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Pathophysiology, Volume 28, Issue 4 (December 2021) – 7 articles

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7 pages, 924 KiB  
Article
Small Fiber Neuropathy in Sarcoidosis
by Natalia Gavrilova, Anna Starshinova, Yulia Zinchenko, Dmitry Kudlay, Valeria Shapkina, Anna Malkova, Ekaterina Belyaeva, Maria Pavlova, Piotr Yablonskiy and Yehuda Shoenfeld
Pathophysiology 2021, 28(4), 544-550; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathophysiology28040035 - 20 Dec 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3974
Abstract
Sarcoidosis (SC) is a granulomatous disease of an unknown origin. The most common SC-related neurological complication is a small fiber neuropathy (SFN) that is often considered to be the result of chronic inflammation and remains significantly understudied. This study aimed to identify the [...] Read more.
Sarcoidosis (SC) is a granulomatous disease of an unknown origin. The most common SC-related neurological complication is a small fiber neuropathy (SFN) that is often considered to be the result of chronic inflammation and remains significantly understudied. This study aimed to identify the clinical and histological correlates of small fiber neuropathy in sarcoidosis patients. The study was performed in 2018–2019 yy and included 50 patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis (n = 25) and healthy subjects (n = 25). For the clinical verification of the SFN, the “Small Fiber Neuropathy Screening List” (SFN-SL) was used. A punch biopsy of the skin was performed followed by enzyme immunoassay analysis with PGP 9.5 antibodies. Up to 60% of the sarcoidosis patients reported the presence of at least one complaint, and it was possible that these complaints were associated with SFN. The most frequent complaints included dysfunctions of the cardiovascular and musculoskeletal systems and the gastrointestinal tract. A negative, statistically significant correlation between the intraepidermal nerve fiber density (IEND) and SFN-SL score was revealed. In patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis, small fiber neuropathy might develop as a result of systemic immune-mediated inflammation. The most common symptoms of this complication were dysautonomia and mild sensory dysfunction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Human Anatomy and Pathophysiology)
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31 pages, 6066 KiB  
Review
The Role of Exposomes in the Pathophysiology of Autoimmune Diseases I: Toxic Chemicals and Food
by Aristo Vojdani and Elroy Vojdani
Pathophysiology 2021, 28(4), 513-543; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathophysiology28040034 - 18 Dec 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 7721
Abstract
Autoimmune diseases affect 5–9% of the world’s population. It is now known that genetics play a relatively small part in the pathophysiology of autoimmune disorders in general, and that environmental factors have a greater role. In this review, we examine the role of [...] Read more.
Autoimmune diseases affect 5–9% of the world’s population. It is now known that genetics play a relatively small part in the pathophysiology of autoimmune disorders in general, and that environmental factors have a greater role. In this review, we examine the role of the exposome, an individual’s lifetime exposure to external and internal factors, in the pathophysiology of autoimmune diseases. The most common of these environmental factors are toxic chemicals, food/diet, and infections. Toxic chemicals are in our food, drink, common products, the air, and even the land we walk on. Toxic chemicals can directly damage self-tissue and cause the release of autoantigens, or can bind to human tissue antigens and form neoantigens, which can provoke autoimmune response leading to autoimmunity. Other types of autoimmune responses can also be induced by toxic chemicals through various effects at the cellular and biochemical levels. The food we eat every day commonly has colorants, preservatives, or packaging-related chemical contamination. The food itself may be antigenic for susceptible individuals. The most common mechanism for food-related autoimmunity is molecular mimicry, in which the food’s molecular structure bears a similarity with the structure of one or more self-tissues. The solution is to detect the trigger, remove it from the environment or diet, then repair the damage to the individual’s body and health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathophysiology of Autoimmune Diseases)
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12 pages, 3992 KiB  
Article
Epithelial Ablation of Miro1/Rhot1 GTPase Augments Lung Inflammation by Cigarette Smoke
by Shikha Sharma, Qixin Wang, Thivanka Muthumalage and Irfan Rahman
Pathophysiology 2021, 28(4), 501-512; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathophysiology28040033 - 26 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2692
Abstract
Mitochondrial quality control is sustained by Miro1 (Rhot1), a calcium-binding membrane-anchored GTPase during mitophagy. The exact mechanism that operates the interaction of Miro1 with mitophagy machinery and their role in cigarette smoke (CS)-induced mitochondrial dysfunction that often results in lung inflammation is unclear. [...] Read more.
Mitochondrial quality control is sustained by Miro1 (Rhot1), a calcium-binding membrane-anchored GTPase during mitophagy. The exact mechanism that operates the interaction of Miro1 with mitophagy machinery and their role in cigarette smoke (CS)-induced mitochondrial dysfunction that often results in lung inflammation is unclear. We hypothesized that Miro1 plays an important role in regulating mitophagy machinery and the resulting lung inflammation by CS exposure to mice. The lung epithelial Rhot1fl/fl (WT) and Rhot1CreCC10 mice were exposed to mainstream CS for 3 days (acute) and 4 months (chronic). Acute CS exposure showed a notable increase in the total inflammatory cells, macrophages, and neutrophils that are associated with inflammatory mediators. Chronic exposure showed increased infiltration of neutrophils versus air controls. The effects of acute and chronic CS exposure were augmented in the Rhot1CreCC10 group, indicating that epithelial Miro1 ablation led to the augmentation of inflammatory cell infiltration with alteration in the inflammatory mediators. Thus, Rhot1/Miro1 plays an important role in regulating CS-induced lung inflammatory responses with implications in mitochondrial quality control. Full article
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5 pages, 242 KiB  
Hypothesis
The Usefulness of Rare Blood Group Systems in the Risk Determination for Severe COVID-19
by Theocharis G. Konstantinidis, Valeria Iliadi, Georges Martinis and Maria Panopoulou
Pathophysiology 2021, 28(4), 496-500; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathophysiology28040032 - 3 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2530
Abstract
The newly identified human coronavirus was named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), based on a detailed analysis of clinical manifestation. It was reported that blood type O individuals were less likely to become infected by SARS-CoV, while blood type A individuals [...] Read more.
The newly identified human coronavirus was named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), based on a detailed analysis of clinical manifestation. It was reported that blood type O individuals were less likely to become infected by SARS-CoV, while blood type A individuals have an increased risk of severe illness. The Forssman antigen, or Forssman glycolipid synthase (FS), was first described in 1911 by John Frederick Forssman. Blood type A/B glycosyltransferases (AT/BTs) and Forssman glycolipid synthase (FS) are encoded by the evolutionarily related ABO (A/B alleles) and GBGT1 genes. In this article, based on published studies about the pathogenesis of the COVID-19, we hypothesize the possible relationship between the COVID-19 infection and rare blood type systems, such as the Forssman antigen system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathophysiology of Autoimmune Diseases)
7 pages, 562 KiB  
Article
Circulating Levels of Endothelin-1 and Big Endothelin-1 in Patients with Essential Hypertension
by Krasimir Kostov and Alexander Blazhev
Pathophysiology 2021, 28(4), 489-495; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathophysiology28040031 - 25 Oct 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2756
Abstract
The role of endothelin-1 (ET-1) in the pathogenesis of hypertension (HTN) is not clearly established. There is evidence that its circulating levels are elevated in some forms of experimental and human HTN, but this was not a consistent finding. Based on these controversial [...] Read more.
The role of endothelin-1 (ET-1) in the pathogenesis of hypertension (HTN) is not clearly established. There is evidence that its circulating levels are elevated in some forms of experimental and human HTN, but this was not a consistent finding. Based on these controversial data, we tested serum levels of ET-1 and Big ET-1 (the precursor of ET-1) in patients with essential HTN, comparing the results with those of healthy normotensive controls. The levels of ET-1 and Big ET-1 were measured by ELISA. Our results in patients with essential HTN showed that the mean levels of ET-1 (5.01 ± 2.1 pg/mL) were significantly higher (F = 6.34, p = 0.0144) than the mean levels in the control group (3.2 ± 1.0 pg/mL). The levels of Big ET-1 in patients with essential HTN (0.377 ± 0.1 pmol/L) were similar to those in the control group (0.378 ± 0.07 pmol/L) and did not differ significantly (F = 0.00, p = 0.9531). These data suggest that ET-1, but not Big ET-1, may play an important role in the pathogenesis of primary HTN. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vasodilators: New Insights)
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18 pages, 983 KiB  
Review
Pathogenesis of Autoimmune Male Infertility: Juxtacrine, Paracrine, and Endocrine Dysregulation
by Valeriy A. Chereshnev, Svetlana V. Pichugova, Yakov B. Beikin, Margarita V. Chereshneva, Angelina I. Iukhta, Yuri I. Stroev and Leonid P. Churilov
Pathophysiology 2021, 28(4), 471-488; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathophysiology28040030 - 15 Oct 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 4276
Abstract
According to global data, there is a male reproductive potential decrease. Pathogenesis of male infertility is often associated with autoimmunity towards sperm antigens essential for fertilization. Antisperm autoantibodies (ASAs) have immobilizing and cytotoxic properties, impairing spermatogenesis, causing sperm agglutination, altering spermatozoa motility and [...] Read more.
According to global data, there is a male reproductive potential decrease. Pathogenesis of male infertility is often associated with autoimmunity towards sperm antigens essential for fertilization. Antisperm autoantibodies (ASAs) have immobilizing and cytotoxic properties, impairing spermatogenesis, causing sperm agglutination, altering spermatozoa motility and acrosomal reaction, and thus preventing ovum fertilization. Infertility diagnosis requires a mandatory check for the ASAs. The concept of the blood–testis barrier is currently re-formulated, with an emphasis on informational paracrine and juxtacrine effects, rather than simple anatomical separation. The etiology of male infertility includes both autoimmune and non-autoimmune diseases but equally develops through autoimmune links of pathogenesis. Varicocele commonly leads to infertility due to testicular ischemic damage, venous stasis, local hyperthermia, and hypoandrogenism. However, varicocelectomy can alter the blood–testis barrier, facilitating ASAs production as well. There are contradictory data on the role of ASAs in the pathogenesis of varicocele-related infertility. Infection and inflammation both promote ASAs production due to “danger concept” mechanisms and because of antigen mimicry. Systemic pro-autoimmune influences like hyperprolactinemia, hypoandrogenism, and hypothyroidism also facilitate ASAs production. The diagnostic value of various ASAs has not yet been clearly attributed, and their cut-levels have not been determined in sera nor in ejaculate. The assessment of the autoimmunity role in the pathogenesis of male infertility is ambiguous, so the purpose of this review is to show the effects of ASAs on the pathogenesis of male infertility. Full article
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14 pages, 2215 KiB  
Article
The Impact of CB1 Receptor on Nuclear Receptors in Skeletal Muscle Cells
by Mansour Haddad
Pathophysiology 2021, 28(4), 457-470; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathophysiology28040029 - 5 Oct 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2970
Abstract
Cannabinoids are abundant signaling compounds; their influence predominantly arises via engagement with the principal two G-protein-coupled cannabinoid receptors, CB1 and CB2. One suggested theory is that cannabinoids regulate a variety of physiological processes within the cells of skeletal muscle. Earlier publications have indicated [...] Read more.
Cannabinoids are abundant signaling compounds; their influence predominantly arises via engagement with the principal two G-protein-coupled cannabinoid receptors, CB1 and CB2. One suggested theory is that cannabinoids regulate a variety of physiological processes within the cells of skeletal muscle. Earlier publications have indicated that expression of CB1 receptor mRNA and protein has been recognized within myotubes and tissues of skeletal muscle from both murines and humans, thus representing a potentially significant pathway which plays a role in the control of skeletal muscular activities. The part played by CB1 receptor activation or inhibition with respect to these functions and relevant to targets in the periphery, especially skeletal muscle, is not fully delineated. Thus, the aim of the current research was to explore the influence of CB1 receptor stimulation and inhibition on downstream signaling of the nuclear receptor, NR4A, which regulates the immediate impacts of arachidonyl-2′-chloroethylamide (ACEA) and/or rimonabant in the cells of skeletal muscle. Murine L6 skeletal muscle cells were used in order to clarify additional possible molecular signaling pathways which contribute to alterations in the CB1 receptor. Skeletal muscle cells have often been used; it is well-documented that they express cannabinoid receptors. Quantitative real-time probe-based polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assays are deployed in order to assess the gene expression characteristics of CB1 receptor signaling. In the current work, it is demonstrated that skeletal muscle cells exhibit functional expression of CB1 receptors. This can be deduced from the qRT-PCR assays; triggering CB1 receptors amplifies both NR4A1 and NR4A3 mRNA gene expression. The impact of ACEA is inhibited by the selective CB1 receptor antagonist, rimonabant. The present research demonstrated that 10 nM of ACEA notably amplified mRNA gene expression of NR4A1 and NR4A3; this effect was suppressed by the addition of 100 nM rimonabant. Furthermore, the CB1 receptor antagonist led to the downregulation of mRNA gene expression of NR4A1, NR4A2 and NR4A3. In conclusion, in skeletal muscle, CB1 receptors were recognized to be important moderators of NR4A1 and NR4A3 mRNA gene expression; these actions may have possible clinical benefits. Thus, in skeletal muscle cells, a possible physiological expression of CB1 receptors was identified. It is as yet unknown whether these CB1 receptors contribute to pathways underlying skeletal muscle biological function and disease processes. Further research is required to fully delineate their role(s). Full article
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