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Curr. Oncol., Volume 30, Issue 3 (March 2023) – 77 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): AKI is common after hematopoietic cell transplantation with associated increased morbidity and mortality. The etiology of AKI is often multifactorial, including kidney hypoperfusion, drug nephrotoxicity, and other transplant-related complications, such as transplant-associated thrombotic microangiopathy and sinusoidal obstructive syndrome. Initial management includes the early identification of AKI etiology, preventing kidney hypoperfusion, adjusting nephrotoxic medications, and avoiding fluid overload. Some patients will require kidney replacement therapy to manage the fluid overload and AKI. Long-term follow-up and monitoring of renal function (glomerular filtration rate and microalbuminuria) is required, along with the management of hypertension to prevent chronic kidney disease. View this paper
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14 pages, 1806 KiB  
Article
Alcoholic Liver Disease-Related Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Characteristics and Comparison to General Slovak Hepatocellular Cancer Population
by Dominik Šafčák, Sylvia Dražilová, Jakub Gazda, Igor Andrašina, Svetlana Adamcová-Selčanová, Radovan Barila, Michal Mego, Marek Rác, Ľubomír Skladaný, Miroslav Žigrai, Martin Janičko and Peter Jarčuška
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(3), 3557-3570; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30030271 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2333
Abstract
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has multiple molecular classes that are associated with distinct etiologies and, besides particular molecular characteristics, that also differ in clinical aspects. We aim to characterize the clinical aspects of alcoholic liver disease-related HCC by a retrospective observational study that included [...] Read more.
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has multiple molecular classes that are associated with distinct etiologies and, besides particular molecular characteristics, that also differ in clinical aspects. We aim to characterize the clinical aspects of alcoholic liver disease-related HCC by a retrospective observational study that included all consequent patients diagnosed with MRI or histologically verified HCC in participating centers from 2010 to 2016. A total of 429 patients were included in the analysis, of which 412 patients (96%) had cirrhosis at the time of diagnosis. The most common etiologies were alcoholic liver disease (ALD) (48.3%), chronic hepatitis C (14.9%), NAFLD (12.6%), and chronic hepatitis B (10%). Patients with ALD-related HCC were more commonly males, more commonly had cirrhosis that was in more advanced stages, and had poorer performance status. Despite these results, no differences were observed in the overall (median 8.1 vs. 8.5 months) and progression-free survival (median 4.9 vs. 5.7 months). ALD-HCC patients within BCLC stage 0–A less frequently received potentially curative treatment as compared to the control HCC patients (62.2% vs. 87.5%, p = 0.017); and in patients with ALD-HCC liver function (MELD score) seemed to have a stronger influence on the prognosis compared to the control group HCC. Systemic inflammatory indexes were strongly associated with survival in the whole cohort. In conclusion, alcoholic liver disease is the most common cause of hepatocellular carcinoma in Slovakia, accounting for almost 50% of cases; and patients with ALD-related HCC more commonly had cirrhosis that was in more advanced stages and had poorer performance status, although no difference in survival between ALD-related and other etiology-related HCC was observed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Epidemiology, Pathogenesis and Treatment)
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8 pages, 589 KiB  
Communication
The Effect of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Unrelated Allogeneic Hematopoietic Donor Collections and Safety
by Gaganvir Parmar, David S. Allan, Gail Morris, Nicholas Dibdin, Kathy Ganz, Karen Mostert, Kristjan Paulson, Tanya Petraszko, Nora Stevens and Matthew D. Seftel
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(3), 3549-3556; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30030270 - 22 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1524
Abstract
Background and Objectives: The COVID-19 pandemic profoundly influenced unrelated donor (UD) allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) collections. Changes included efforts to minimize COVID-19 exposure to donors and cryopreservation of products. The extent to which the efficacy and safety of PBSC donations were [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: The COVID-19 pandemic profoundly influenced unrelated donor (UD) allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) collections. Changes included efforts to minimize COVID-19 exposure to donors and cryopreservation of products. The extent to which the efficacy and safety of PBSC donations were affected by the pandemic is unknown. Methods: Prospective cohort analysis of PBSC collections comparing pre-pandemic (01 April 2019–14 March 2020) and pandemic (15 March 2020–31 March 2022) eras. Results: Of a total of 291 PBSC collections, cryopreservation was undertaken in 71.4% of pandemic donations compared to 1.1% pre-pandemic. The mean requested CD34+ cell dose/kg increased from 4.9 ± 0.2 × 106 pre-pandemic to 5.4 ± 0.1 × 106 during the pandemic. Despite this increased demand, the proportion of collections that met or exceeded the requested cell dose did not change, and the mean CD34+ cell doses collected (8.9 ± 0.5 × 106 pre-pandemic vs. 9.7 ± 0.4 × 106 during the pandemic) remained above requested targets. Central-line placements were more frequent, and severe adverse events in donors increased during the pandemic. Conclusion: Cryopreservation of UD PBSC products increased during the pandemic. In association with this, requested cell doses for PBSC collections increased. Collection targets were met or exceeded at the same frequency, signaling high donor and collection center commitment. This was at the expense of increased donor or product-related severe adverse events. We highlight the need for heightened vigilance about donor safety as demands on donors have increased since the pandemic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cell Therapy)
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12 pages, 1086 KiB  
Article
Implementation of a Web-Based Communication System for Primary Care Providers and Cancer Specialists
by Bojana Petrovic, Jacqueline L. Bender, Clare Liddy, Amir Afkham, Sharon F. McGee, Scott C. Morgan, Roanne Segal, Mary Ann O’Brien, Jim A. Julian, Jonathan Sussman, Robin Urquhart, Margaret Fitch, Nancy D. Schneider and Eva Grunfeld
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(3), 3537-3548; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30030269 - 21 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1474
Abstract
Healthcare providers have reported challenges with coordinating care for patients with cancer. Digital technology tools have brought new possibilities for improving care coordination. A web- and text-based asynchronous system (eOncoNote) was implemented in Ottawa, Canada for cancer specialists and primary care providers (PCPs). [...] Read more.
Healthcare providers have reported challenges with coordinating care for patients with cancer. Digital technology tools have brought new possibilities for improving care coordination. A web- and text-based asynchronous system (eOncoNote) was implemented in Ottawa, Canada for cancer specialists and primary care providers (PCPs). This study aimed to examine PCPs’ experiences of implementing eOncoNote and how access to the system influenced communication between PCPs and cancer specialists. As part of a larger study, we collected and analyzed system usage data and administered an end-of-discussion survey to understand the perceived value of using eOncoNote. eOncoNote data were analyzed for 76 shared patients (33 patients receiving treatment and 43 patients in the survivorship phase). Thirty-nine percent of the PCPs responded to the cancer specialist’s initial eOncoNote message and nearly all of those sent only one message. Forty-five percent of the PCPs completed the survey. Most PCPs reported no additional benefits of using eOncoNote and emphasized the need for electronic medical record (EMR) integration. Over half of the PCPs indicated that eOncoNote could be a helpful service if they had questions about a patient. Future research should examine opportunities for EMR integration and whether additional interventions could support communication between PCPs and cancer specialists. Full article
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8 pages, 2004 KiB  
Case Report
An Unusual Case of Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis Associated with Mycobacterium chimaera or Large-Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma
by Tejaswi Venigalla, Sheila Kalathil, Meena Bansal, Mark Morginstin, Vinicius Jorge and Patricia Perosio
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(3), 3529-3536; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30030268 - 21 Mar 2023
Viewed by 2221
Abstract
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare and very dangerous condition characterized by abnormal activation of the immune system, causing hemophagocytosis, inflammation, and potentially widespread organ damage. The primary (genetic) form, caused by mutations affecting lymphocyte cytotoxicity, is most commonly seen in children. Secondary [...] Read more.
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare and very dangerous condition characterized by abnormal activation of the immune system, causing hemophagocytosis, inflammation, and potentially widespread organ damage. The primary (genetic) form, caused by mutations affecting lymphocyte cytotoxicity, is most commonly seen in children. Secondary HLH is commonly associated with infections, malignancies, and rheumatologic disorders. Most current information on diagnosis and treatment is based on pediatric populations. HLH is a disease that should be diagnosed and treated promptly, otherwise it is fatal. Treatment is directed at treating the triggering disorder, along with symptomatic treatment with dexamethasone and etoposide. We present a 56-year-old patient who was admitted with worsening weakness, exertional dyspnea, dry and nonproductive cough, and a 5-pound weight loss associated with loss of appetite. This is among the rare disorders that are not commonly encountered in day-to-day practice. Our differential diagnoses were broad, including infection, such as visceral leishmaniasis, atypical/tuberculous mycobacteria, histoplasmosis, Ehrlichia, Bartonella, Brucella, Adenovirus, disseminated herpes simplex virus (HSV), hematological-like Langerhans cell histiocytosis, or multicentric Castleman disease; drug reaction, such as drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS); and metabolic disorder, including Wolman’s disease (infantile lysosomal acid lipase deficiency) or Gaucher’s disease. Based on our investigations as described in our case report, it was narrowed down to hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis and COVID-19. Two COVID-19 tests were negative. His lab abnormalities and diagnostic testing revealed hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. He was empirically started on antibiotics and dexamethasone, to be continued for 2 weeks then tapered if the patient showed continued improvement. Dexamethasone was tapered over 8 weeks. He improved on just one of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved medications, proving that treatment should be tailored to the patient. In addition, in this case study, we included the background, etiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, management, and prognosis of HLH. Full article
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13 pages, 953 KiB  
Article
CXCL1 and CXCL6 Are Potential Predictors for HCC Response to TACE
by Maximilian N. Kinzler, Katrin Bankov, Julia Bein, Claudia Döring, Falko Schulze, Henning Reis, Scherwin Mahmoudi, Vitali Koch, Leon D. Grünewald, Angelika Stehle, Dirk Walter, Fabian Finkelmeier, Stefan Zeuzem, Peter J. Wild, Thomas J. Vogl and Simon Bernatz
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(3), 3516-3528; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30030267 - 20 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1791
Abstract
Distinct immune patterns of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) may have prognostic implications in the response to transarterial chemoembolization (TACE). Thus, we aimed to exploratively analyze tumor tissue of HCC patients who do or do not respond to TACE, and to identify novel prognostic biomarkers [...] Read more.
Distinct immune patterns of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) may have prognostic implications in the response to transarterial chemoembolization (TACE). Thus, we aimed to exploratively analyze tumor tissue of HCC patients who do or do not respond to TACE, and to identify novel prognostic biomarkers predictive of response to TACE. We retrospectively included 15 HCC patients who had three consecutive TACE between January 2019 and November 2019. Eight patients had a response while seven patients had no response to TACE. All patients had measurable disease according to mRECIST. Corresponding tumor tissue samples were processed for differential expression profiling using NanoString nCounter® PanCancer immune profiling panel. Immune-related pathways were broadly upregulated in TACE responders. The top differentially regulated genes were the upregulated CXCL1 (log2fc 4.98, Benjamini–Hochberg (BH)-p < 0.001), CXCL6 (log2fc 4.43, BH-p = 0.016) and the downregulated MME (log2fc −4.33, BH-p 0.001). CD8/T-regs was highly increased in responders, whereas the relative number of T-regs to tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) was highly decreased. We preliminary identified CXCL1 and CXCL6 as candidate genes that might have the potential to serve as therapeutically relevant biomarkers in HCC patients. This might pave the way to improve patient selection for TACE in HCC patients beyond expert consensus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Epidemiology, Pathogenesis and Treatment)
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16 pages, 3025 KiB  
Review
Complex Vascular Resections for Retroperitoneal Soft Tissue Sarcoma
by Nicolas A. Devaud, Jean M. Butte, Juan C. De la Maza, Sebastian von Mühlenbrock Hugo and Kenneth Cardona
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(3), 3500-3515; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30030266 - 20 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2102
Abstract
Retroperitoneal sarcomas (RPSs) are locally aggressive tumors that can compromise major vessels of the retroperitoneum including the inferior vena cava, aorta, or main tributary vessels. Vascular involvement can be secondary to the tumor’s infiltrating growth pattern or primary vascular origin. Surgery is still [...] Read more.
Retroperitoneal sarcomas (RPSs) are locally aggressive tumors that can compromise major vessels of the retroperitoneum including the inferior vena cava, aorta, or main tributary vessels. Vascular involvement can be secondary to the tumor’s infiltrating growth pattern or primary vascular origin. Surgery is still the mainstay for curing this disease, and resection of RPSs may include major vascular resections to secure adequate oncologic results. Our improved knowledge in the tumor biology of RPSs, in conjunction with the growing surgical expertise in both sarcoma and vascular surgical techniques, has allowed for major vascular reconstructions within multi-visceral resections for RPSs with good perioperative results. This complex surgical approach may include the combined work of various surgical subspecialties. Full article
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6 pages, 653 KiB  
Case Report
Exon-18-EGFR Mutated Transformed Small-Cell Lung Cancer: A Case Report and Literature Review
by Nunzio Digiacomo, Tommaso De Pas, Giovanna Rossi, Paola Bossi, Erika Stucchi, Fabio Conforti, Emilia Cocorocchio, Daniele Laszlo, Laura Pala, Emma Zattarin and Chiara Catania
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(3), 3494-3499; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30030265 - 20 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1932
Abstract
Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) transformation from EGFR mutant adenocarcinoma is a rare entity that is considered to be a new phenotype of SCLC. While transformation from adenocarcinoma (ADC) with EGFR exon 19 deletions and exon 21 L858R point mutations has been described, to [...] Read more.
Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) transformation from EGFR mutant adenocarcinoma is a rare entity that is considered to be a new phenotype of SCLC. While transformation from adenocarcinoma (ADC) with EGFR exon 19 deletions and exon 21 L858R point mutations has been described, to our knowledge, no cases of transformation to SCLC from exon-18-mutated ADC have been reported. We reported a clinical case of a patient with exon-18-EGFR-transformed SCLC, and we performed a systematic review of the literature. Full article
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10 pages, 265 KiB  
Article
Is It Possible to Notice the Unmet Non-Medical Needs among Cancer Patients? Application of the Needs Evaluation Questionnaire in Men with Lung Cancer
by Karolina Osowiecka, Marcin Kurowicki, Jarosław Kołb-Sielecki, Anna Gwara, Marek Szwiec, Sergiusz Nawrocki and Monika Rucińska
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(3), 3484-3493; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30030264 - 20 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1308
Abstract
Background: Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer death worldwide. It is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in men. Lung cancer causes not only physical symptoms related to the disease itself and its treatment but also numerous mental, social and spiritual [...] Read more.
Background: Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer death worldwide. It is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in men. Lung cancer causes not only physical symptoms related to the disease itself and its treatment but also numerous mental, social and spiritual problems. The aim of the study was to assess non-medical needs among male lung cancer patients during oncological treatment. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on a group of 160 men (mean age 67 years) treated for lung cancer from June 2022 until November 2022 in 5 oncological centers in Poland. The Needs Evaluation Questionnaire (NEQ) was used. The NEQ explores five areas of patients’ needs: informative, connected with assistance/care, relational, material and psycho-emotional support. Results: All participants (except one) expressed some unmet non-medical needs (mean and median 11). Male lung cancer patients indicated informative needs most frequently. There were no significant differences between expressed unmet needs based on age, place of residence, professional activity or marital status. Conclusions: The NEQ seems to be a proper instrument to explore the non-medical needs of cancer patients. Adequate measures to address the unmet needs of lung cancer patients could contribute to an improved quality of life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Psychosocial Oncology)
11 pages, 573 KiB  
Article
Proton Radiotherapy for Vestibular Schwannomas in Patients with NF2-Related Schwannomatosis: A Case Series
by Jules P. J. Douwes, Kimberley S. Koetsier, Victor S. van Dam, Scott R. Plotkin, Frederick G. Barker, D. Bradley Welling, Jeroen C. Jansen, Erik F. Hensen and Helen A. Shih
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(3), 3473-3483; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30030263 - 20 Mar 2023
Viewed by 2123
Abstract
(1) Background: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and treatment-related toxicity of proton radiotherapy (PRT) for vestibular schwannoma (VS) in patients with neurofibromatosis type 2-related schwannomatosis (NF2). (2) Methods: Consecutive NF2 patients treated with PRT for VS between 2004 and 2016 were [...] Read more.
(1) Background: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and treatment-related toxicity of proton radiotherapy (PRT) for vestibular schwannoma (VS) in patients with neurofibromatosis type 2-related schwannomatosis (NF2). (2) Methods: Consecutive NF2 patients treated with PRT for VS between 2004 and 2016 were retrospectively evaluated, focusing on tumor volume, facial and trigeminal nerve function, hearing, tinnitus, vestibular symptoms, and the need for salvage therapy after PRT. (3) Results: Eight patients were included (median age 36 years, 50% female). Median follow-up was 71 months. Five (63%) patients received fractionated PRT and three (38%) received PRT radiosurgery for VS. Six patients (75%) received prior VS surgery; three also received bevacizumab. Six patients (75%) did not require salvage therapy after PRT. Two patients (25%) with residual hearing lost it after PRT, and six had already lost ipsilateral hearing prior to PRT. Tumor and treatment-related morbidity could be evaluated in six patients. Following PRT, conditions that occurred or worsened were: facial paresis in five (83%), trigeminal hypoesthesia in two (33%), tinnitus in two (33%), and vestibular symptoms in four patients (67%). (4) Conclusion: After PRT for VS, the majority of the NF2 patients in the cohort did not require additional therapy. Tumor and/or treatment-related cranial nerve deficits were common. This is at least partly explained by the use of PRT as a salvage treatment after surgery or bevacizumab, in the majority of cases. There remains the further opportunity to elucidate the efficacy and toxicity of proton radiotherapy as a primary treatment. Full article
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12 pages, 607 KiB  
Article
Pain and Interventions in Stage IV Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Province-Wide Analysis
by Vivian S. Tan, Michael C. Tjong, Wing C. Chan, Michael Yan, Victoria Delibasic, Gail Darling, Laura E. Davis, Mark Doherty, Julie Hallet, Biniam Kidane, Alyson Mahar, Nicole Mittmann, Ambika Parmar, Hendrick Tan, Frances C. Wright, Natalie G. Coburn and Alexander V. Louie
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(3), 3461-3472; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30030262 - 18 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1816
Abstract
Pain is a common symptom in stage IV non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The objective of the study was to examine the use of interventions and factors associated with interventions for pain. A population-based cohort study in Ontario, Canada was conducted with patients [...] Read more.
Pain is a common symptom in stage IV non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The objective of the study was to examine the use of interventions and factors associated with interventions for pain. A population-based cohort study in Ontario, Canada was conducted with patients diagnosed with stage IV NSCLC from January 2007 to September 2018. An Edmonton Symptom Assessment System (ESAS) score of ≥4 defined moderate-to-severe pain following diagnosis. The study cohort included 13,159 patients, of which 68.5% reported at least one moderate-to-severe pain score. Most patients were assessed by a palliative care team (85.4%), and the majority received radiation therapy (73.2%). The use of nerve block was rare (0.8%). For patients ≥65 years of age who had drug coverage, 59.6% received an opiate prescription. Patients with moderate-to-severe pain were more likely to receive palliative assessment or radiation therapy compared to patients with none or mild pain. Patients aged ≥70 years and with a greater comorbidity burden were associated with less likelihood to receive radiation therapy. Patients from rural/non-major urban residence and with a greater comorbidity burden were also less likely to receive palliative care assessment. Factors associated with interventions for pain are described to inform future symptom management in this population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Thoracic Oncology)
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14 pages, 729 KiB  
Article
Is It Safe to Switch from a Standard Anterior to Retzius-Sparing Approach in Robot-Assisted Radical Prostatectomy?
by Edward Lambert, Charlotte Allaeys, Camille Berquin, Pieter De Visschere, Sofie Verbeke, Ben Vanneste, Valerie Fonteyne, Charles Van Praet and Nicolaas Lumen
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(3), 3447-3460; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30030261 - 17 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1809
Abstract
Background: Retzius-sparing robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RS-RARP) has been shown to lead to better outcomes regarding early continence compared to standard anterior RARP (SA-RARP). The goal of this study was to assess the feasibility and safety of implementing RS-RARP in a tertiary center with [...] Read more.
Background: Retzius-sparing robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RS-RARP) has been shown to lead to better outcomes regarding early continence compared to standard anterior RARP (SA-RARP). The goal of this study was to assess the feasibility and safety of implementing RS-RARP in a tertiary center with experience in SA-RARP. Methods: From February 2020, all newly diagnosed non-metastatic prostate cancer patients for whom RARP was indicated were evaluated for RS-RARP. Data from the first 100 RS-RARP patients were prospectively collected and compared with data from the last 100 SA-RARP patients. Patients were evaluated for Clavien Dindo grade ≥3a complications, urinary continence after 2 and 6 weeks, 3, 6 and 12 months, erectile function, positive surgical margins (PSMs) and biochemical recurrence (BCR). Results: There was no significant difference in postoperative complications at Clavien-Dindo grade ≥3a (SA-RARP: 6, RS-RARP: 4; p = 0.292). At all time points, significantly higher proportions of RS-RARP patients were continent (p < 0.001). No significant differences in postoperative potency were observed (52% vs. 59%, respectively, p = 0.608). PSMs were more frequent in the RS-RARP group (43% vs. 29%, p = 0.034), especially in locally advanced tumors (pT3: 64.6% vs. 43.8%, p = 0.041—pT2: 23.5% vs. 15.4%, p = 0.329). The one-year BCR-free survival was 82.6% vs. 81.6% in the SA-RARP and RS-RARP groups, respectively (p = 0.567). The median follow-up was 22 [18–27] vs. 24.5 [17–35] months in the RS-RARP and SA-RARP groups, respectively (p = 0.008). Conclusions: The transition from SA-RARP to RS-RARP can be safely performed by surgeons proficient in SA-RARP. Continence results after RS-RARP were significantly better at any time point. A higher proportion of PSMs was observed, although it did not result in a worse BCR-free survival. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surgery for Prostate Cancer: Recent Advances and Future Directions)
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15 pages, 1116 KiB  
Article
Future of Artificial Intelligence Applications in Cancer Care: A Global Cross-Sectional Survey of Researchers
by Bernardo Pereira Cabral, Luiza Amara Maciel Braga, Shabbir Syed-Abdul and Fabio Batista Mota
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(3), 3432-3446; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30030260 - 16 Mar 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 4285
Abstract
Cancer significantly contributes to global mortality, with 9.3 million annual deaths. To alleviate this burden, the utilization of artificial intelligence (AI) applications has been proposed in various domains of oncology. However, the potential applications of AI and the barriers to its widespread adoption [...] Read more.
Cancer significantly contributes to global mortality, with 9.3 million annual deaths. To alleviate this burden, the utilization of artificial intelligence (AI) applications has been proposed in various domains of oncology. However, the potential applications of AI and the barriers to its widespread adoption remain unclear. This study aimed to address this gap by conducting a cross-sectional, global, web-based survey of over 1000 AI and cancer researchers. The results indicated that most respondents believed AI would positively impact cancer grading and classification, follow-up services, and diagnostic accuracy. Despite these benefits, several limitations were identified, including difficulties incorporating AI into clinical practice and the lack of standardization in cancer health data. These limitations pose significant challenges, particularly regarding testing, validation, certification, and auditing AI algorithms and systems. The results of this study provide valuable insights for informed decision-making for stakeholders involved in AI and cancer research and development, including individual researchers and research funding agencies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optimizing Integrated Cancer Care from Diagnosis to Survivorship)
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11 pages, 1144 KiB  
Article
Real-Time Urethral and Ureteral Assessment during Radical Cystectomy Using Ex-Vivo Optical Imaging: A Novel Technique for the Evaluation of Fresh Unfixed Surgical Margins
by Francesco Prata, Umberto Anceschi, Chiara Taffon, Silvia Maria Rossi, Martina Verri, Andrea Iannuzzi, Alberto Ragusa, Francesco Esperto, Salvatore Mario Prata, Anna Crescenzi, Roberto Mario Scarpa, Giuseppe Simone and Rocco Papalia
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(3), 3421-3431; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30030259 - 15 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1396
Abstract
Background: Our study aims to assess the feasibility and the reproducibility of fluorescent confocal microscopy (FCM) real-time assessment of urethral and ureteral margins during open radical cystectomy (ORC) for bladder cancer (BCa). Methods: From May 2020 to January 2022, 46 patients underwent ORC [...] Read more.
Background: Our study aims to assess the feasibility and the reproducibility of fluorescent confocal microscopy (FCM) real-time assessment of urethral and ureteral margins during open radical cystectomy (ORC) for bladder cancer (BCa). Methods: From May 2020 to January 2022, 46 patients underwent ORC with intraoperative FCM evaluation. Each specimen was intraoperatively stained for histopathological analysis using FCM, analyzed as a frozen section (FSA), and sent for traditional H&E examination. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and the negative predictive value (NPV) of FCM and FSA were assessed and compared with H&E for urethral and ureteral margins separately. Results: The agreement was evaluated through Cohen’s κ statistic. Urethral diagnostic agreement between FCM and FSA showed a κ = 0.776 (p < 0.001), while between FCM and H&E, the agreement was κ = 0.691 (p < 0.001). With regard to ureteral margins, an overall agreement of κ = 0.712 (p < 0.001) between FCM and FSA and of κ = 0.481 (p < 0.001) between FCM and H&E was found. Conclusions: FCM proved to be a safe, feasible, and reproducible method for the intraoperative assessment of urethral and ureteral margins during ORC. Compared to standard FSA, FCM showed adequate diagnostic performance in detecting urethral and ureteral malignant involvement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radical Surgery Advances in Oncology)
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30 pages, 1317 KiB  
Systematic Review
Relation of Mean Platelet Volume (MPV) with Cancer: A Systematic Review with a Focus on Disease Outcome on Twelve Types of Cancer
by Paraskevi Detopoulou, George I. Panoutsopoulos, Marina Mantoglou, Periklis Michailidis, Ifigenia Pantazi, Spyros Papadopoulos and Andrea Paola Rojas Gil
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(3), 3391-3420; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30030258 - 14 Mar 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 8214
Abstract
Inflammatory proteins activate platelets, which have been observed to be directly related to cancer progression and development. The aim of this systematic review is to investigate the possible association between Mean Platelet Volume (MPV) and cancer (diagnostic capacity of MPV, relation to survival, [...] Read more.
Inflammatory proteins activate platelets, which have been observed to be directly related to cancer progression and development. The aim of this systematic review is to investigate the possible association between Mean Platelet Volume (MPV) and cancer (diagnostic capacity of MPV, relation to survival, the severity of the disease, and metastasis). A literature review was performed in the online database PubMed and Google Scholar for the period of 2010–2022. In total, 83 studies including 21,034 participants with 12 different types of cancer (i.e., gastric cancer, colon cancer, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, renal cancer, breast cancer, ovarian cancer, endometrial cancer, thyroid cancer, lung cancer, bladder cancer, gallbladder cancer, and multiple myeloma) were identified. The role of MPV has been extensively investigated in several types of cancer, such as gastric, colon, breast, and lung cancer, while few data exist for other types, such as renal, gallbladder cancer, and multiple myeloma. Most studies in gastric, breast, endometrium, thyroid, and lung cancer documented an elevated MPV in cancer patients. Data were less clear-cut for esophageal, ovarian, and colon cancer, while reduced MPV was observed in renal cell carcinoma and gallbladder cancer. Several studies on colon cancer (4 out of 6) and fewer on lung cancer (4 out of 10) indicated an unfavorable role of increased MPV regarding mortality. As far as other cancer types are concerned, fewer studies were conducted. MPV can be used as a potential biomarker in cancer diagnosis and could be a useful tool for the optimization of treatment strategies. Possible underlying mechanisms between cancer and MPV are discussed. However, further studies are needed to elucidate the exact role of MPV in cancer progression and metastasis. Full article
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18 pages, 3998 KiB  
Article
Persisting Deficits in Health-Related Quality of Life of Colorectal Cancer Survivors 14–24 Years Post-Diagnosis: A Population-Based Study
by Melissa S. Y. Thong, Daniela Doege, Linda Weißer, Lena Koch-Gallenkamp, Lina Jansen, Heike Bertram, Andrea Eberle, Bernd Holleczek, Alice Nennecke, Annika Waldmann, Sylke Ruth Zeissig, Hermann Brenner and Volker Arndt
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(3), 3373-3390; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30030257 - 14 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2046
Abstract
(1) Background: The health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors >10 years post-diagnosis is understudied. We aimed to compare the HRQOL of CRC survivors 14–24 years post-diagnosis to that of age- and sex-matched non-cancer controls, stratified by demographic and clinical [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors >10 years post-diagnosis is understudied. We aimed to compare the HRQOL of CRC survivors 14–24 years post-diagnosis to that of age- and sex-matched non-cancer controls, stratified by demographic and clinical factors. (2) Methods: We used data from 506 long-term CRC survivors and 1489 controls recruited from German population-based multi-regional studies. HRQOL was assessed with the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Core-30 (EORTC QLQ-C30) questionnaire. We estimated differences in the HRQOL of CRC survivors and controls with multiple regression, adjusted for age at survey, sex, and education, where appropriate. (3) Results: CRC survivors reported poorer social functioning but better health status/QOL than controls. CRC survivors, in general, had higher levels of symptom burden, and in particular diarrhea and constipation, regardless of demographic or clinical factors. In stratified analyses, HRQOL differed by age, sex, cancer type, and having a permanent stoma. (4) Conclusions: Although CRC survivors may have a comparable health status/QOL to controls 14–24 years after diagnosis, they still live with persistent bowel dysfunction that can negatively impact aspects of functioning. Healthcare providers should provide timely and adapted follow-up care to ameliorate potential long-term suffering. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Survivorship Research, Practice and Policy)
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7 pages, 751 KiB  
Communication
Conventional versus Reduced-Frequency Follow-Up in Early-Stage Melanoma Survivors: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis
by Karolina Richter, Tomasz Stefura, Nikola Kłos, Jonasz Tempski, Marta Kołodziej-Rzepa, Michał Kisielewski, Tomasz Wojewoda and Wojciech M. Wysocki
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(3), 3366-3372; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30030256 - 14 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1385
Abstract
To date, there have been multiple studies and clinical guidelines or recommendations for complex management of melanoma patients. The most controversial subjects included the frequency of follow-up. This study provides a coherent and comprehensive comparison of conventional vs. reduced-frequency follow-up strategies for early-stage [...] Read more.
To date, there have been multiple studies and clinical guidelines or recommendations for complex management of melanoma patients. The most controversial subjects included the frequency of follow-up. This study provides a coherent and comprehensive comparison of conventional vs. reduced-frequency follow-up strategies for early-stage melanoma patients. The value of our study consists in the precise analysis of a large collection of articles and the selection of the most valuable works in relation to the topic according to rigorous criteria, which allowed for a thorough study of the topic. The search strategy was implemented using multiple databases. The inclusion criteria were randomized clinical trial or cohort studies that compared the outcomes of a conventional follow-up schedule versus a reduced-frequency follow-up schedule for patients diagnosed with melanoma. In this study, authors analyzed recurrence and 3-year survival. Meta-analysis of outcomes presented by Deckers et al. and Moncrieff et. al. did not reveal a significant difference favoring one of the groups (OR 1.14; 95%CI: 0.65–2.00; p = 0.64). The meta-analysis of 3-year overall survival included two studies. The statistical analysis showed no significant difference in favor of the conventional follow-up group. (OR 1.10; 95%CI: 0.57–2.11; p = 0.79). Our meta-analysis shows that there is no advantage in a conventional follow-up regimen over a reduced-frequency regimen in early-stage melanoma patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Surgical Oncology)
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11 pages, 8999 KiB  
Case Report
Renal Cell Carcinoma Unclassified with Medullary Phenotype in a Patient with Neurofibromatosis Type 2
by Sanila Sarkar, Whitney Throckmorton, Racheal Bingham, Pavlos Msaouel, Giannicola Genovese, John Slopis, Priya Rao, Zsila Sadighi and Cynthia E. Herzog
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(3), 3355-3365; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30030255 - 14 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2232
Abstract
We present, to our knowledge, the first reported case of germline neurofibromatosis Type 2 (NF2) associated with renal cell carcinoma unclassified with medullary phenotype (RCCU-MP) with somatic loss by immunohistochemistry of the SMARCB1 tumor suppressor gene located centromeric to NF2 on chromosome 22q. [...] Read more.
We present, to our knowledge, the first reported case of germline neurofibromatosis Type 2 (NF2) associated with renal cell carcinoma unclassified with medullary phenotype (RCCU-MP) with somatic loss by immunohistochemistry of the SMARCB1 tumor suppressor gene located centromeric to NF2 on chromosome 22q. Our patient is a 15-year-old with germline neurofibromatosis Type 2 (NF2) confirmed by pathogenic mutation of c.-854-??46+??deletion. Her NF2 history is positive for a right optic nerve sheath meningioma, CNIII schwannoma requiring radiation therapy and post gross total resection of right frontotemporal anaplastic meningioma followed by radiation. At age 15 she developed new onset weight loss and abdominal pain due to RCCU-MP. Hemoglobin electrophoresis was negative for sickle hemoglobinopathy. Chemotherapy (cisplatin, gemcitabine and paclitaxel) was initiated followed by radical resection. Given the unique renal pathology of a high grade malignancy with loss of SMARCB1 expression via immunohistochemistry, and history of meningioma with MLH1 loss of expression and retained expression of PMS2, MSH2 and MSH6, further germline genetic testing was sent for SMARCB1 and mismatch repair syndromes. Germline testing was negative for mutation in SMARCB1. Therefore, this is the first reported case of RCCU-MP associated with germline NF2 mutation. This suggests the importance of closer surveillance in the adolescent and young adult population with NF2 with any suspicious findings of malignancy outside of the usual scope of practice with NF2. Full article
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11 pages, 7925 KiB  
Article
Adaptive Volumetric-Modulated Arc Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer: Evaluation of Benefit on Target Coverage and Sparing of Organs at Risk
by Ciro Franzese, Stefano Tomatis, Sofia Paola Bianchi, Marco Pelizzoli, Maria Ausilia Teriaca, Marco Badalamenti, Tiziana Comito, Elena Clerici, Davide Franceschini, Pierina Navarria, Luciana Di Cristina, Damiano Dei, Carmela Galdieri, Giacomo Reggiori, Pietro Mancosu and Marta Scorsetti
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(3), 3344-3354; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30030254 - 13 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1790
Abstract
Background: Radiotherapy is essential in the management of head–neck cancer. During the course of radiotherapy, patients may develop significant anatomical changes. Re-planning with adaptive radiotherapy may ensure adequate dose coverage and sparing of organs at risk. We investigated the consequences of adaptive radiotherapy [...] Read more.
Background: Radiotherapy is essential in the management of head–neck cancer. During the course of radiotherapy, patients may develop significant anatomical changes. Re-planning with adaptive radiotherapy may ensure adequate dose coverage and sparing of organs at risk. We investigated the consequences of adaptive radiotherapy on head–neck cancer patients treated with volumetric-modulated arc radiation therapy compared to simulated non-adaptive plans: Materials and methods: We included in this retrospective dosimetric analysis 56 patients treated with adaptive radiotherapy. The primary aim of the study was to analyze the dosimetric differences with and without an adaptive approach for targets and organs at risk, particularly the spinal cord, parotid glands, oral cavity and larynx. The original plan (OPLAN) was compared to the adaptive plan (APLAN) and to a simulated non-adaptive dosimetric plan (DPLAN). Results: The non-adaptive DPLAN, when compared to OPLAN, showed an increased dose to all organs at risk. Spinal cord D2 increased from 27.91 (21.06–31.76) Gy to 31.39 (27.66–38.79) Gy (p = 0.00). V15, V30 and V45 of the DPLAN vs. the OPLAN increased by 20.6% (p = 0.00), 14.78% (p = 0.00) and 15.55% (p = 0.00) for right parotid; and 16.25% (p = 0.00), 18.7% (p = 0.00) and 20.19% (p = 0.00) for left parotid. A difference of 36.95% was observed in the oral cavity V40 (p = 0.00). Dose coverage was significantly reduced for both CTV (97.90% vs. 99.96%; p = 0.00) and PTV (94.70% vs. 98.72%; p = 0.00). The APLAN compared to the OPLAN had similar values for all organs at risk. Conclusions: The adaptive strategy with re-planning is able to avoid an increase in dose to organs at risk and better target coverage in head–neck cancer patients, with potential benefits in terms of side effects and disease control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Radiotherapy and Prognosis)
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15 pages, 841 KiB  
Review
Kidney Injury in Children after Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant
by Vinson James, Joseph Angelo and Lama Elbahlawan
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(3), 3329-3343; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30030253 - 13 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2190
Abstract
Hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT), used for treatment of many malignant and non-malignant pediatric diseases, is associated with serious complications, limiting this therapy’s benefit. Acute kidney injury (AKI), seen often after HCT, can occur at different stages of the transplant process and contributes to [...] Read more.
Hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT), used for treatment of many malignant and non-malignant pediatric diseases, is associated with serious complications, limiting this therapy’s benefit. Acute kidney injury (AKI), seen often after HCT, can occur at different stages of the transplant process and contributes to morbidity and mortality after HCT. The etiology of AKI is often multifactorial, including kidney hypoperfusion, nephrotoxicity from immunosuppressive and antimicrobial agents, and other transplant-related complications such as transplant-associated thrombotic microangiopathy and sinusoidal obstructive syndrome. Early recognition of AKI is crucial to prevent further AKI and associated complications. Initial management includes identifying the etiology of AKI, preventing further kidney hypoperfusion, adjusting nephrotoxic medications, and preventing fluid overload. Some patients will require further support with kidney replacement therapy to manage fluid overload and AKI. Biomarkers of AKI, such as neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin can aid in detecting AKI before a rise in serum creatinine, allowing earlier intervention. Long-term kidney dysfunction is also prominent in this population. Therefore, long-term follow-up and monitoring of renal function (glomerular filtration rate, microalbuminuria) is required along with management of hypertension, which can contribute to chronic kidney disease. Full article
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14 pages, 6114 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Classic and Quantitative Imaging Features in the Differentiation of Benign and Atypical Lipomatous Soft Tissue Tumors Using a Standardized Multiparametric MRI Protocol: A Prospective Single-Centre Study in 45 Patients
by Leonhard Gruber, Christian Kremser, Bettina Zelger, Anton Schwabegger, Ena Josip, Dietmar Dammerer, Martin Thaler and Benjamin Henninger
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(3), 3315-3328; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30030252 - 13 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1628
Abstract
Background: Discrimination between benign and atypical lipomatous tumors (ALT) is important due to potential local complications and recurrence of ALT but can be difficult due to the often-similar imaging appearance. Using a standardized MRI protocol, this study aimed to rank established and quantitative [...] Read more.
Background: Discrimination between benign and atypical lipomatous tumors (ALT) is important due to potential local complications and recurrence of ALT but can be difficult due to the often-similar imaging appearance. Using a standardized MRI protocol, this study aimed to rank established and quantitative MRI features by diagnostic value in the differentiation of benign and atypical lipomatous tumors and to develop a robust scoring system. Methods: Patients with clinical or sonographic suspicion of a lipomatous tumor were prospectively and consecutively enrolled from 2015 to 2019 after ethic review board approval. Histology was confirmed for all ALT and 85% of the benign cases. Twenty-one demographic and morphologic and twenty-three quantitative features were extracted from a standardized MRI protocol (T1/T2-proton-density-weighting, turbo-inversion recovery magnitude, T2* multi-echo gradient-echo imaging, qDIXON-Vibe fat-quantification, T1 relaxometry, T1 mapping, diffusion-weighted and post-contrast sequences). A ranking of these features was generated through a Bayes network analysis with gain-ratio feature evaluation. Results: Forty-five patients were included in the analysis (mean age, 61.2 ± 14.2 years, 27 women [60.0%]). The highest-ranked ALT predictors were septation thickness (gain ratio merit [GRM] 0.623 ± 0.025, p = 0.0055), intra- and peritumoral STIR signal discrepancy (GRM 0.458 ± 0.046, p < 0.0001), orthogonal diameter (GRM 0.554 ± 0.188, p = 0.0013), contrast enhancement (GRM 0.235 ± 0.015, p = 0.0010) and maximum diameter (GRM 0.221 ± 0.075, p = 0.0009). The quantitative features did not provide a significant discriminatory value. The highest-ranked predictors were used to generate a five-tiered score for the identification of ALTs (correct classification rate 95.7% at a cut-off of three positive items, sensitivity 100.0%, specificity 94.9%, likelihood ratio 19.5). Conclusions: Several single MRI features have a substantial diagnostic value in the identification of ALT, yet a multiparametric approach by a simple combination algorithm may support radiologists in the identification of lipomatous tumors in need for further histological assessment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radiologic Approach to Soft Tissue Sarcomas)
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14 pages, 516 KiB  
Article
The Potential of Adding Mammography to Handheld Ultrasound or Automated Breast Ultrasound to Reduce Unnecessary Biopsies in BI-RADS Ultrasound Category 4a: A Multicenter Hospital-Based Study in China
by Wenhui Ren, Xuelian Zhao, Xiaowei Zhao, Huijiao Yan, Shangying Hu, Youlin Qiao, Zhijian Xu and Fanghui Zhao
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(3), 3301-3314; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30030251 - 13 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1830
Abstract
The appropriate management strategies for BI-RADS category 4a lesions among handheld ultrasound (HHUS) remain a matter of debate. We aimed to explore the role of automated breast ultrasound (ABUS) or the second-look mammography (MAM) adjunct to ultrasound (US) of 4a masses to reduce [...] Read more.
The appropriate management strategies for BI-RADS category 4a lesions among handheld ultrasound (HHUS) remain a matter of debate. We aimed to explore the role of automated breast ultrasound (ABUS) or the second-look mammography (MAM) adjunct to ultrasound (US) of 4a masses to reduce unnecessary biopsies. Women aged 30 to 69 underwent HHUS and ABUS from 2016 to 2017 at five high-level hospitals in China, with those aged 40 or older also accepting MAM. Logistic regression analysis assessed image variables correlated with false-positive lesions in US category 4a. Unnecessary biopsies, invasive cancer (IC) yields, and diagnostic performance among different biopsy thresholds were compared. A total of 1946 women (44.9 ± 9.8 years) were eligible for analysis. The false-positive rate of category 4a in ABUS was almost 65.81% (77/117), which was similar to HHUS (67.55%; 127/188). Orientation, architectural distortion, and duct change were independent factors associated with the false-positive lesions in 4a of HHUS, whereas postmenopausal, calcification, and architectural distortion were significant features of ABUS (all p < 0.05). For HHUS, both unnecessary biopsy rate and IC yields were significantly reduced when changing biopsy thresholds by adding MAM for US 4a in the total population (scenario #1:BI-RADS 3, 4, and 5; scenario #2: BI-RADS 4 and 5) compared with the current scenario (all p < 0.05). Notably, scenario #1 reduced false-positive biopsies without affecting IC yields when compared to the current scenario for ABUS (p < 0.001; p = 0.125). The higher unnecessary biopsy rate of category 4a by ABUS was similar to HHUS. However, the second-look MAM adjunct to ABUS has the potential to safely reduce false-positive biopsies compared with HHUS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Breast Cancer)
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12 pages, 1319 KiB  
Article
A Nomogram for Preoperative Prediction of the Risk of Lymph Node Metastasis in Patients with Epithelial Ovarian Cancer
by Huiling Xiang, Fan Yang, Xiaojing Zheng, Baoyue Pan, Mingxiu Ju, Shijie Xu and Min Zheng
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(3), 3289-3300; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30030250 - 13 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1806
Abstract
Objective: To develop a nomogram for predicting lymph node metastasis (LNM) in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Methods: Between December 2012 and August 2022, patients with EOC who received computed tomography (CT) and serological examinations and were treated with upfront staging or [...] Read more.
Objective: To develop a nomogram for predicting lymph node metastasis (LNM) in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Methods: Between December 2012 and August 2022, patients with EOC who received computed tomography (CT) and serological examinations and were treated with upfront staging or debulking surgery were included. Systematic pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy was performed in all patients. Univariate and multivariate analysis was used to identify significant risk factors associated with LNM. A nomogram was then constructed to assess the risk of LNM, which was evaluated with respect to its area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), calibration, and clinical usefulness. Results: Of 212 patients enrolled in this study, 78 (36.8%) had positive LNs. The nomogram integrating CT-reported LN status, child-bearing status, tumour laterality, and stage showed good calibration and discrimination with an AUC of 0.775, significantly improving performance over the CT results (0.699, p = 0.0002) with a net reclassification improvement of 0.593 (p < 0.001) and integrated discrimination improvement of 0.054 (p < 0.001). The decision curve analysis showed the nomogram was of clinical use. Conclusions: A nomogram was constructed and internally validated, which may act as a decision aid in patients with EOC being considered for systemic lymphadenectomy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Surgical Oncology)
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12 pages, 4429 KiB  
Technical Note
Optimizing Growth of the Future Liver Remnant and Making In-Situ Liver Transsection Safe—A Standardized Approach to ISLT or ALPPS
by Andrea Alexander, Nadja Lehwald-Tywuschik, Alexander Rehders, Levent Dizdar, Georg Fluegen, Sami Alexander Safi and Wolfram Trudo Knoefel
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(3), 3277-3288; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30030249 - 13 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1426
Abstract
In-situ splitting of the liver before extended resection has gained broad attention. This two-step procedure requires several measures to make an effective and safe procedure. Although the procedure is performed in many institutions, there is no consensus on a uniform technique. The two [...] Read more.
In-situ splitting of the liver before extended resection has gained broad attention. This two-step procedure requires several measures to make an effective and safe procedure. Although the procedure is performed in many institutions, there is no consensus on a uniform technique. The two steps can be divided into different parts and a standardized technique may render the procedure safer and the results will be easier to evaluate. In this paper, we describe a detailed approach to in-situ splitting that allows making both procedures safe, avoids liver necrosis, and is easily reproducible. In the first procedure the portal branches to segments I and IV to VIII are divided, the arterial branches and bile ducts to these segments are preserved and encircled and the parenchyma between segments II/III and IVa/b is divided. This avoids necrosis and bile leaks of segments I and IV and avoids urgent completion operations. In particular, the handling of vital structures close to the dissection line seems important to us. Complete splitting and securing the right and middle hepatic vein will make the second step of this procedure a minimal-risk procedure at a stage where the patient is still recovering from the more demanding first step. Full article
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14 pages, 416 KiB  
Review
Vitamin D and Multiple Myeloma: A Scoping Review
by Naghmeh Mirhosseini, Athanasios Psihogios, Meagan D. McLaren and Dugald Seely
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(3), 3263-3276; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30030248 - 11 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1930
Abstract
As the global incidence of multiple myeloma (MM) increases, the identification of modifiable risk factors for disease prevention becomes paramount. Maintaining optimal vitamin D status is a candidate for prevention efforts, based on pre-clinical evidence of a possible role in disease activity and [...] Read more.
As the global incidence of multiple myeloma (MM) increases, the identification of modifiable risk factors for disease prevention becomes paramount. Maintaining optimal vitamin D status is a candidate for prevention efforts, based on pre-clinical evidence of a possible role in disease activity and progression. A structured scoping review was performed to identify and describe human-level research regarding the association between vitamin D and MM risk and/or prognosis. Searches of three databases (OVID-Medline, OVID-Embase, and OVID-Cochrane Library) yielded 15 included publications. Vitamin D deficiency is fairly common among patients with MM, with 42.3% of participants in the studies identified as having a vitamin D deficiency. No included publication reported on vitamin D status and the risk of developing or being newly diagnosed with MM. Possible associations with vitamin D that warrant future exploration include the incident staging of MM disease, the occurrence of peripheral neuropathy, and survival/prognosis. Vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphisms associated with MM also warrant further investigation. Overall, this scoping review was effective in mapping the research regarding vitamin D and MM and may help support new hypotheses to better describe this association and to better address identified knowledge gaps in the literature. Full article
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12 pages, 1262 KiB  
Article
Descriptive Analysis of First-Line Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment with Pembrolizumab in Tumors Expressing PD-L1 ≥ 50% in Patients Treated in Quebec’s University Teaching Hospitals (DALP-First Study)
by Ghislain Bérard, Chantal Guévremont, Nathalie Marcotte, Coleen Schroeder, Nicole Bouchard and Raghu Rajan
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(3), 3251-3262; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30030247 - 11 Mar 2023
Viewed by 2011
Abstract
Since July 2017, pembrolizumab has been approved as a first-line treatment of metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in patients with a PD-L1 score ≥ 50% in Quebec. Study objectives were to describe and assess the real-world use of pembrolizumab; report progression-free survival [...] Read more.
Since July 2017, pembrolizumab has been approved as a first-line treatment of metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in patients with a PD-L1 score ≥ 50% in Quebec. Study objectives were to describe and assess the real-world use of pembrolizumab; report progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and immune-related adverse events (IRAEs); and compare outcomes between a fixed dose (FD) and a weight-based capped dose (WCD). Medical records of patients treated in one of Quebec’s four adult university teaching hospitals who received pembrolizumab between 1 November 2017 and 31 October 2019 were reviewed and followed until 29 February 2020. Two hundred and seventy-nine patients were included. The median real-world PFS and OS were 9.4 (95% CI, 6.6 to 11.2) and 17.3 months (95% CI, 12.9 to not reached), respectively. IRAEs causing delays or treatment interruptions were seen in 34.4% of patients. Initiating treatment with a FD (49 patients) or using a WCD (230 patients) does not appear to affect PFS, OS, or the occurrence of IRAEs. The use of a WCD strategy allowed approximately CAD 5.8 million in savings during the course of our study. These findings support the effectiveness and safety of pembrolizumab in a real-world setting. The use of a WCD does not appear to have a negative impact on patient outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunotherapy in Thoracic Malignancies)
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19 pages, 692 KiB  
Review
Anal Cancer: The Past, Present and Future
by Talha Ashraf Gondal, Noman Chaudhary, Husnaat Bajwa, Aribah Rauf, Duc Le and Shahid Ahmed
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(3), 3232-3250; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30030246 - 11 Mar 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 5348
Abstract
Anal cancer is a rare cancer that accounts for about 2% of all gastrointestinal tract malignancies. Among anal cancer, squamous cell cancer is the most common malignancy. The incidence of all stages of anal squamous cell cancer has been increasing. Human papillomavirus infection [...] Read more.
Anal cancer is a rare cancer that accounts for about 2% of all gastrointestinal tract malignancies. Among anal cancer, squamous cell cancer is the most common malignancy. The incidence of all stages of anal squamous cell cancer has been increasing. Human papillomavirus infection and immunosuppression are major risk factors for anal cancer. The management of anal cancer has evolved over the past several decades and continues to do so. Chemoradiation therapy remains the mainstay for treatment for most patients with early-stage disease, whereas systemic therapy is the primary treatment for patients with metastatic disease. Patients with persistent disease or recurrence following chemoradiation therapy are treated with salvage surgery. Access to novel cytotoxic combinations and immunotherapy has improved the outcomes of patients with advanced disease. This review provides an overview of advances in the management of anal cancer over the past two decades. This paper reviews the epidemiology, risk factors, pathology, diagnosis, and management of localized and advanced anal squamous cell cancer, highlights current knowledge gaps in the management of anal cancer, and discusses future directions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gastrointestinal Oncology)
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9 pages, 752 KiB  
Communication
Survival Benefits of Adjuvant Chemotherapy for Positive Soft Tissue Surgical Margins Following Radical Cystectomy in Bladder Cancer with Extravesical Extension
by Prithvi B. Murthy, Shreyas Naidu, Facundo Davaro, Philippe E. Spiess, Logan Zemp, Michael Poch, Rohit Jain, Aram Vosoughi, G. Daniel Grass, Alice Yu, Wade J. Sexton, Scott M. Gilbert and Roger Li
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(3), 3223-3231; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30030245 - 10 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1369
Abstract
Introduction and Objective: Muscle invasive bladder cancer with extravesical extension is an aggressive disease entity that requires multimodal therapy. The benefits of adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) in patients with a positive soft-tissue surgical margin (STSM), however, are relatively unknown due to exclusion of this [...] Read more.
Introduction and Objective: Muscle invasive bladder cancer with extravesical extension is an aggressive disease entity that requires multimodal therapy. The benefits of adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) in patients with a positive soft-tissue surgical margin (STSM), however, are relatively unknown due to exclusion of this population in randomized controlled trials of AC. We sought to define survival benefits in this patient population through our institutional bladder cancer database. Methods: Retrospective review of all patients undergoing radical cystectomy for urothelial carcinoma of the bladder from 2004–2020 with ≥pT3b disease irrespective of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) use was conducted. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) estimates were obtained using the Kaplan-Meier method with log-rank test, and the Cox-proportional hazards model was used to identify predictors of improved PFS and OS. AC was defined by any chemotherapy use within 90 days of cystectomy, regardless of STSM status. Results: 476 patients with pT3b disease or worse were identified. Median follow-up was 12.3 months. An amount of 21% of patients were treated with AC. An amount of 24% of patients had positive STSM. Median OS for patients with positive STSM was 8.4 months [95% CI 7–11.5] and 18.3 months [95% CI 15.6–20.8] (p < 0.001) for patients with negative STSM. In the overall cohort, positive STSM (HR 1.93, 95% CI 1.45–2.57, p < 0.001), AC use (HR 0.68, 95% CI 0.51–0.90, p = 0.007), and pN1–3 disease (HR 1.47, 95% CI 1.16–1.87, p = 0.002) were independent predictors of OS when adjusted for performance status, pT-stage, and neoadjuvant chemotherapy use. In patients with positive STSM, median survival was seven months [95% CI 5.2–8.4] without AC, compared to 16.2 months [95% CI 11.5–52.5] with AC (p = 0.0038). For patients with negative STSM, median survival was 17.4 months [95% CI 14–20.1] without AC compared to 22.3 months [95% CI 17.2–36.9] with AC (p = 0.23). In patients with positive STSM, AC use was the only factor associated with an OS benefit with a HR of 0.41 (95% CI 0.21–0.78, p = 0.007). In patients with negative STSM, pT4 and pN1–3 disease were the only factors associated with worse overall survival with a HR of 1.32 (95% CI 1.00–1.74, p = 0.050) and 1.97 (95% CI 1.49–2.60, p < 0.001), respectively. Conclusions: Administration of adjuvant chemotherapy is of particular benefit in patients with positive STSM following radical cystectomy for gross extravesical disease. Positive STSM may be a representative of “early metastatic” or micrometastatic disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current and Future Bladder Cancer Landscape)
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6 pages, 208 KiB  
Communication
Primary Prophylaxis Lapelga® in Early Breast Cancer: A Real-World Experience
by Fahad Khan, Morgan Black, Alaina Charlton and Jawaid Younus
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(3), 3217-3222; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30030244 - 09 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1593
Abstract
Background: Lapelga® was approved by Health Canada as a pegfilgrastim biosimilar in 2019 and remains the most commonly used biosimilar in Ontario and is fully reimbursed under the Ontario Drug Benefit program in this category. We explored the efficacy and tolerability of [...] Read more.
Background: Lapelga® was approved by Health Canada as a pegfilgrastim biosimilar in 2019 and remains the most commonly used biosimilar in Ontario and is fully reimbursed under the Ontario Drug Benefit program in this category. We explored the efficacy and tolerability of Lapelga® in a retrospective analysis of patients with early breast cancer who underwent adjuvant chemotherapy supported with Lapelga® as a primary prophylaxis. Methods: Adult patients with early breast cancer treated with adjuvant chemotherapy at the London Regional Cancer Program in London, ON, Canada between May 2019 and June 2022 were included. All of these patients were supported with Lapelga® as the primary prophylaxis. Patients’ age, tumour, and nodal status, their type of chemotherapy, co-morbid conditions, and incidence of febrile neutropenia (FN) and its related details as well as any reported side effects to Lapelga® were collected. Results: A total of 201 patients were included in this review with majority (78%) of patients under 65 years of age. One third of patients were treated with the adriamycin and cyclophosphamide (AC)-Paclitaxel dose dense chemotherapy and a quarter of patients with either a docetaxel and cyclophosphamide (TC) combination or an AC-dose dense with Paclitaxel weekly, and 10% or less patients had FEC-D (5-fluorouracil, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide) and AC chemotherapy. FN incidence was only 3.48% in this review (7/201 patients). Patients with FN were admitted to hospital and recovered completely with no mortality reported. No cases of a switch to a different granulocyte colony growth factor were seen. The most frequent side effects from Lapelga® included musculoskeletal pain, fever, and headache. However, the majority of patients (88.6%; 178/201) did not have any reported side effects specifically assigned to Lapelga®. Conclusions: In this single centre retrospective study, early breast cancer patients (n = 201) treated with adjuvant chemotherapy supported with primary prophylaxis with Lapelga® had a low incidence of FN (3.48%). This supports Lapelga® being an effective strategy as the primary prophylaxis when used with common chemotherapy regimens in the real-world setting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medical Oncology)
11 pages, 962 KiB  
Article
Survival Benefit of Experience of Liver Resection for Advanced Recurrent Hepatocellular Carcinoma Treated with Sorafenib: A Propensity Score Matching Analysis
by Kuan-Chun Hsueh, Cheng-Chun Lee, Pi-Teh Huang, Chih-Yu Liang and Shun-Fa Yang
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(3), 3206-3216; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30030243 - 09 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1252
Abstract
Several studies have shown that liver resection (LR) confers better survival outcomes in intermediate- and advanced-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. However, the postoperative recurrence rate is high, and little is known about the survival benefits of LR for recurrent HCC patients who have [...] Read more.
Several studies have shown that liver resection (LR) confers better survival outcomes in intermediate- and advanced-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. However, the postoperative recurrence rate is high, and little is known about the survival benefits of LR for recurrent HCC patients who have already received systemic treatment. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of LR on recurrent advanced-stage HCC patients who received sorafenib as a systemic treatment. In this study, 147 advanced HCC patients were enrolled between 1 January 2012 and 31 December 2019. Two study groups were classified, based on whether they underwent LR or not. To reduce the possible selection bias, a propensity score matching (PSM) analysis was performed. The primary study endpoint was set as overall survival (OS), and the secondary endpoint was set as progression-free survival (PFS). Our study results revealed that advanced HCC patients who received sorafenib with LR had a longer OS than did those without LR, whether before or after PSM (15.0 months vs. 6.0 months, HR 0.45, 95% CI 0.31–0.67, p < 0.001; 15.0 months vs. 5.0 months, HR 0.46, 95% CI 0.28–0.76, p = 0.001). Similar results were obtained in PFS, before or after PSM (4.14 months vs. 2.60 months, HR 0.60, 95% CI 0.40–0.89, p = 0.01; 4.57 months vs. 2.63 months, HR 0.58, 95% CI 0.34–0.97, p = 0.037). Multivariate analysis showed that the experience of LR was independent of other factors associated with better OS and PFS, whether before or after PSM (p < 0.05). Therefore, advanced HCC patients who have undergone liver resection should be encouraged to continue sorafenib treatment to improve prognosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights of Liver Cancer and Its Treatment)
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5 pages, 199 KiB  
Editorial
Progress and Remaining Gaps in the Early Detection and Treatment of Breast Cancer
by Jean M. Seely
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(3), 3201-3205; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30030242 - 08 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1670
Abstract
Breast cancer affects too many of us [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Breast Cancer Imaging and Therapy)
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