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Pathophysiology, Volume 29, Issue 1 (March 2022) – 12 articles

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9 pages, 1065 KiB  
Article
sPAP/PAAT Ratio as a New Index of Pulmonary Vascular Load: A Study in Normal Subjects and Ssc Patients with and without PH
by Walter Serra and Alfredo Chetta
Pathophysiology 2022, 29(1), 134-142; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathophysiology29010012 - 15 Mar 2022
Viewed by 2161
Abstract
In pulmonary hypertension (PH), the development of right ventricular (RV) dilatation and RV failure are signs of accelerated progression of the disease, resulting in an increased risk of cardiac death. Even the noninvasive assessment of systolic blood pressure in the pulmonary artery undertaken [...] Read more.
In pulmonary hypertension (PH), the development of right ventricular (RV) dilatation and RV failure are signs of accelerated progression of the disease, resulting in an increased risk of cardiac death. Even the noninvasive assessment of systolic blood pressure in the pulmonary artery undertaken by echocardiography does not provide a measure of ventricle–pulmonary interaction. Some studies have shown the potential for echocardiography to indirectly evaluate pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and the acceleration time of pulmonary outflow (PAAT). We used systolic pulmonary artery pressure (sPAP) and pulmonary vascular resistance to develop an sPAP/PAAT ratio (strength/surface unit)/(time) for this study. From January 2017 to December 2018, 60 healthy subjects and 63 patients with systemic scleroderma (Ssc) (60 females, 3 males), 27 with PH and 36 without PH at two-dimensional echocardiographic/Doppler, were screened. In normal subjects, the mean sPAP/PAAT ratio was 0.26 ± 0.063, which indicated optimal pulmonary arterial ventricle coupling and biventricular function. The data derived from the analysis of the Ssc patients showed that those presenting pre-capillary PH at cardiac catheterization had an sPAP/PAAT ratio of 0.40 ± 0.05. There was a significant correlation between sPAP/PAAT with Walk Distance (WD) and PVR, but not with TAPSE. Interobserver variability was less than 5%. The sPAP/PAAT ratio is a new parameter that may indicate pulmonary vascular afterload and interaction, both in normal subjects and in patients with Ssc and PH. Full article
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16 pages, 1487 KiB  
Article
Daytime Exposure to Blue Light Alters Cardiovascular Circadian Rhythms, Electrolyte Excretion and Melatonin Production
by Anna A. Bryk, Mikhail L. Blagonravov, Vyacheslav A. Goryachev, Sergey M. Chibisov, Madina M. Azova and Sergey P. Syatkin
Pathophysiology 2022, 29(1), 118-133; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathophysiology29010011 - 14 Mar 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3280
Abstract
Artificial light is characterized by certain features of its impact on the body in terms of its spectral distribution of power, duration of exposure and intensity. Short waves, perceived as blue light, are the strongest synchronizing agent for the circadian system. In the [...] Read more.
Artificial light is characterized by certain features of its impact on the body in terms of its spectral distribution of power, duration of exposure and intensity. Short waves, perceived as blue light, are the strongest synchronizing agent for the circadian system. In the present work, we investigated the features of the circadian rhythms of blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), the excretion of electrolytes and the secretion of melatonin in normotensive (Wistar–Kyoto) and hypertensive (SHR) rats under the action of monochromatic blue light in the daytime period. It was found that the exposure of Wistar–Kyoto rats to monochromatic blue light was accompanied by a significant decrease in nighttime and 24 h systolic BP. The most remarkable changes are characteristic of the HR in SHR rats under monochromatic light. A significant decrease in HR in each time period was found, but the predominance of nighttime over daytime values remained in SHR animals. There was also a significant increase in the mesor of the HR in SHR rats. Additionally, the amplitude of diastolic BP and HR, as well as the range of oscillations in HR, were significantly increased compared with the standard light pattern. In contrast to SHR rats, the regulation of the circadian rhythms in Wistar–Kyoto rats was more flexible and presented more changes, which may be aimed at the adaptation of the body to environmental conditions. For Wistar–Kyoto rats, an increase in the level of excreted electrolytes was observed under the action of monochromatic light, but no similar changes were found in SHR rats. For Wistar–Kyoto rats, a significant decrease in the urine concentration of aMT6s in the daytime and nighttime periods is characteristic, which results in the loss of the circadian rhythm. In SHR rats, there was a significant decrease in the nighttime content of aMT6s in the urine, while the daytime concentration, on the contrary, increased. The obtained data demonstrate that prolonged exposure to monochromatic blue light in the daytime period affects the circadian structure of the rhythms of the cardiovascular system, the rhythm of electrolyte excretion and the production of epiphyseal melatonin in wild-type and hypertensive animals. In SHR rats, the rhythms of BP and HR exhibit a more rigid pattern. Full article
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12 pages, 272 KiB  
Article
Predictors of Mortality Following Aortic Valve Replacement in Aortic Stenosis Patients
by Vladimir Shvartz, Maria Sokolskaya, Andrey Petrosyan, Artak Ispiryan, Sergey Donakanyan, Leo Bockeria and Olga Bockeria
Pathophysiology 2022, 29(1), 106-117; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathophysiology29010010 - 9 Mar 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2679
Abstract
Background: Understanding of the risk factors for the development of adverse outcomes after aortic valve replacement is necessary to develop timely preventive measures and to improve the results of surgical treatment. Methods: We analyzed patients with aortic stenosis (n = 742) who [...] Read more.
Background: Understanding of the risk factors for the development of adverse outcomes after aortic valve replacement is necessary to develop timely preventive measures and to improve the results of surgical treatment. Methods: We analyzed patients with aortic stenosis (n = 742) who underwent surgical treatment in the period 2014–2020. The average age was 63 (57;69) years—men 58%, women 42%. Results: The hospital mortality rate was 3% (22 patients). The following statistically significant threshold values (cut-off points) were obtained in the ROC analysis: aortic cross-clamp time > 93 min AUC (CI) 0.676 (0.640–0.710), p = 0.010; cardiopulmonary bypass time > 144 min AUC (CI) 0.809 (0.778–0.837), p < 0.0001, hemoglobin before op <120 g/L. AUC (CI) 0.762 (0.728–0.793), p < 0.0001, hematocrit before op <39% AUC (CI) 0.755 (0.721–0.786), p < 0.001, end-diastolic dimension index >2.39 AUC (CI) 0.647 (0.607–0.686), p = 0.014, end-systolic dimension index > 1.68 AUC (CI) 0.657 (0.617–0.695), p = 0.009. Statistically significant independent predictors of hospital mortality were identified: BMI > 30 kg/m2 (OR 2.84; CI 1.15–7.01), ischemic heart disease (OR 3.65; CI 1.01–13.2), diabetes (OR 3.88; CI 1.38–10.9), frequent ventricular ectopy before operation (OR 9.78; CI 1.91–50.2), mitral valve repair (OR 4.47; CI 1.76–11.3), tricuspid valve repair (OR 3.06; CI 1.09–8.58), 3 and more procedures (OR 4.44; CI 1.67–11.8). Conclusions: The hospital mortality rate was 3%. The main indicators associated with the risk of death were: diabetes, overweight (body mass index more than 30 kg/m2), frequent ventricular ectopy before surgery, hemoglobin level below 120 g/L, hematocrit level below 39%, longer cardiopulmonary bypass time and aortic cross-clamp time, additional mitral and tricuspid valve interventions. Full article
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14 pages, 315 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Antibacterial and Antiviral Drug Effectiveness in COVID-19 Therapy: A Data-Driven Retrospective Approach
by Rika Yulia, Putri Ayu Irma Ikasanti, Fauna Herawati, Ruddy Hartono, Puri Safitri Hanum, Lestiono, Dewi Ramdani, Abdul Kadir Jaelani, Kevin Kantono and Heru Wijono
Pathophysiology 2022, 29(1), 92-105; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathophysiology29010009 - 7 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2740
Abstract
The clinical manifestations associated with COVID-19 disease is mainly due to a dysregulated host response related to the overexpression of inflammatory markers. Until recently, only remdesivir had gained FDA approval for COVID-19 hospitalized patients and there are currently no evidence-based therapeutic options or [...] Read more.
The clinical manifestations associated with COVID-19 disease is mainly due to a dysregulated host response related to the overexpression of inflammatory markers. Until recently, only remdesivir had gained FDA approval for COVID-19 hospitalized patients and there are currently no evidence-based therapeutic options or options for prevention of complications that have been established. Some medical treatments such as antivirals, antibacterials, antithrombotics, antipyretics, corticosteroids, interleukin inhibitors, monoclonal antibodies, convalescent plasma, immunostimulants, and vitamin supplements have been utilized. However, there are limited data to support their effectiveness. Hence, this study was attempted to identify and evaluate the effectiveness of antibacterials and antivirals used for COVID-19 using a retrospective cross-sectional approach based on the medical records of adult patients in four hospitals. The number of antibacterials was calculated in defined daily dose (DDD) per 100 bed-days unit. Both mixed-logit regression and analysis of covariance were used to determine the effectiveness of the aforementioned agents in relation to COVID-19 outcome and patients’ length of stay. The model was weighed accordingly and covariates (e.g., age) were considered in the model. Heart disease was found to be the most common pre-existing condition of COVID-19 hospitalized patients in this study. Azithromycin, an antibacterial in the Watch category list, was used extensively (33–65 DDD per 100 bed-days). Oseltamivir, an antiviral approved by the FDA for influenza was the most prescribed antiviral. In addition, favipiravir was found to be a significant factor in improving patients’ COVID-19 outcomes and decreasing their length of stay. This study strongly suggests that COVID-19 patients’ received polypharmacy for their treatment. However, most of the drugs used did not reach statistical significance in improving the patients’ condition or decreasing the length of stay. Further studies to support drug use are needed. Full article
11 pages, 602 KiB  
Article
Polymorphism in Adiponectin and Adiponectin Receptor Genes in Diabetes Mellitus Pathogenesis
by Iuliana Shramko, Elizaveta Ageeva, Eugene Krutikov, Konstantin Maliy, Irina Repinskaya, Iryna Fomochkina, Anatolii Kubishkin, Anna Gurtovaya, Cyrill Tarimov and Suman Shekhar
Pathophysiology 2022, 29(1), 81-91; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathophysiology29010008 - 28 Feb 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2456
Abstract
The role played by hereditary factors in the development of diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) has not yet been fully established. Therefore, the purpose of our study was to investigate the prevalence of adiponectin and polymorphism in its gene receptors in connection with [...] Read more.
The role played by hereditary factors in the development of diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) has not yet been fully established. Therefore, the purpose of our study was to investigate the prevalence of adiponectin and polymorphism in its gene receptors in connection with the primary symptoms of DM2 pathogenesis. Genomic DNA was isolated from the whole blood of 94 patients with an established diagnosis of DM2 using the phenol–chloroform method. Gene polymorphisms were determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The most common polymorphic variants in patients with DM2 were the genotypes AA (rs11061971) and GG (rs16928751) on the ADIPOR2 gene. A strong correlation was found between the rs16928751 polymorphism on the ADIPOR2 gene and increased body mass index (BMI). TG (rs2275737) ADIPOR1 gene genotype carriers were found to have the highest levels of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1), whereas TT (rs2275738) caused stable hyperglycemia. In addition, the rs16928751 ADIPOR2 gene polymorphism showed an association with the development of key mechanisms of DM2 in the Russian population, although a number of genomic searches failed to show any association of this gene with DM2. Unique gene variants associated with the risk of developing DM2 in the Crimean population were established. Full article
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15 pages, 1276 KiB  
Article
Mapping Research on miRNAs in Cancer: A Global Data Analysis and Bibliometric Profiling Analysis
by Peter Shaw, Kartik Lokhotiya, Chellan Kumarasamy, Krishnan Sunil, Deepa Suresh, Sameep Shetty, Gothandam Kodiveri Muthukaliannan, Siddhartha Baxi, Ravishankar Ram Mani, Palanisamy Sivanandy, Harish C. Chandramoorthy, Madan Mohan Gupta, Suja Samiappan and Rama Jayaraj
Pathophysiology 2022, 29(1), 66-80; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathophysiology29010007 - 25 Feb 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3035
Abstract
miRNAs biomarkers are emerging as an essential part of clinical oncology. Their oncogenic and tumour suppressor properties playing a role in malignancy has generated interest in their potential for use in disease prognosis. While several studies on miRNA have been carried out across [...] Read more.
miRNAs biomarkers are emerging as an essential part of clinical oncology. Their oncogenic and tumour suppressor properties playing a role in malignancy has generated interest in their potential for use in disease prognosis. While several studies on miRNA have been carried out across the globe, evaluating the clinical implications of miRNAs in cancer diagnosis and prognosis research has currently not been attempted. A study delineating the area of miRNA research, including the topics presently being focused on, the seminal papers in this field, and the direction of research interest, does not exist. This study aims to conduct a large-scale, global data analysis and bibliometric profiling analysis of studies to evaluate the research output of clinical implications of miRNAs in cancer diagnosis and prognosis listed in the SCOPUS database. A systematic search strategy was followed to identify and extract all relevant studies, subsequently analysed to generate a bibliometric map. SPSS software (version 27) was used to calculate bibliometric indicators or parameters for analysis, such as year and country of affiliation with leading authors, journals, and institutions. It is also used to analyse annual research outputs, including total citations and the number of times it has been cited with productive nations and H-index. The number of global research articles retrieved for miRNA-Cancer research over the study period 2003 to 2019 was 18,636. Between 2012 and 2019, the growth rate of global publications is six times (n = 15,959; 90.71 percent articles) that of 2003 to 2011. (2704; 9.29 per cent articles). China published the most publications in the field of miRNA in cancer (n = 7782; 41%), while the United States had the most citations (n = 327,538; 48%) during the time span. Of these journals, Oncotarget has the highest percentage of article publications. The journal Cancer Research had the most citations (n = 41,876), with 6.20 per cent (n = 41,876). This study revealed a wide variety of journals in which miRNA-Cancer research are published; these bibliometric parameters exhibit crucial clinical information on performance assessment of research productivity and quality of research output. Therefore, this study provides a helpful reference for clinical oncologists, cancer scientists, policy decision-makers and clinical data researchers. Full article
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14 pages, 4129 KiB  
Article
Adhesion Molecules ICAM-1 and PECAM-1 as Potential Biomarkers of Central Nervous System Damage in Women Breast Cancer Survivors
by Maria Pospelova, Varvara Krasnikova, Olga Fionik, Tatyana Alekseeva, Konstantin Samochernykh, Nataliya Ivanova, Nikita Trofimov, Tatyana Vavilova, Elena Vasilieva, Mariya Topuzova, Alexandra Chaykovskaya, Albina Makhanova, Tatyana Bukkieva, Evgeniya Kayumova, Stephanie Combs and Maxim Shevtsov
Pathophysiology 2022, 29(1), 52-65; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathophysiology29010006 - 16 Feb 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2663
Abstract
Breast cancer (BC) is the most common tumor in women worldwide with high mortality rates. Surgical methods followed by radio–chemotherapy are used to treat these tumors. Such treatment can lead to various side effects, including neurological complications. The development of a reliable biomarker [...] Read more.
Breast cancer (BC) is the most common tumor in women worldwide with high mortality rates. Surgical methods followed by radio–chemotherapy are used to treat these tumors. Such treatment can lead to various side effects, including neurological complications. The development of a reliable biomarker to predict the onset of CNS complications could improve clinical outcomes. In the current study, ICAM-1 and PECAM-1 serum levels were measured as potential biomarkers in 45 female patients in a long-term follow-up period after breast cancer treatment, and compared to 25 age-matched female healthy volunteers. Serum levels of both biomarkers, ICAM-1 and PECAM-1 were significantly higher in patients after breast cancer treatment and could be associated with cognitive dysfunction, depression, and vestibulocerebellar ataxia. In conclusion, our results provide a first hint that elevated serum levels of ICAM-1 and PECAM-1 could serve as early predictive biomarkers in breast cancer survivors that might help to improve the management of these patients. Full article
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20 pages, 1472 KiB  
Article
Oxidative Stress and Free Radical Processes in Tumor and Non-Tumor Obstructive Jaundice: Influence of Disease Duration, Severity and Surgical Treatment on Outcomes
by Ekaterina Vladimirovna Silina, Victor Alexandrovich Stupin, Igor Sergeevich Abramov, Sergey Brankovich Bolevich, Gouri Deshpande, Raghu Ram Achar and Tatiana Georgievna Sinelnikova
Pathophysiology 2022, 29(1), 32-51; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathophysiology29010005 - 31 Jan 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2635
Abstract
The aim of this study was to assess the patterns and pattern disruptions of free radical processes in patients with obstructive jaundice of various origins, and the severity of jaundice before and after decompression. Oxidative stress markers were determined in 128 patients with [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to assess the patterns and pattern disruptions of free radical processes in patients with obstructive jaundice of various origins, and the severity of jaundice before and after decompression. Oxidative stress markers were determined in 128 patients with obstructive jaundice with a tumor genesis (23.4%) or non-tumor genesis (76.6%). The patients were hospitalized at different stages of clinical signs of jaundice. We studied the anti-peroxide activity in plasma, basal and stimulated indicators of the chemiluminescence intensity in leukocytes, leukocyte activity coefficients reflecting the level of reactive oxygen species generated by leukocytes, malondialdehyde levels indicative of the degree of lipid peroxidation and cellular destruction, liver enzymes (markers of cytolysis) and bilirubin levels. Data for hepatocyte death and markers of oxidative stress correlated with the severity of jaundice, its duration and the method of its surgical correction. It is proposed that using markers of free radical processes to assess the prognosis and effectiveness of treatment and to personalize treatment measures will improve the results of jaundice treatment. Full article
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2 pages, 153 KiB  
Editorial
Acknowledgment to Reviewers of Pathophysiology in 2021
by Pathophysiology Editorial Office
Pathophysiology 2022, 29(1), 30-31; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathophysiology29010004 - 28 Jan 2022
Viewed by 1602
Abstract
Rigorous peer-reviews are the basis of high-quality academic publishing [...] Full article
6 pages, 242 KiB  
Article
New Clinical Phenotype of the Post-Covid Syndrome: Fibromyalgia and Joint Hypermobility Condition
by Natalia Gavrilova, Lidiia Soprun, Maria Lukashenko, Varvara Ryabkova, Tamara V. Fedotkina, Leonid P. Churilov and Yehuda Shoenfeld
Pathophysiology 2022, 29(1), 24-29; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathophysiology29010003 - 19 Jan 2022
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 7033
Abstract
Fibromyalgia can be defined as a chronic pain condition, affecting the musculoskeletal system, etiology and pathophysiology of which is sufficiently understudied. Despite the fact that many authors consider this entity to be a manifestation of central sensitization, and not an autoimmune disease, the [...] Read more.
Fibromyalgia can be defined as a chronic pain condition, affecting the musculoskeletal system, etiology and pathophysiology of which is sufficiently understudied. Despite the fact that many authors consider this entity to be a manifestation of central sensitization, and not an autoimmune disease, the high prevalence of fibromyalgia in patients with post-COVID-19 conditions requires taking a fresh look at the causes of the disease development. During the patient examination, the authors identified a combination of symptoms that occurs so often, that they can be carefully described as a clinical pattern. These manifestations include young age, female gender, joint hypermobility, the onset of pain after COVID-19, physical traumatization of one particular tendon and the development of the fibromyalgia pain syndrome during the next several weeks. As well as an increase in the titer of antinuclear antibodies and some other systemic inflammation factors. It can be assumed with great caution that local damage to the connective tissue in patients with joint hypermobility, having COVID-19 as a trigger factor can lead to the development of fibromyalgia syndrome. This article presents three clinical cases that illustrated this hypothesis. Full article
15 pages, 2182 KiB  
Article
Angiopoietin-Like Protein 4 and Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 Expression in Invasive Breast Carcinoma in Young Women
by Zaleha Kamaludin, Alaa Siddig, Najib Majdi Yaacob, Alfred K. Lam and Wan Faiziah Wan Abdul Rahman
Pathophysiology 2022, 29(1), 9-23; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathophysiology29010002 - 13 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2672
Abstract
Biomarker identification is imperative for invasive breast carcinoma, which is more aggressive and associated with higher mortality and worse prognosis in younger patients (<45 years) than in older patients (>50 years). The current study aimed to investigate angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) and insulin-like [...] Read more.
Biomarker identification is imperative for invasive breast carcinoma, which is more aggressive and associated with higher mortality and worse prognosis in younger patients (<45 years) than in older patients (>50 years). The current study aimed to investigate angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) protein expression in breast tissue from young patients with breast carcinoma. Immunohistochemical staining was applied in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples of breast carcinoma tissue from young patients aged <45 years at the time of diagnosis. Both proteins were expressed in the majority of cases. The highest frequency of positive ANGPTL4 and IGF-1 expression was observed in the luminal A subtype, whereas the HER2-overexpression subtype exhibited the lowest expression frequency for both proteins. There was no significant association between ANGPTL4 (p = 0.897) and IGF-1 (p = 0.091) expression and molecular subtypes of breast carcinoma. The histological grade was a significant predictor of ANGPTL4 expression (grade 1 vs. grade 3, adjusted odds ratio = 12.39, p = 0.040). Therefore, ANGPTL-4 and IGF-1 expressions are common in young breast carcinoma tissue. There is a potential use of them as biomarkers in breast carcinoma. Full article
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8 pages, 3368 KiB  
Review
Corneal Confocal Microscopy in the Diagnosis of Small Fiber Neuropathy: Faster, Easier, and More Efficient Than Skin Biopsy?
by Mariia V. Lukashenko, Natalia Y. Gavrilova, Anna V. Bregovskaya, Lidiia A. Soprun, Leonid P. Churilov, Ioannis N. Petropoulos, Rayaz A Malik and Yehuda Shoenfeld
Pathophysiology 2022, 29(1), 1-8; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathophysiology29010001 - 26 Dec 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3617
Abstract
Chronic pain may affect 30–50% of the world’s population and an important cause is small fiber neuropathy (SFN). Recent research suggests that autoimmune diseases may be one of the most common causes of small nerve fiber damage. There is low awareness of SFN [...] Read more.
Chronic pain may affect 30–50% of the world’s population and an important cause is small fiber neuropathy (SFN). Recent research suggests that autoimmune diseases may be one of the most common causes of small nerve fiber damage. There is low awareness of SFN among patients and clinicians and it is difficult to diagnose as routine electrophysiological methods only detect large fiber abnormalities, and specialized small fiber tests, like skin biopsy and quantitative sensory testing, are not routinely available. Corneal confocal microscopy (CCM) is a rapid, non-invasive, reproducible method for quantifying small nerve fiber degeneration and regeneration, and could be an important tool for diagnosing SFN. This review considers the advantages and disadvantages of CCM and highlights the evolution of this technique from a research tool to a diagnostic test for small fiber damage, which can be a valuable contribution to the study and management of autoimmune disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathophysiology of Autoimmune Diseases)
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