathogenesis and Pathophysiology
by Meircurius Dwi Condro Surboyo, Lakshman Samaranayake, Arvind Babu Rajendra Santosh, Nurina Febriyanti Ayuningtyas, Sisca Meida Wati, Retno Pudji Rahayu, Francisco Urbina, Winni Langgeng Kuntari, Sesaria Junita Mega Rahma Syahnia, Karlina Puspasari, Adiastuti Endah Parmadiati and Diah Savitri Ernawati
Pathophysiology 2022, 29(3), 555-569; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathophysiology29030043 - 9 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 8191
Abstract
The pigmentation of the fungiform papillae of the tongue is a rare idiopathic condition in which only the fungiform papillae appear hyperpigmented. In the absence of any reviews on the subject, we conducted a systematic review of the aetiopathogenesis and pathophysiology of pigmented [...] Read more.
The pigmentation of the fungiform papillae of the tongue is a rare idiopathic condition in which only the fungiform papillae appear hyperpigmented. In the absence of any reviews on the subject, we conducted a systematic review of the aetiopathogenesis and pathophysiology of pigmented fungiform papillae (PFP) of the tongue, including its demographic and histopathological features, trying to outline a possible aetiology. The preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) was performed using PubMed, Scopus, EMBASE databases and manual searches, for publications between January 1974 and July 2022. Inclusion criteria were case reports defining patients’ characteristics, their general medical and dental conditions, histopathological and/or immunohistochemical findings, all with a final definitive diagnosis of PFP. Overall, 51 studies comprising 69 cases of PFP which included histopathological descriptions were reviewed. Prominent features consisted of hyperpigmentation of melanocytes, melanophages, chromatophores, and a lymphocytic infiltrate in the subepidermal area of the fungiform papillae. On special staining, PFP contained melanin, not iron or hemosiderin. On immunohistochemistry, immune-reactive CD3+ T lymphocytes, S-100 and Sox10, but non-immune-reactive melan-A intraepithelial melanocytes were noted in some studies. The presence of hyperpigmented melanocytes and melanophages, with non-immune-reactive melan-A, suggests that PFP are a benign and physiological form of pigmentation. The inflammatory infiltrates described in some papillary lesions could possibly be due to traumatic events during mastication. Nevertheless, the true reasons for the hyperpigmentation of the fungiform papillae are as of yet elusive, and remain to be determined. Full article
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18 pages, 1128 KiB  
Article
Breast Cancer Treatment Decreases Serum Levels of TGF-β1, VEGFR2, and TIMP-2 Compared to Healthy Volunteers: Significance for Therapeutic Outcomes?
by Varvara Krasnikova, Maria Pospelova, Olga Fionik, Tatyana Alekseeva, Konstantin Samochernykh, Nataliya Ivanova, Nikita Trofimov, Tatyana Vavilova, Elena Vasilieva, Albina Makhanova, Samwel Tonyan, Alexandra Nikolaeva, Evgeniya Kayumova and Maxim Shevtsov
Pathophysiology 2022, 29(3), 537-554; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathophysiology29030042 - 1 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2040
Abstract
Various complications from a breast cancer treatment, in the pathogenesis of which excessive tissue fibrosis plays a leading role, are a common pathology. In this study, the levels of TGF-β1, VEGFR-2, and TIMP-2 were determined by the immuno-enzyme serum analysis for patients during [...] Read more.
Various complications from a breast cancer treatment, in the pathogenesis of which excessive tissue fibrosis plays a leading role, are a common pathology. In this study, the levels of TGF-β1, VEGFR-2, and TIMP-2 were determined by the immuno-enzyme serum analysis for patients during the long-term period after breast cancer treatment as potential markers of fibrosis. The single-center study enrolled 92 participants, which were divided into two age-matched groups: (1) 67 patients following breast cancer treatment, and (2) 25 healthy female volunteers. The intergroup analysis demonstrated that the patients after breast cancer treatment showed a decrease in the serum levels of TGF-β1 (U = 666, p < 0.001) and TIMP-2 (U = 637, p < 0.001) as compared to the group of healthy volunteers. The levels of VEGFR-2 in these groups were comparable (U = 1345, p = 0.082). It was also found that the type of treatment, the presence of lymphedema, shoulder joint contracture, and changes in lymphoscintigraphy did not affect the levels of TGF-β1, VEGFR-2, and TIMP-2 within the group of patients after breast cancer treatment. These results may indicate that these biomarkers do not play a leading role in the maintenance and progression of fibrosis in the long-term period after breast cancer treatment. The reduced levels of TGF-β1 and TIMP-2 may reflect endothelial dysfunction caused by the antitumor therapy. Full article
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30 pages, 5631 KiB  
Review
Biomolecular Mechanisms of Autoimmune Diseases and Their Relationship with the Resident Microbiota: Friend or Foe?
by Skender Topi, Lucrezia Bottalico, Ioannis Alexandros Charitos, Marica Colella, Marina Di Domenico, Raffaele Palmirotta and Luigi Santacroce
Pathophysiology 2022, 29(3), 507-536; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathophysiology29030041 - 1 Sep 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2865
Abstract
The use of innovative approaches to elucidate the pathophysiological mechanisms of autoimmune diseases, as well as to further study of the factors which can have either a positive or negative effect on the course of the disease, is essential. In this line, the [...] Read more.
The use of innovative approaches to elucidate the pathophysiological mechanisms of autoimmune diseases, as well as to further study of the factors which can have either a positive or negative effect on the course of the disease, is essential. In this line, the development of new molecular techniques and the creation of the Human Genome Program have allowed access to many more solutions to the difficulties that exist in the identification and characterization of the microbiome, as well as changes due to various factors. Such innovative technologies can rekindle older hypotheses, such as molecular mimicry, allowing us to move from hypothesis to theory and from correlation to causality, particularly regarding autoimmune diseases and dysbiosis of the microbiota. For example, Prevotella copri appears to have a strong association with rheumatoid arthritis; it is expected that this will be confirmed by several scientists, which, in turn, will make it possible to identify other mechanisms that may contribute to the pathophysiology of the disease. This article seeks to identify new clues regarding similar correlations between autoimmune activity and the human microbiota, particularly in relation to qualitative and quantitative microbial variations therein. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mosaic of Autoimmunity)
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12 pages, 801 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Core Stabilization Training on Improving Gait and Self-Perceived Function in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis: A Single-Arm Clinical Trial
by Daniel W. Flowers, Wayne Brewer, Katy Mitchell, Jennifer Ellison and Clifton Frilot
Pathophysiology 2022, 29(3), 495-506; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathophysiology29030040 - 1 Sep 2022
Viewed by 2343
Abstract
The treatment of patients with knee osteoarthritis is typically focused on the involved lower extremity. There is a gap in the literature concerning the effectiveness of core stabilization training on the treatment of patients with knee osteoarthritis. This investigation aimed to determine whether [...] Read more.
The treatment of patients with knee osteoarthritis is typically focused on the involved lower extremity. There is a gap in the literature concerning the effectiveness of core stabilization training on the treatment of patients with knee osteoarthritis. This investigation aimed to determine whether core stabilization improved the gait and functional ability of patients with knee osteoarthritis. Eighteen participants with knee osteoarthritis completed the six-week core stabilization intervention. Participants completed the gait motion analysis and the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score to assess self-perceived function, pre- and post-intervention. Gait speed improved (p = 0.006, d = 0.59), while the external knee adduction moment decreased (p = 0.034, d = −0.90). Moreover, self-reported function improved (p < 0.001, d = 1.26). The gait speed and external knee adduction moment changes met minimal detectable change thresholds, while gait speed also met the minimal clinically important difference. A six-week core stabilization program can thus improve gait speed and reduce the external knee adduction moment, which is tied to disease progression. Increased functional scores post-intervention indicate an important clinical improvement. Core stabilization training is a safe and potentially effective treatment option for this population. Full article
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9 pages, 1709 KiB  
Article
Molecular Mimicry between SARS-CoV-2 and Human Endocrinocytes: A Prerequisite of Post-COVID-19 Endocrine Autoimmunity?
by Leonid P. Churilov, Muslimbek G. Normatov and Vladimir J. Utekhin
Pathophysiology 2022, 29(3), 486-494; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathophysiology29030039 - 25 Aug 2022
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 3085
Abstract
Molecular mimicry between human and microbial/viral/parasite peptides is common and has long been associated with the etiology of autoimmune disorders provoked by exogenous pathogens. A growing body of evidence accumulated in recent years suggests a strong correlation between SARS-CoV-2 infection and autoimmunity. The [...] Read more.
Molecular mimicry between human and microbial/viral/parasite peptides is common and has long been associated with the etiology of autoimmune disorders provoked by exogenous pathogens. A growing body of evidence accumulated in recent years suggests a strong correlation between SARS-CoV-2 infection and autoimmunity. The article analyzes the immunogenic potential of the peptides shared between the SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein (S-protein) and antigens of human endocrinocytes involved in most common autoimmune endocrinopathies. A total of 14 pentapeptides shared by the SARS-CoV-2 S-protein, thyroid, pituitary, adrenal cortex autoantigens and beta-cells of the islets of Langerhans were identified, all of them belong to the immunoreactive epitopes of SARS-CoV-2. The discussion of the findings relates the results to the clinical correlates of COVID-19-associated autoimmune endocrinopathies. The most common of these illnesses is an autoimmune thyroid disease, so the majority of shared pentapeptides belong to the marker autoantigens of this disease. The most important in pathogenesis of severe COVID-19, according to the authors, may be autoimmunity against adrenals because their adequate response prevents excessive systemic action of the inflammatory mediators causing cytokine storm and hemodynamic shock. A critique of the antigenic mimicry concept is given with an assertion that peptide sharing is not a guarantee but only a prerequisite for provoking autoimmunity based on the molecular mimicry. The latter event occurs in carriers of certain HLA haplotypes and when a shared peptide is only used in antigen processing Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mosaic of Autoimmunity)
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15 pages, 2301 KiB  
Review
Critical Functions of Histone Deacetylases (HDACs) in Modulating Inflammation Associated with Cardiovascular Diseases
by Supaporn Kulthinee, Naohiro Yano, Shougang Zhuang, Lijiang Wang and Ting C. Zhao
Pathophysiology 2022, 29(3), 471-485; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathophysiology29030038 - 22 Aug 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3001
Abstract
Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are a superfamily of enzymes that catalyze the removal of acetyl functional groups from lysine residues of histone and non-histone proteins. There are 18 mammalian HDACs, which are classified into four classes based on the primary homology with yeast HDACs. [...] Read more.
Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are a superfamily of enzymes that catalyze the removal of acetyl functional groups from lysine residues of histone and non-histone proteins. There are 18 mammalian HDACs, which are classified into four classes based on the primary homology with yeast HDACs. Among these groups, Class I and II HDACs play a major role in lysine deacetylation of the N-terminal histone tails. In mammals, HDACs play a pivotal role in the regulation of gene transcription, cell growth, survival, and proliferation. HDACs regulate the expression of inflammatory genes, as evidenced by the potent anti-inflammatory activity of pan-HDAC inhibitors, which were implicated in several pathophysiologic states in the inflammation process. However, it is unclear how each of the 18 HDAC proteins specifically contributes to the inflammatory gene expression. It is firmly established that inflammation and its inability to converge are central mechanisms in the pathogenesis of several cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Emerging evidence supports the hypothesis that several different pro-inflammatory cytokines regulated by HDACs are associated with various CVDs. Based on this hypothesis, the potential for the treatment of CVDs with HDAC inhibitors has recently begun to attract attention. In this review, we will briefly discuss (1) pathophysiology of inflammation in cardiovascular disease, (2) the function of HDACs in the regulation of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases, and (3) the possible therapeutic implications of HDAC inhibitors in cardiovascular diseases. Recent studies reveal that histone deacetylase contributes critically to mediating the pathophysiology of inflammation in cardiovascular disease. HDACs are also recognized as one of the major mechanisms in the regulation of inflammation and cardiovascular function. HDACs show promise in developing potential therapeutic implications of HDAC inhibitors in cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Papers in Pathophysiology)
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2 pages, 174 KiB  
Correction
Correction: Belyaeva et al. Tuberculosis and Autoimmunity. Pathophysiology 2022, 29, 298–318
by Irina V. Belyaeva, Anna N. Kosova and Andrei G. Vasiliev
Pathophysiology 2022, 29(3), 469-470; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathophysiology29030037 - 16 Aug 2022
Viewed by 1009
Abstract
The authors would like to make the following correction to the published paper [...] Full article
16 pages, 2228 KiB  
Article
Heart Dysfunction in Essential Hypertension Depends on Systemic Proinflammatory Influences: A Retrospective Clinical Pathophysiological Study
by Anton V. Barsukov, Alexander E. Korovin, Leonid P. Churilov, Ekaterina V. Borisova and Dmitry V. Tovpeko
Pathophysiology 2022, 29(3), 453-468; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathophysiology29030036 - 7 Aug 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1871
Abstract
Low-intensity systemic inflammation is an important element of heart failure pathogenesis. The aim of this study is to assess proinflammatory status serum indicators (C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6)) in middle-aged males (M) and females (F) with essential hypertension [...] Read more.
Low-intensity systemic inflammation is an important element of heart failure pathogenesis. The aim of this study is to assess proinflammatory status serum indicators (C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6)) in middle-aged males (M) and females (F) with essential hypertension (HTN) depending on left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction (LVDD). The main group comprised 55 M and 49 F with the first- to second-severity grade HTN with mild heart failure and a preserved LV ejection fraction ≥50%. Patients had sinus rhythm, first or second-severity degree LVDD, LV hypertrophy, left atrium dilatation, and NT-proBNP > 125 pg/mL. Comparison group: 30 hypertensives without cardiac dysfunction; control group: 31 normotensives. Quantitative features were compared using the Mann–Whitney test, median χ2, ANOVA module. Spearman’s rank correlation coefficients were determined to identify the relationship between the proinflammatory pattern and exercise tolerance. Hypertensive M had markedly higher CRP, TNF-α, and IL-6 levels compared to F. All mean values corresponded to reference range. In patients with second-degree LVDD, CRP, TNF-α, and IL-6 levels were significantly greater than in subjects with first-degree LVDD (both within M and within F samples). Significant negative associations between CRP, IL-6, and TNF-α levels and the 6 min walk test existed in hypertensive M and F. The study demonstrated a close relationship between the proinflammatory pattern and LVDD and exercise tolerance indicators, regardless of the hypertensive patient’s sex. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mosaic of Autoimmunity)
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18 pages, 920 KiB  
Review
Pathophysiology of Nociception and Rare Genetic Disorders with Increased Pain Threshold or Pain Insensitivity
by Marco Cascella, Maria Rosaria Muzio, Federica Monaco, Davide Nocerino, Alessandro Ottaiano, Francesco Perri and Massimo Antonio Innamorato
Pathophysiology 2022, 29(3), 435-452; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathophysiology29030035 - 2 Aug 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3716
Abstract
Pain and nociception are different phenomena. Nociception is the result of complex activity in sensory pathways. On the other hand, pain is the effect of interactions between nociceptive processes, and cognition, emotions, as well as the social context of the individual. Alterations in [...] Read more.
Pain and nociception are different phenomena. Nociception is the result of complex activity in sensory pathways. On the other hand, pain is the effect of interactions between nociceptive processes, and cognition, emotions, as well as the social context of the individual. Alterations in the nociceptive route can have different genesis and affect the entire sensorial process. Genetic problems in nociception, clinically characterized by reduced or absent pain sensitivity, compose an important chapter within pain medicine. This chapter encompasses a wide range of very rare diseases. Several genes have been identified. These genes encode the Nav channels 1.7 and 1.9 (SCN9A, and SCN11A genes, respectively), NGFβ and its receptor tyrosine receptor kinase A, as well as the transcription factor PRDM12, and autophagy controllers (TECPR2). Monogenic disorders provoke hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies. Their clinical pictures are extremely variable, and a precise classification has yet to be established. Additionally, pain insensitivity is described in diverse numerical and structural chromosomal abnormalities, such as Angelman syndrome, Prader Willy syndrome, Chromosome 15q duplication syndrome, and Chromosome 4 interstitial deletion. Studying these conditions could be a practical strategy to better understand the mechanisms of nociception and investigate potential therapeutic targets against pain. Full article
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9 pages, 893 KiB  
Article
Elevated IgG and IgM Autoantibodies to Advanced Glycation End Products of Vascular Elastin in Hypertensive Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: Relevance to Disease Initiation and Progression
by Krasimir Kostov and Alexander Blazhev
Pathophysiology 2022, 29(3), 426-434; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathophysiology29030034 - 1 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2688
Abstract
The increased glycation of elastin is an important factor in vascular changes in diabetes. Using the ELISA method, we determined serum levels of IgM and IgG autoantibodies to advanced glycation end products of vascular elastin (anti-AGE EL IgM and anti-AGE EL IgG) in [...] Read more.
The increased glycation of elastin is an important factor in vascular changes in diabetes. Using the ELISA method, we determined serum levels of IgM and IgG autoantibodies to advanced glycation end products of vascular elastin (anti-AGE EL IgM and anti-AGE EL IgG) in 59 hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and 20 healthy controls. Serum levels of matrix metalloproteinases-2 and -9 (MMP-2 and MMP-9) and the C-reactive protein (CRP) were also determined. The levels of anti-AGE EL IgM antibodies in the T2D group were similar to those in the control group, while those of anti-AGE EL IgG antibodies were significantly higher (p = 0.017). Significant positive correlations were found between the levels of anti-AGE EL IgM antibodies and MMP-2 (r = 0.322; p = 0.013) and between the levels of anti-AGE EL IgG antibodies and CRP (r = 0.265; p = 0.042). Our study showed that elevated anti-AGE EL IgG antibody levels may be an indicator of the enhanced AGE-modification and inflammatory-mediated destruction of vascular elastin in hypertensive patients with T2D. Anti-AGE EL IgM antibodies may reflect changes in vascular MMP-2 activity, and their elevated levels may be a sign of early vascular damage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Papers in Pathophysiology)
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12 pages, 888 KiB  
Review
Autoimmune Autonomic Dysfunction Syndromes: Potential Involvement and Pathophysiology Related to Complex Regional Pain Syndrome, Fibromyalgia, Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Silicone Breast Implant–Related Symptoms and Post-COVID Syndrome
by Naim Mahroum and Yehuda Shoenfeld
Pathophysiology 2022, 29(3), 414-425; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathophysiology29030033 - 28 Jul 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 5901
Abstract
The pathophysiological mechanisms involved in chronic disorders such as complex regional pain syndrome, fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, silicone breast implant–related symptoms, and post-COVID syndrome have not been clearly defined. The course of the pain in some of the syndromes, the absence of evident [...] Read more.
The pathophysiological mechanisms involved in chronic disorders such as complex regional pain syndrome, fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, silicone breast implant–related symptoms, and post-COVID syndrome have not been clearly defined. The course of the pain in some of the syndromes, the absence of evident tissue damage, and the predominance of alterations in the autonomic nervous system are shared similarities between them. The production of autoantibodies following a trigger in the syndromes was previously described, for instance, trauma in complex regional pain syndrome, infectious agents in fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, and post-COVID syndrome, and the immune stimulation by silicone in women with breast implants. In fact, the autoantibodies produced were shown to be directed against the autonomic nervous system receptors, leading to the amplification of the perception of pain alongside various clinical symptoms seen during the clinical course of the syndromes. Therefore, we viewed autoantibodies targeting the autonomic nervous system resulting in autonomic dysfunction as likely the most comprehensive explanation of the pathophysiology of the disorders mentioned. Based on this, we aimed to introduce a new concept uniting complex regional pain syndrome, fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, silicone breast implant–related symptoms, and post-COVID syndrome, namely “autoimmune autonomic dysfunction syndromes”. Due to its etiological, pathophysiological, and clinical implications, the suggested term would be more precise in classifying the syndromes under one title. The new title would doubtlessly facilitate both laboratory and clinical studies aimed to improve diagnosis and make treatment options more directed and precise. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mosaic of Autoimmunity)
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9 pages, 1193 KiB  
Article
Pathophysiology of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Superinfection in COVID-19 Patients
by Gul Habib, Khalid Mahmood, Haji Gul, Muhammad Tariq, Qurat Ul Ain, Azam Hayat and Mujaddad Ur Rehman
Pathophysiology 2022, 29(3), 405-413; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathophysiology29030032 - 27 Jul 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3146
Abstract
The global spread of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), has infected humans in all age groups, deteriorated host immune responses, and caused millions of deaths. The reasons for individuals succumbing to COVID-19 were not only [...] Read more.
The global spread of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), has infected humans in all age groups, deteriorated host immune responses, and caused millions of deaths. The reasons for individuals succumbing to COVID-19 were not only the SARS-CoV-2 infection but also associated bacterial infections. Antibiotics were largely used to prevent bacterial infections during COVID-19 illness, and many bacteria became resistant to conventional antibiotics. Although COVID-19 was considered the main culprit behind the millions of deaths, bacterial coinfections and superinfections were the major factors that increased the mortality rate in hospitalized patients. In the present study, we assessed the pathophysiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) superinfection in COVID-19 patients in Pakistan. A total of 3492 COVID-19 hospitalized patients were screened among which 224 strain were resistant to methicillin; 110 strains were tazobactam-resistant; 53 strains were ciprofloxacin-resistant; 23 strains were gentamicin-resistant; 11 strains were azithromycin-resistant; 3 strains were vancomycin-resistant. A high frequency of MRSA was detected in patients aged ≥50 with a prevalence of 7.33%, followed by patients aged >65 with a prevalence of 5.48% and a 5.10% prevalence in patients aged <50. In addition, pneumonia was detected in the COVID-19-associated MRSA (COVID-MRSA) that showed decreased levels of lymphocytes and albumin and increased the mortality rate from 2.3% to 25.23%. Collectively, an MRSA superinfection was associated with increased mortality in COVID-19 after 12 to 18 days of hospitalization. The study assessed the prevalence of MRSA, mortality rate, pneumonia, and the emergence of antibiotic resistance as the main outcomes. The study summarized that COVID-MRSA aggravated the treatment and recovery of patients and suggested testing MRSA as critical for hospitalized patients. Full article
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11 pages, 1907 KiB  
Article
Effects of Platelet-Rich Osteoconductive–Osteoinductive Allograft Compound on Tunnel Widening of ACL Reconstruction: A Randomized Blind Analysis Study
by Ruth Solomon, Jan Pieter Hommen and Francesco Travascio
Pathophysiology 2022, 29(3), 394-404; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathophysiology29030031 - 26 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2121
Abstract
The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is a commonly injured ligament in the knee. Bone tunnel widening is a known phenomenon after soft-tissue ACL reconstruction and etiology and the clinical relevance has not been fully elucidated. Osteoconductive compounds are biomaterials providing an appropriate scaffold [...] Read more.
The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is a commonly injured ligament in the knee. Bone tunnel widening is a known phenomenon after soft-tissue ACL reconstruction and etiology and the clinical relevance has not been fully elucidated. Osteoconductive compounds are biomaterials providing an appropriate scaffold for bone formation such as a demineralized bone matrix. Osteoinductive materials contain growth factors stimulating bone lineage cells and bone growth. A possible application of osteoinductive/osteoconductive (OIC) material is in ACL surgery. We hypothesized that OIC placed in ACL bone tunnels: (1) reduces tunnel widening, (2) improves graft maturation, and (3) reduces tunnel ganglion cyst formation. To test this hypothesis, this study evaluated the osteogenic effects of demineralized bone matrix (DBM) and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) on tunnel widening, graft maturation, and ganglion cyst formation. This was a randomized controlled clinical trial pilot study. A total of 26 patients that elected to have ACL reconstruction surgery were randomized between the OIC and control group. Measurements of tunnel expansion and graft-tunnel incorporation were conducted via the quantitative image analysis of MRI scans performed at six months after surgery for both groups. No patients had adverse post-operative reactions or infections. The use of OIC significantly reduced tunnel widening (p < 0.05) and improved graft maturation (p < 0.05). Patients treated with OIC had a significantly lower prevalence of ganglion cyst compared to the control group (p < 0.05). The use of OIC has measurable effects on the reduction of tunnel widening, improved graft maturation, and decreased size of ganglion cyst after ACL reconstruction. This study explored the utilization of biologics to minimize bone tunnel widening in ACL reconstruction surgery. Full article
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11 pages, 812 KiB  
Article
Improved Healthcare Access Reduces Requirements for Surgery in Indigent IBD Patients Using Biologic Therapy: A ‘Safety-Net’ Hospital Experience
by Phillip Gu, Eric Clifford, Andrew Gilman, Christopher Chang, Elizabeth Moss, David I. Fudman, Phillip Kilgore, Urska Cvek, Marjan Trutschl, J. Steven Alexander, Ezra Burstein and Moheb Boktor
Pathophysiology 2022, 29(3), 383-393; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathophysiology29030030 - 18 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2066
Abstract
Low socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with greater morbidity and increased healthcare resource utilization (HRU) in IBD. We examined whether a financial assistance program (FAP) to improve healthcare access affected outcomes and HRU in a cohort of indigent IBD patients requiring biologics. IBD [...] Read more.
Low socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with greater morbidity and increased healthcare resource utilization (HRU) in IBD. We examined whether a financial assistance program (FAP) to improve healthcare access affected outcomes and HRU in a cohort of indigent IBD patients requiring biologics. IBD patients (>18 years) receiving care at a ‘safety-net’ hospital who initiated biologics as outpatients between 1 January 2010 and 1 January 2019 were included. Patients were divided by FAP status. Patients without FAP had Medicare, Medicaid, or commercial insurance. Primary outcomes were steroid-free clinical remission at 6 and 12 months. Secondary outcomes were surgery, hospitalization, and ED utilization. Multivariate logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Decision tree analysis (DTA) was also performed. We included 204 patients with 258 new biologic prescriptions. FAP patients had less complex Crohn’s disease (50.7% vs. 70%, p = 0.033) than non-FAP patients. FAP records indicated fewer prior surgeries (19.6% vs. 38.4% p = 0.003). There were no statistically significant differences in remission rates, disease duration, or days between prescription and receipt of biologics. In multivariable logistic regression, adjusting for baseline demographics and disease severity variables, FAP patients were less likely to undergo surgery (OR: 0.28, 95% CI [0.08–0.91], p = 0.034). DTA suggests that imaging utilization may shed light on surgical differences. We found FAP enrollment was associated with fewer surgeries in a cohort of indigent IBD patients requiring biologics. Further studies are needed to identify interventions to address healthcare disparities in IBD. Full article
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9 pages, 253 KiB  
Article
TG/HDL-C Ratio Is a Risk Factor Associated with CKD: Use in Assessing the Risk of Progression of CKD
by Ha Hong Nguyen, Ha Hai Tran, Le Thi Nguyen, Thang Nguyen, Nhut Anh Nguyen, Mai Tuyet Vi and Kien Trung Nguyen
Pathophysiology 2022, 29(3), 374-382; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathophysiology29030029 - 17 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2852
Abstract
Background: Dyslipidemia is highly prevalent in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and the relationship between dyslipidemia and renal function in these patients remains controversial. Our objectives were to determine the triglycerides/HDL-cholesterol ratio (TG/HDL-C), evaluate the correlation between TG/HDL-C and the urine albumin/creatinine [...] Read more.
Background: Dyslipidemia is highly prevalent in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and the relationship between dyslipidemia and renal function in these patients remains controversial. Our objectives were to determine the triglycerides/HDL-cholesterol ratio (TG/HDL-C), evaluate the correlation between TG/HDL-C and the urine albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR), and estimate the glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) according to MDRD in CKD patients. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on 152 patients with CKD at the Endocrine Clinic, the University of Medicine and Pharmacy Hospital, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Study subjects were medically examined and recorded information on the data collection form. Subjects were tested for total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-C, LDL-C, urea, creatinine and albumin, urine creatinine, and eGFR according to the MDRD formula. Data were analyzed using SPSS Statistics version 20.0. Results: The average age was 58.08 ± 15.69 years, and the overweight and obesity rate was 54%. Most patients had comorbidities, among which the most common diseases were hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Among the subjects, 57.3% were CKD stage 3 patients, and ACR was in the range of 30–300 mg/g. According to the classification of CKD using GFR and ACR categories, 40.8% of patients were at very high risk. The average TG/HDL-C ratio was 5.09 ± 4.26. There was a medium negative correlation between TG/HDL-C and eGFR (R = 0.44, p < 0.01) and a weak positive correlation between TG/HDL-C and ACR (R = 0.34, p < 0.01). Conclusions: The TG/HDL-C ratio was a risk factor associated with CKD and was noticeable in monitoring and assessing the risk of progression of CKD. Full article
9 pages, 733 KiB  
Article
Oral Preparation of Hyaluronic Acid, Chondroitin Sulfate, Curcumin, and Quercetin (Ialuril® Soft Gels) for the Prevention of LUTS after Intravesical Chemotherapy
by Celeste Manfredi, Lorenzo Spirito, Francesco Paolo Calace, Raffaele Balsamo, Marco Terribile, Marco Stizzo, Lorenzo Romano, Luigi Napolitano, Gianluigi Califano, Luigi Cirillo, Giovanni Maria Fusco, Claudia Rosati, Carmelo Quattrone, Carmine Sciorio, Massimiliano Creta, Nicola Longo, Marco De Sio and Davide Arcaniolo
Pathophysiology 2022, 29(3), 365-373; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathophysiology29030028 - 13 Jul 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2061
Abstract
Intravesical chemotherapy may cause chemical cystitis and related lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). The aims of this study were to evaluate the efficacy and safety of an oral preparation of hyaluronic acid (HA), chondroitin sulfate (CS), curcumin, and quercetin (Ialuril® Soft Gels) [...] Read more.
Intravesical chemotherapy may cause chemical cystitis and related lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). The aims of this study were to evaluate the efficacy and safety of an oral preparation of hyaluronic acid (HA), chondroitin sulfate (CS), curcumin, and quercetin (Ialuril® Soft Gels) to reduce the severity of LUTS in patients with a history of bladder cancer (BCa) undergoing intravesical chemotherapy. We designed a monocentric, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot trial. Patients referred to our institute between November 2016 and March 2018 were enrolled. All subjects had non-muscle-invasive BCa and received intravesical chemotherapy with mitomycin C (MMC). Patients were randomized 1:1 in two groups (intervention vs. control). All subjects underwent oral administration (Ialuril® Soft Gels or placebo) starting one week before the first weekly instillation and ending 30 days after the last one, subsequently starting one week before each monthly instillation and ending 14 days after it. International prostate symptom score (IPSS) and 0-100 visual analogue scale (VAS) were used to assess the efficacy of the treatment. Adverse events were also described. Patients were evaluated at baseline and after 1, 4, 7, and 13 months of intravesical chemotherapy. A total of 34 patients were enrolled. The median IPSS score was significantly lower in the intervention group compared to the control group at 4 (13 vs. 17 points; p = 0.038), 7 (10 vs. 18 points; p < 0.001), and 13 (10 vs. 17 points; p = 0.002) months. The median VAS score was significantly lower in the intervention group compared to the control group at 7 (22 vs. 37 points; p = 0.021) and 13 (20 vs. 35 points; p = 0.024) months. No AE specifically related to supplement or placebo was recorded. Oral formulation of HA, CS, quercetin, and curcumin could be an effective and safe supportive therapy against chemical cystitis in patients receiving intravesical chemotherapy for BCa. Full article
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11 pages, 291 KiB  
Article
Long-Term Preoperative Atorvastatin or Rosuvastatin Use in Adult Patients before CABG Does Not Increase Incidence of Postoperative Acute Kidney Injury: A Propensity Score-Matched Analysis
by Vladimir Shvartz, Eleonora Khugaeva, Yuri Kryukov, Maria Sokolskaya, Artak Ispiryan, Elena Shvartz, Andrey Petrosyan, Elizaveta Dorokhina, Leo Bockeria and Olga Bockeria
Pathophysiology 2022, 29(3), 354-364; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathophysiology29030027 - 11 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1999
Abstract
Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is among the expected complications of cardiac surgery. Statins with pleiotropic anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects may be effective in the prevention of AKI. However, the results of studies on the efficacy and safety of statins are varied and [...] Read more.
Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is among the expected complications of cardiac surgery. Statins with pleiotropic anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects may be effective in the prevention of AKI. However, the results of studies on the efficacy and safety of statins are varied and require further study. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study to evaluate long-term preoperative intake of atorvastatin and rosuvastatin on the incidence of AKI, based on the “Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes” (KDIGO) criteria in the early postoperative period after coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG). We performed propensity score matching to compare the findings in our study groups. The incidence of AKI was assessed on day 2 and day 4 after the surgery. Results: The analysis included 958 patients after CABG. After 1:1 individual matching, based on propensity score, the incidence of AKI was comparable both on day 2 after the surgery (7.4%) between the atorvastatin group and rosuvastatin group (6.5%) (OR: 1.182; 95%Cl 0.411–3.397; p = 0.794), and on postoperative day 4 between the atorvastatin group (3.7%) and the rosuvastatin group (4.6%) (OR: 0.723, 95%Cl 0.187–2.792; p = 0.739). Additionally, there were no statistically significant differences in terms of incidence of AKI after 1:1 individual matching, based on propensity score, between the rosuvastatin group and the control group both on postoperative day 2 (OR: 0.692; 95%Cl 0.252–1.899; p = 0.611) and day 4 (OR: 1.245; 95%Cl 0.525–2.953; p = 0.619); as well as between the atorvastatin group and the control group both on postoperative day 2 (OR: 0.549; 95%Cl 0.208–1.453; p = 0.240) and day 4 (OR: 0.580; 95%Cl 0.135–2.501; p = 0.497). Conclusion: Long-term statin use before CABG did not increase the incidence of postoperative AKI. Further, we revealed no difference in the incidence of post-CABG AKI between the atorvastatin and rosuvastatin groups. Full article
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10 pages, 1721 KiB  
Article
High Sucrose and Cholic Acid Diet Triggers PCOS-like Phenotype and Reduces Enterobacteriaceae Colonies in Female Wistar Rats
by I Made Putra Juliawan, Febie Putra Suwana, Jimmy Yanuar Annas, Muhammad Firman Akbar and Widjiati Widjiati
Pathophysiology 2022, 29(3), 344-353; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathophysiology29030026 - 8 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1971
Abstract
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a common hormonal disorder in women of reproductive age, is associated with a poor and unhealthy diet. This study aimed to investigate the effect of a high sucrose and cholic acid (HSCA) diet in the presence of PCOS-like phenotypes. [...] Read more.
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a common hormonal disorder in women of reproductive age, is associated with a poor and unhealthy diet. This study aimed to investigate the effect of a high sucrose and cholic acid (HSCA) diet in the presence of PCOS-like phenotypes. Female Wistar rats were divided into HSCA and normal diet groups for four weeks, each with twenty rats. Body weight was assessed before and after the study. Blood and fecal samples were obtained to measure HOMA-IR and testosterone level (ELISA) and Enterobacteriaceae isolates grown on MacConkey Agar. Obtained ovarian tissues were H&E-stained. HSCA rats demonstrated a reduction in Enterobacteriaceae colonies (median 4.75 × 105 vs. 2.47 × 104/CFU, p < 0.001) and an elevated HOMA-IR (mean 2.94 ± 1.30 vs. 4.92 ± 0.51, p < 0.001), as well as an increase in testosterone level (median 0.65 vs. 3.00 ng/mL, p < 0.001), despite no statistical differences in the change in body weight (mean −2.31 ± 14.42 vs. −3.45 ± 9.32, p = 0.769). In H&E staining, HSCA rats had a reduction in preovulatory follicle count (median 0.50 vs. 0.00, p = 0.005). The HSCA diet caused insulin resistance and high testosterone levels, which contribute to the development of PCOS, and affected folliculogenesis by altering follicular maturation, but had no effect on ovulation. Full article
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11 pages, 1695 KiB  
Article
Urinary Transthyretin as a Biomarker in ATTRv Val50Met Amyloidosis
by Hiroaki Matsushita, Yohei Misumi, Teruaki Masuda, Masamitsu Okada, Fumika Inoue, Mitsuharu Ueda and Yukio Ando
Pathophysiology 2022, 29(3), 333-343; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathophysiology29030025 - 29 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1916
Abstract
Transthyretin (TTR), the precursor protein for amyloidogenic TTR (ATTR) amyloidosis, forms tetramers and escapes glomerular filtration by binding with thyroxine and retinol-binding protein. However, variant TTRs are unstable as tetramers, so monomeric TTR has become the precursor protein of amyloid deposits, via protein [...] Read more.
Transthyretin (TTR), the precursor protein for amyloidogenic TTR (ATTR) amyloidosis, forms tetramers and escapes glomerular filtration by binding with thyroxine and retinol-binding protein. However, variant TTRs are unstable as tetramers, so monomeric TTR has become the precursor protein of amyloid deposits, via protein misfolding. The aim of the study was to evaluate the utility of urinary TTR in the diagnosis of ATTRv amyloidosis. Urinary samples from healthy volunteers, ATTRv V50M amyloidosis patients, and asymptomatic carriers of the ATTRv V50M gene were analysed using ELISA. To analyse the different forms of TTR secreted to the urine, we performed Western blotting and mass spectrometry. Urinary TTR concentrations were significantly higher in the ATTRv V50M amyloidosis patients than they were in the healthy volunteers and asymptomatic carriers of the gene. Although the TTR concentrations were negligible in the healthy volunteers, they were correlated with disease progression and urinary albumin concentrations in the ATTRv V50M amyloidosis patients. The Western blotting and mass spectrometry revealed the presence of monomeric wild-type and variant TTRs in the urine. Urinary TTR concentrations may become a more sensitive biomarker of ATTRv progression than albumin. Full article
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7 pages, 314 KiB  
Article
Increased Insulin Resistance in Hepatitis-C Infection—Association with Altered Hepatic Function Testing
by Praveen Raman Mishra, Akash Bharti, Ridhi Arora, Irfan Ahmad Mir and V. P. S. Punia
Pathophysiology 2022, 29(3), 326-332; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathophysiology29030024 - 21 Jun 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1965
Abstract
Introduction: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a serious global public health problem. It is estimated that 2% to 3% of the world’s population is infected with the virus. It was found that chronic hepatitis C is an independent predictor of the development [...] Read more.
Introduction: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a serious global public health problem. It is estimated that 2% to 3% of the world’s population is infected with the virus. It was found that chronic hepatitis C is an independent predictor of the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Infection with HCV or the inflammatory response to HCV infection likely contributes to the development of insulin resistance (IR), which increases the risk of developing type 2 diabetes in the long term. This study aimed to assess the insulin resistance in hepatitis C and its correlation with various metabolic parameters. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional observational study was conducted at a tertiary care hospital in North India in the Department of Internal Medicine with hepatitis C-positive patients attending an out-patient or in-patient department. We took a total of 100 patients aged > 18 years and divided them into two groups: Group A with hepatitis C (cases) and Group B without hepatitis C (controls). There were a total of 50 hepatitis C patients and 50 patients without hepatitis C. Results: A total of 100 patients were included in the present study after obtaining informed consent. There was a significantly higher level of serum ferritin and insulin in group A patients than group B patients. There was a positive correlation of insulin resistance with the serum insulin, ferritin levels, cholesterol, LDL and triglyceride level and a negative correlation with the serum HDL level. The incidence of insulin resistance was positively correlated with changes in fibrosis in the liver due to the hepatitis C infection. Conclusions: From our study, we found that there is an increased incidence of insulin resistance in the patients with hepatitis-C infection, and insulin resistance is associated with the presence of altered hepatic function test results. Full article
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