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Pathophysiology, Volume 29, Issue 2 (June 2022) – 11 articles

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7 pages, 248 KiB  
Article
Serum Ferritin in Metabolic Syndrome—Mechanisms and Clinical Applications
by Shrey Kumar Srivastav, Irfan Ahmad Mir, Naman Bansal, Pankaj Kumar Singh, Rashmi Kumari and Ajoy Deshmukh
Pathophysiology 2022, 29(2), 319-325; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathophysiology29020023 - 17 Jun 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 4311
Abstract
Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a cluster of conditions including central obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL cholesterol, hyperglycaemia, and hypertension with a prevalence rate of 20–25% of the world’s adult population. Metabolic syndrome is often characterized by insulin resistance, which some have suggested is a [...] Read more.
Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a cluster of conditions including central obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL cholesterol, hyperglycaemia, and hypertension with a prevalence rate of 20–25% of the world’s adult population. Metabolic syndrome is often characterized by insulin resistance, which some have suggested is a major supportive connection between physical inactivity and MS. Various studies suggest that moderately elevated iron and ferritin levels are associated with an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome and are markers of insulin resistance. Increased body iron stores are associated with the development of glucose intolerance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and insulin resistance syndrome (IRS). This is a hospital-based cross-sectional observational study, which was conducted in the department of internal medicine of a tertiary care hospital in northern India. The study was conducted from 1 January 2019 to 30 June 2020 and included 100 patients and 100 controls. All subjects in the age group of 35–65 years were enrolled and investigated as per the study design. Metabolic syndrome patients were diagnosed according to the modified National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel-III (NCEP ATP-III) with BMI > 23 kg/m2. All baseline investigations were undertaken, including serum ferritin levels. Insulin resistance (IR) was calculated using the homeostasis model assessment IR (HOMA-IR) formula. We found a positive association between an increase in serum ferritin with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its clinical parameter. The serum ferritin level was positively correlated with the level of insulin resistance and inversely correlated with the insulin level of the patients. Full article
21 pages, 349 KiB  
Review
Tuberculosis and Autoimmunity
by Irina V. Belyaeva, Anna N. Kosova and Andrei G. Vasiliev
Pathophysiology 2022, 29(2), 298-318; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathophysiology29020022 - 13 Jun 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2528 | Correction
Abstract
Tuberculosis remains a common and dangerous chronic bacterial infection worldwide. It is long-established that pathogenesis of many autoimmune diseases is mainly promoted by inadequate immune responses to bacterial agents, among them Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Tuberculosis is a multifaceted process having many different outcomes and [...] Read more.
Tuberculosis remains a common and dangerous chronic bacterial infection worldwide. It is long-established that pathogenesis of many autoimmune diseases is mainly promoted by inadequate immune responses to bacterial agents, among them Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Tuberculosis is a multifaceted process having many different outcomes and complications. Autoimmunity is one of the processes characteristic of tuberculosis; the presence of autoantibodies was documented by a large amount of evidence. The role of autoantibodies in pathogenesis of tuberculosis is not quite clear and widely disputed. They are regarded as: (1) a result of imbalanced immune response being reactive in nature, (2) a critical part of TB pathogenicity, (3) a beginning of autoimmune disease, (4) a protective mechanism helping to eliminate microbes and infected cells, and (5) playing dual role, pathogenic and protective. There is no single autoimmunity-mechanism development in tuberculosis; different pathways may be suggested. It may be excessive cell death and insufficient clearance of dead cells, impaired autophagy, enhanced activation of macrophages and dendritic cells, environmental influences such as vitamin D insufficiency, and genetic polymorphism, both of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and host. Full article
17 pages, 8662 KiB  
Article
SARS-CoV-2-Induced Pathology—Relevance to COVID-19 Pathophysiology
by Vsevolod A. Zinserling, Natalia Yu Semenova, Anastasia E. Bikmurzina, Natalia M. Kruglova, Oksana V. Rybalchenko and Alexander G. Markov
Pathophysiology 2022, 29(2), 281-297; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathophysiology29020021 - 10 Jun 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2215
Abstract
In spite of intensive studies of different aspects of a new coronavirus infection, many issues still remain unclear. In a screening analysis of histopathology in l200 lethal cases, authors succeeded in performing a wide spectrum of immune histochemical reactions (CD2, CD 3, CD [...] Read more.
In spite of intensive studies of different aspects of a new coronavirus infection, many issues still remain unclear. In a screening analysis of histopathology in l200 lethal cases, authors succeeded in performing a wide spectrum of immune histochemical reactions (CD2, CD 3, CD 4, CD 5, CD 7, CD 8, CD14, CD 20, CD 31, CD 34, CD 56, CD 57, CD 68, CD 163, collagen 1,3, spike protein SARS-CoV-2, caspase-3, MLCM; ACE2 receptor, occludin, and claudin-1 and -3) and electron microscopy. The results of the histological and IHC studies of deceased people with varying degrees of severity of coronavirus infection confirmed the ability of these pathogens to cause cytoproliferative changes, primarily in epithelial and endothelial cells. Lesions of various organs are possible, while the reasons for significant differences in organotropy remain unclear. Severe respiratory failure in COVID-19 in humans is associated with a very peculiar viral pneumonia. In the pathogenesis of COVID-19, the most important role is played by lesions of the microcirculatory bed, the genesis of which requires further study, but direct viral damage is most likely. Endothelial damage can be associated with both thrombosis in vessels of various calibers, leading to characteristic complications, and the development of DIC syndrome with maximal kidney damage. Such lesions can be the basis of clinically diagnosed septic shock, while usually there are no morphological data in favor of classical sepsis caused by bacteria or fungi. A massive infiltration of the lung tissue and other organs, mainly by T lymphocytes, including those with suppressor properties, makes it necessary to conduct a differential diagnosis between the morphological manifestation of the protective cellular immune response and direct viral lesions but does not exclude the hypothesis of an immunopathological component of pathogenesis. In many of the deceased, even in the absence of clear clinical symptoms, a variety of extrapulmonary lesions were also detected. The mechanism of their development probably has a complex nature: direct lesions associated with the generalization of viral infection and vascular disorders associated with endothelial damage and having an autoimmune nature. Many aspects of the pathogenesis of coronavirus infection require further comprehensive study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathophysiology of Autoimmune Diseases)
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38 pages, 6247 KiB  
Review
The Role of Exposomes in the Pathophysiology of Autoimmune Diseases II: Pathogens
by Aristo Vojdani, Elroy Vojdani, Avi Z. Rosenberg and Yehuda Shoenfeld
Pathophysiology 2022, 29(2), 243-280; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathophysiology29020020 - 3 Jun 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 7270
Abstract
In our continuing examination of the role of exposomes in autoimmune disease, we use this review to focus on pathogens. Infections are major contributors to the pathophysiology of autoimmune diseases through various mechanisms, foremost being molecular mimicry, when the structural similarity between the [...] Read more.
In our continuing examination of the role of exposomes in autoimmune disease, we use this review to focus on pathogens. Infections are major contributors to the pathophysiology of autoimmune diseases through various mechanisms, foremost being molecular mimicry, when the structural similarity between the pathogen and a human tissue antigen leads to autoimmune reactivity and even autoimmune disease. The three best examples of this are oral pathogens, SARS-CoV-2, and the herpesviruses. Oral pathogens reach the gut, disturb the microbiota, increase gut permeability, cause local inflammation, and generate autoantigens, leading to systemic inflammation, multiple autoimmune reactivities, and systemic autoimmunity. The COVID-19 pandemic put the spotlight on SARS-CoV-2, which has been called “the autoimmune virus.” We explore in detail the evidence supporting this. We also describe how viruses, in particular herpesviruses, have a role in the induction of many different autoimmune diseases, detailing the various mechanisms involved. Lastly, we discuss the microbiome and the beneficial microbiota that populate it. We look at the role of the gut microbiome in autoimmune disorders, because of its role in regulating the immune system. Dysbiosis of the microbiota in the gut microbiome can lead to multiple autoimmune disorders. We conclude that understanding the precise roles and relationships shared by all these factors that comprise the exposome and identifying early events and root causes of these disorders can help us to develop more targeted therapeutic protocols for the management of this worldwide epidemic of autoimmunity. Full article
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10 pages, 2128 KiB  
Article
Platelet Distribution Width and Increased D-Dimer at Admission Predicts Subsequent Development of ARDS in COVID-19 Patients
by Iviana P. Yovchevska, Alexandar B. Trenovski, Maria H. Atanasova, Martin N. Georgiev, Radka K. Tafradjiiska-Hadjiolova, Simeon D. Lazarov and Plamen H. Yovchevski
Pathophysiology 2022, 29(2), 233-242; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathophysiology29020019 - 1 Jun 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1974
Abstract
In the current pandemic of coronavirus disease (COVID-19), the identification of the patients admitted with severe infection–who are disposed to a high risk of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) development, is of a major significance for the determination of the appropriate therapeutic strategy. [...] Read more.
In the current pandemic of coronavirus disease (COVID-19), the identification of the patients admitted with severe infection–who are disposed to a high risk of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) development, is of a major significance for the determination of the appropriate therapeutic strategy. Laboratory records in admission were retrospectively reviewed from 493 cases of severe COVID-19 divided into two groups: Group 1 with ARDS and Group 2 without ARDS. The platelet distribution width (PDW) difference between Group 1 and Group 2 is significant–15.10 ± 2.08 fl for those who developed ARDS versus 12.94 ± 2.12 fl for those without ARDS. The sensitivity and the specificity of this parameter is lower than that of D-dimer. After grouping of the PDW values into intervals and combining them with the rate of increase in D-dimer (D-PDWf index) to form a forecasting index, a significant increase in the specificity and sensitivity of the two parameters is identified–area under the ROC curve (AUC) is 0.874 for D-PDWf index, with respective AUC for PDW 0.768 and AUC for D-dimer 0.777. Conclusion: PDW is a significant predictive parameter at admission for subsequent development of ARDS in patients, with increased significance in combination with the degree of increase in D-dimer. Full article
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10 pages, 1001 KiB  
Article
Chronic Cannabis Intoxication and Propofol-Induced Salivation: Causes and Considerations
by Allison Derise, Carey Ford, Nazar Hafiz, Sudha Pandit, Aditya Vyas, Samuel Igbinedion, James Morris, Paul Jordan, Qiang Cai and Jonathan Steven Alexander
Pathophysiology 2022, 29(2), 223-232; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathophysiology29020018 - 28 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 4936
Abstract
Legalization/decriminalization of cannabis will increase the numbers of patients who have had recent exposure to recreational or medical cannabis. Currently, little has been reported about potential interactions between cannabis use and Propofol anesthesia e.g., for oropharyngeal procedures. We describe three cases of ‘cannabis-induced [...] Read more.
Legalization/decriminalization of cannabis will increase the numbers of patients who have had recent exposure to recreational or medical cannabis. Currently, little has been reported about potential interactions between cannabis use and Propofol anesthesia e.g., for oropharyngeal procedures. We describe three cases of ‘cannabis-induced hypersalivation after propofol’ (CHAP) and present our institutions’ experience with this unique pharmacological combination. Increased hypersalivation may complicate procedures and represent a procedural risk of suffocation. We evaluate possible pharmacological interactions that might underlie this phenomenon and consider management options going forward. Full article
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23 pages, 686 KiB  
Review
Metabolomics and EMT Markers of Breast Cancer: A Crosstalk and Future Perspective
by Ajay Kumar Pal, Prateek Sharma, Alishan Zia, Deepali Siwan, Dipali Nandave, Mukesh Nandave and Rupesh K. Gautam
Pathophysiology 2022, 29(2), 200-222; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathophysiology29020017 - 27 May 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 5315
Abstract
Cancer cells undergo transient EMT and MET phenomena or vice versa, along with the parallel interplay of various markers, often correlated as the determining factor in decoding metabolic profiling of breast cancers. Moreover, various cancer signaling pathways and metabolic changes occurring in breast [...] Read more.
Cancer cells undergo transient EMT and MET phenomena or vice versa, along with the parallel interplay of various markers, often correlated as the determining factor in decoding metabolic profiling of breast cancers. Moreover, various cancer signaling pathways and metabolic changes occurring in breast cancer cells modulate the expression of such markers to varying extents. The existing research completed so far considers the expression of such markers as determinants regulating the invasiveness and survival of breast cancer cells. Therefore, this manuscript is crosstalk among the expression levels of such markers and their correlation in regulating the aggressiveness and invasiveness of breast cancer. We also attempted to cover the possible EMT-based metabolic targets to retard migration and invasion of breast cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Metabolomics and Applications in Chronic Diseases)
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13 pages, 2034 KiB  
Article
Chronic Fatigue Exhibits Heterogeneous Autoimmunity Characteristics Which Reflect Etiology
by Olga V. Danilenko, Natalia Y. Gavrilova and Leonid P. Churilov
Pathophysiology 2022, 29(2), 187-199; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathophysiology29020016 - 25 May 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 4085
Abstract
Chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) is considered to be associated with post-viral complications and mental stress, but the role of autoimmunity also remains promising. A comparison of autoimmune profiles in chronic fatigue of different origin may bring insights on the pathogenesis of this [...] Read more.
Chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) is considered to be associated with post-viral complications and mental stress, but the role of autoimmunity also remains promising. A comparison of autoimmune profiles in chronic fatigue of different origin may bring insights on the pathogenesis of this disease. Thirty-three patients with CFS/ME were divided into three subgroups. The first group included Herpesviridae carriers (group V), the second group included stress-related causes of chronic fatigue (distress, group D), and the third group included idiopathic CFS/ME (group I). Were evaluated thirty-six neural and visceral autoantigens with the ELISA ELI-test (Biomarker, Russia) and compared to 20 healthy donors, either without any fatigue (group H), or “healthy but tired” (group HTd) with episodes of fatigue related to job burnout not fitting the CFS/ME criteria. β2-glycoprotein-I autoantibodies were increased in CFS/ME patients, but not in healthy participants, that alludes the link between CFS/ME and antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) earlier suspected by Berg et al. (1999). In CFS/ME patients, an increase in levels of autoantibodies towards the non-specific components of tissue debris (double-stranded DNA, collagen) was shown. Both CFS and HTd subgroups had elevated level of autoantibodies against serotonin receptors, glial fibrillary acidic protein and protein S100. Only group V showed an elevation in the autoantibodies towards voltage-gated calcium channels, and only group D had elevated levels of dopamine-, glutamate- and GABA-receptor autoantibodies, as well as NF200-protein autoantibodies. Therefore, increased autoimmune reactions to the multiple neural antigens and to adrenal medullar antigen, but not to other tissue-specific somatic ones were revealed. An increase in autoantibody levels towards some neural and non-tissue-specific antigens strongly correlated with a CFS/ME diagnosis. Autoimmune reactions were described in all subtypes of the clinically significant chronic fatigue. Visceral complaints in CFS/ME patients may be secondary to the neuroendocrine involvement and autoimmune dysautonomia. CFS may be closely interrelated with antiphospholipid syndrome, that requires further study. Full article
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14 pages, 2474 KiB  
Article
The Expression Level of ABCC6 Transporter in Colon Cancer Cells Correlates with the Activation of Different Intracellular Signaling Pathways
by Vittorio Abruzzese, Caecilia H. C. Sukowati, Claudio Tiribelli, Ilenia Matera, Angela Ostuni and Faustino Bisaccia
Pathophysiology 2022, 29(2), 173-186; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathophysiology29020015 - 12 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1978
Abstract
The ATP-binding cassette sub-family C member 6 transporter (ABCC6) is mainly found in the basolateral plasma membrane of hepatic and kidney cells. In hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells, ABCC6 was involved in cell migration. In the present study, we investigated the role of ABCC6 in [...] Read more.
The ATP-binding cassette sub-family C member 6 transporter (ABCC6) is mainly found in the basolateral plasma membrane of hepatic and kidney cells. In hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells, ABCC6 was involved in cell migration. In the present study, we investigated the role of ABCC6 in colon cancer evaluating the effect of Quercetin and Probenecid, inhibitors of the ectonucleotidase NT5E and ABCC6, respectively, on migration rate of Caco2 and HT29 cell lines. Both drugs reduced cell migration analyzed by scratch test. Gene and protein expression were evaluated by quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) and Western blot, respectively. In Caco2 cells, in which ABCC6 is significantly expressed, the addition of ATP restored motility, suggesting the involvement of P2 receptors. Contrary to HT29 cells, where the expression of ABCC6 is negligible but remarkable to the level of NT5E, no effect of ATP addition was detected, suggesting a main role on their migration by the phosphatidylinositol 3′-kinase (PI3K)/Akt system. Therefore, in some colon cancers in which ABCC6 is overexpressed, it may have a primary role in controlling the extracellular purinergic system by feeding it with ATP, thus representing a potential target for a therapy aimed at mitigating invasiveness of those type of cancers. Full article
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16 pages, 1580 KiB  
Article
Transthoracic Echocardiography-Based Prediction Model of Adverse Event Risk in Patients with COVID-19
by Elena Zelikovna Golukhova, Inessa Viktorovna Slivneva, Maxim Leonidovich Mamalyga, Damir Ildarovich Marapov, Mikhail Nikolaevich Alekhin, Mikhail Mikhailovich Rybka and Irina Vasilevna Volkovskaya
Pathophysiology 2022, 29(2), 157-172; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathophysiology29020014 - 26 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2322
Abstract
Cardiopulmonary disorders cause a significant increase in the risk of adverse events in patients with COVID-19. Therefore, the development of new diagnostic and treatment methods for comorbid disorders in COVID-19 patients is one of the main public health challenges. The aim of the [...] Read more.
Cardiopulmonary disorders cause a significant increase in the risk of adverse events in patients with COVID-19. Therefore, the development of new diagnostic and treatment methods for comorbid disorders in COVID-19 patients is one of the main public health challenges. The aim of the study was to analyze patient survival and to develop a predictive model of survival in adults with COVID-19 infection based on transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) parameters. We conducted a prospective, single-center, temporary hospital-based study of 110 patients with moderate to severe COVID-19. All patients underwent TTE evaluation. The predictors of mortality we identified in univariate and multivariable models and the predictive performance of the model were assessed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and area under the curve (AUC). The predictive model included three factors: right ventricle (RV)/left ventricle (LV) area (odds ratio (OR) = 1.048 per 1/100 increase, p = 0.03), systolic pulmonary artery pressure (sPAP) (OR = 1.209 per 1 mm Hg increase, p < 0.001), and right ventricle free wall longitudinal strain (RV FW LS) (OR = 0.873 per 1% increase, p = 0.036). The AUC-ROC of the obtained model was 0.925 ± 0.031 (95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.863–0.986). The sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) measures of the models at the cut-off point of 0.129 were 93.8% and 81.9%, respectively. A binary logistic regression method resulted in the development of a prognostic model of mortality in patients with moderate and severe COVID-19 based on TTE data. It may also have additional implications for early risk stratification and clinical decision making in patients with COVID-19. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Human Anatomy and Pathophysiology)
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14 pages, 901 KiB  
Article
Hsa-Mir-320c, Hsa-Mir-200c-3p, and Hsa-Mir-449c-5p as Potential Specific miRNA Biomarkers of COPD: A Pilot Study
by Noemi Cerón-Pisa, Amanda Iglesias, Hanaa Shafiek, Aina Martín-Medina, Margalida Esteva-Socias, Josep Muncunill, Aarne Fleischer, Javier Verdú, Borja G. Cosío and Jaume Sauleda
Pathophysiology 2022, 29(2), 143-156; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathophysiology29020013 - 29 Mar 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2684
Abstract
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic inflammatory disease commonly induced by cigarette smoke. The expression of miRNAs can be altered in patients with COPD and could be used as a biomarker. We aimed to identify a panel of miRNAs in bronchoalveolar [...] Read more.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic inflammatory disease commonly induced by cigarette smoke. The expression of miRNAs can be altered in patients with COPD and could be used as a biomarker. We aimed to identify a panel of miRNAs in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) to differentiate COPD patients from smokers and non-smokers with normal lung function. Accordingly, forty-five subjects classified as COPD, smokers, and non-smokers (n = 15 per group) underwent clinical, functional characterization and bronchoscopy with BAL. The mean age of the studied population was 61.61 ± 12.95 years, BMI 25.72 ± 3.82 Kg/m2, FEV1/FVC 68.37 ± 12.00%, and FEV1 80.07 ± 23.63% predicted. According to microarray analysis, three miRNAs of the most upregulated were chosen: miR-320c, miR-200c-3p, and miR-449c-5p. These miRNAs were validated by qPCR and were shown to be differently expressed in COPD patients. ROC analysis showed that these three miRNAs together had an area under the curve of 0.89 in differentiating COPD from controls. Moreover, in silico analysis of candidate miRNAs by DIANA-miRPath showed potential involvement in the EGFR and Hippo pathways. These results suggest a specific 3-miRNA signature that could be potentially used as a biomarker to distinguish COPD patients from smokers and non-smoker subjects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Human Anatomy and Pathophysiology)
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