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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, Volume 20, Issue 24 (December-2 2023) – 53 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): This ancillary study examined the perceived impact of COVID-19 on leisure-time physical activity barriers and behaviors among a subsample of 171 rural Alabama Black Belt residents enrolled in a larger physical activity trial during the COVID-19 pandemic. Almost half of the participants reported being less active during the pandemic (49.7%) and endorsed that COVID-19 made physical activity more difficult (47.4%), with more women, parents with children living at home, and college graduates reporting that the COVID-19 pandemic made physical activity more difficult. However, findings indicated that these difficulties were not associated with leisure-time physical activity levels or related theoretical mechanisms of action at 3 months, which bodes well for the success of our ongoing intervention efforts and the resiliency of these communities. View this paper
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13 pages, 1381 KiB  
Article
Cognitive Patterns and Problematic Use of Video Games in Adolescents: A Cluster Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(24), 7194; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20247194 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1296
Abstract
Background: Video game playing (VGP) is an increasingly common leisure activity among children and adolescents, although in some cases, it is accompanied by problems due to misuse. Method: A sample of 2884 children and adolescents aged between 12 and 20, representative of the [...] Read more.
Background: Video game playing (VGP) is an increasingly common leisure activity among children and adolescents, although in some cases, it is accompanied by problems due to misuse. Method: A sample of 2884 children and adolescents aged between 12 and 20, representative of the Community of Madrid (Spain), were studied using a cluster analysis to explore the existence of cognitive patterns associated with engagement, attitudes, and concurrent cognitions. We also explored the relationship between these patterns and problematic VGP, using the 2173 gamers as a reference. Results: The concurrent cognitions were not qualitatively different between the problematic users and the others. High engagement and high activation of concurrent cognitions (intensity and frequency) showed the greatest relationship with problematic VGP. Conclusions: The results suggest the existence of different groups of gamers and the relevance to include psycho-educational aspects in intervention programs, as well as the training of specific skills, especially those related with the control of activation. Limitations related to the sample size and potential supplementary analyses are acknowledged. Full article
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10 pages, 307 KiB  
Article
Prevalence and Covariates of Electronic Cigarette Use among Students Aged 13–15 Years in the Philippines: 2019 Global Youth Tobacco Survey
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(24), 7193; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20247193 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 4390
Abstract
Electronic cigarette use is growing in popularity and accessibility among youth in the Southeast Asia region. We analyzed data on 6670 students, aged 13–15 years, from the Philippines’ 2019 Global Youth Tobacco Survey. Prevalence estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated for [...] Read more.
Electronic cigarette use is growing in popularity and accessibility among youth in the Southeast Asia region. We analyzed data on 6670 students, aged 13–15 years, from the Philippines’ 2019 Global Youth Tobacco Survey. Prevalence estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated for current use (i.e., past 30 days), ever use, and awareness of e-cigarettes. Chi-square tests compared prevalence differences between groups. Multiple logistic regression models assessed factors associated with e-cigarette use while controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, current use of other tobacco products, and secondhand smoke exposure. Prevalence of current e-cigarette use was 14.1% (95% CI = 12.4%, 15.8%), ever use was 24.6% (95% CI = 22.4%, 26.9%), and awareness was 75.5% (95% CI = 73.0%, 78.0%). Current use of any other tobacco products and exposure to secondhand smoke at home, school, or other public places were positively associated with current and ever use of e-cigarettes. Boys and youth living in Luzon or Mindanao had higher odds of current e-cigarette use compared to girls and youth in Visayas. Findings indicated that one in four Philippine students aged 13–15 years ever used e-cigarettes and one in seven currently use e-cigarettes. This study highlights the importance of implementing evidence-based strategies, including relevant tobacco control policies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Use in Adolescents and Youth)
14 pages, 636 KiB  
Article
Design, Implementation and Evaluation of an Innovative Pilot Intervention to Improve the Family Quality of Life of Children with Specific Learning Disabilities—A Randomized Controlled Trial
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(24), 7192; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20247192 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1437
Abstract
Background: The high prevalence of learning disabilities among children confirm that learning disabilities are surprisingly common. In the absence of routine screening, many children still go undetected with a huge individual and family burden, while at the same time, the findings of [...] Read more.
Background: The high prevalence of learning disabilities among children confirm that learning disabilities are surprisingly common. In the absence of routine screening, many children still go undetected with a huge individual and family burden, while at the same time, the findings of existing interventions are conflicting. This study reports on the design, implementation and evaluation of an innovative pilot intervention aiming at improving the quality of life of the family of children with specific learning disabilities. Method: For the purposes of this study, we ran a randomized controlled trial employing an experimental research design with two groups (intervention and control). The study population comprised parents of children with specific learning disabilities. Out of the 71 individuals that were eligible for randomization, 42 were allocated to the intervention, and 29 to the control group. A brief parenting intervention model was employed, aiming at improving parenting skills through a stepwise process. The intervention included four skill building sessions conducted over a period of 6 weeks. “Parenting style” (including three dimensions: “Authoritative”, “Authoritarian” and “Permissive”) and “Family Quality of life” (including five dimensions: “Family Interaction”, “Parenting”, “Emotional Well-being”, “Physical/Material Wellbeing” and “Disability-Related Support”) were employed as the outcome measures of this study. Two validated questionnaires were used to measure the study outcomes: “the Parenting Style Questionnaire” and the “Family Quality of Life Scale (FQOL) Questionnaire”. The questionnaires were applied at the pre- and post-intervention level. Findings: An analysis showed that except for the “permissive parenting style”, the intervention and control group had statistically significant differences in all the “Parenting style” and the “Quality of life” dimensions at the post-intervention level. In the intervention group, none of the study dimensions improved at a statistically significant level at the post-intervention level compared to pre-intervention level. According to the cluster analysis, which re-examined successful vs. unsuccessful cases, the intervention was found to have an effect on the average values of all the “quality of life” and “parenting style” dimensions, except for the “Authoritarian Parenting Style”. Conclusions: The study offers evidence on the dimensions of parenting and quality of life mostly affected by a brief intervention as well as on the feasibility, practicality and acceptance of such interventions in local communities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Health Care Sciences & Services)
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12 pages, 1077 KiB  
Article
Prevalence of Postural Changes and Musculoskeletal Disorders in Young Adults
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(24), 7191; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20247191 - 17 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1488
Abstract
Background: Postural changes are considered a public health problem, especially those that affect the spine, as they may predispose to degenerative conditions of the spine in adulthood. Musculoskeletal disorders are the main cause of chronic pain, illness, reduced educational performance, productivity, and quality [...] Read more.
Background: Postural changes are considered a public health problem, especially those that affect the spine, as they may predispose to degenerative conditions of the spine in adulthood. Musculoskeletal disorders are the main cause of chronic pain, illness, reduced educational performance, productivity, and quality of life, and are responsible for increased absenteeism, which could compromise the future career of students. The purpose of this study was to identify the prevalence of postural changes and the occurrence of musculoskeletal disorders in different anatomical regions in the 12 months prior and 7 days prior to the application of the questionnaire and the number of affected anatomical regions. Methods: This is an observational, descriptive, cross-sectional study. It included 508 students selected by a stratified random sample. Our outcomes were the Portuguese version of the Standardized Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire, the Adam’s test, a scoliometer, and the visual analog pain scale associated with the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire. Results: In total, 79.3% of the students tested positive with the Adam’s test. The neck, shoulder, lumbar region, and knee stood out in all of the temporal references, the 12 months prior (44.3%; 35.2%, 50.2%, 34.1%) and the 7 days prior (16.5%, 16.9%; 28.9%, 17.5%), and even in the restriction of activity due to painful symptoms in the 12 months prior (4.3%, 5.3%, 10.6%, 8.5%). Conclusions: Out of 497 students, 403 were identified with postural changes. The high prevalence rate of identified musculoskeletal symptoms in the anatomical regions of the neck, lumbar region, and shoulder raises the need for intervention in students. Gender appears to generate differences between men and women. Pain from multiple body sites is frequent among young adults. Full article
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17 pages, 1874 KiB  
Opinion
Remote Symptom Monitoring to Enhance the Delivery of Palliative Cancer Care in Low-Resource Settings: Emerging Approaches from Africa
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(24), 7190; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20247190 - 17 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1410
Abstract
This paper brings together researchers, clinicians, technology developers and digital innovators to outline current applications of remote symptom monitoring being developed for palliative cancer care delivery in Africa. We outline three remote symptom monitoring approaches from three countries, highlighting their models of delivery [...] Read more.
This paper brings together researchers, clinicians, technology developers and digital innovators to outline current applications of remote symptom monitoring being developed for palliative cancer care delivery in Africa. We outline three remote symptom monitoring approaches from three countries, highlighting their models of delivery and intended outcomes, and draw on their experiences of implementation to guide further developments and evaluations of this approach for palliative cancer care in the region. Through highlighting these experiences and priority areas for future research, we hope to steer efforts to develop and optimise remote symptom monitoring for palliative cancer care in Africa. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Palliative Care and End-of-Life Care)
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16 pages, 680 KiB  
Systematic Review
Quality and Safety of Proximity Care Centered on the Person and Their Domiciliation: Systematic Literature Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(24), 7189; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20247189 - 17 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1484
Abstract
The quality and safety of health care are a priority for health organizations and social institutions to progressively provide people with a higher level of health and well-being. It is in the development of this path that home care currently represents an area [...] Read more.
The quality and safety of health care are a priority for health organizations and social institutions to progressively provide people with a higher level of health and well-being. It is in the development of this path that home care currently represents an area of gradual investment and where health care services and the scientific community have shown interest in building circuits and instruments that can respond to needs. The purpose of this article is to identify areas and criteria for quality and safety in home care. The method used was a systematic review registered in PROSPERO (CRD42022380989). The search was systematically carried out in CINAHL Plus with Full Text, MEDLINE with Full Text and Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection, using the following criteria: articles published in Portuguese and English, from January 2017 to November 2022. The results of the analysis of the articles showed areas of quality and safety in home care with their respective dimensions and operational criteria. We concluded that there are three areas: the intervention with the patient, with proximity and patient-centered care, which integrates the individual care plan and the proximity of professionals to the patient and family; the intervention of care and service management, with care management and clinical governance that includes the integrated model of health care, goal management, and context management; and the intervention related to training and professional development, where we have the skills and training of professionals. Full article
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19 pages, 978 KiB  
Article
Remote Communications between Patients and General Practitioners: Do Patients Choose the Most Effective Communication Routes?
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(24), 7188; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20247188 - 16 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1244
Abstract
The use of remote communication between patients and general practitioners has greatly increased worldwide, especially following the COVID-19 outbreak. Yet, it is important to evaluate the impact of this shift on healthcare quality. This study aimed at evaluating remote healthcare quality by comparing [...] Read more.
The use of remote communication between patients and general practitioners has greatly increased worldwide, especially following the COVID-19 outbreak. Yet, it is important to evaluate the impact of this shift on healthcare quality. This study aimed at evaluating remote healthcare quality by comparing four remote patient-to-physician communication modes used in Israel. The research methodology entailed criteria-based analysis conducted by healthcare quality experts and a subjective patient-perception questionnaire regarding the healthcare quality attributed to each mode and the extent to which each mode was used. Our findings indicate that the extent to which each mode is used was found to be inversely related to its rated quality. As such, the common assumption whereby patients tend to choose the mode of communication that will most likely ensure high service quality is refuted. Our findings also indicate that remote services often hinder the physician’s understanding of the patient’s clinical issues, as patients encounter difficulties in correctly articulating and conveying them; such services also hinder the patient’s understanding of the recommended course of treatment. These findings should be addressed by policymakers for improving remote communication services to ensure optimal healthcare service quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Health Communication and Informatics)
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26 pages, 532 KiB  
Review
Using Non-Violent Discipline Tools: Evidence Suggesting the Importance of Attunement
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(24), 7187; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20247187 - 15 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1533
Abstract
Training in non-violent discipline is important to prevent violence against children and ensure that their caregivers remain a safe base for them. This paper aims to deepen understanding of non-violent discipline by exploring attunement as a mechanism in the effectiveness of non-violent discipline [...] Read more.
Training in non-violent discipline is important to prevent violence against children and ensure that their caregivers remain a safe base for them. This paper aims to deepen understanding of non-violent discipline by exploring attunement as a mechanism in the effectiveness of non-violent discipline tools. Attunement describes the sensitive responsiveness of caregivers towards their children and has been found to be central to the formation of secure attachment bonds and development of self-regulation. It includes understanding or being “in tune with” the child’s needs and signals, matching these with appropriate responses. The objective of this paper is to explore attunement in relation to non-violent discipline. Peer-reviewed systematic reviews previously included in a systematic overview of evidence on non-violent discipline options were screened for information relevant to attunement. All reviews were published in English between 1999 and 2018 and offered evidence on at least one non-violent discipline tool. Although no reviews explicitly addressed attunement, evidence was found suggesting its importance in the use and effectiveness of discipline methods. Research directly investigating attunement in discipline is needed. Full article
15 pages, 409 KiB  
Article
Satisfaction of Basic Psychological Needs as Predictors of Motivation towards Physical Education in Primary Education: Influence of Gender and Physical Self-Concept
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(24), 7186; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20247186 - 15 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1903
Abstract
The aims of this study are as follows: (a) to determine the level of physical self-concept, satisfaction with basic psychological needs (BNP), and motivation towards physical education (PE) among primary education school students; (b) to analyze the correlations between the different variables; to [...] Read more.
The aims of this study are as follows: (a) to determine the level of physical self-concept, satisfaction with basic psychological needs (BNP), and motivation towards physical education (PE) among primary education school students; (b) to analyze the correlations between the different variables; to (c) identify gender differences in the studied variables; and (d) to examine the capacity of BPN, physical self-concept, and gender as predictors of different types of motivation towards PE. The sample comprises 474 primary school students (average age = 10.58; SD = 0.626) from four educational centers in A Coruña, Spain. A multivariable linear regression analysis was conducted to determine whether independent variables of BPN, gender, and physical self-concept can predict different types of motivation towards PE. The results show that satisfaction with the BPN of autonomy is significantly lower than the other two variables. Moreover, there is a positive and significant correlation between physical self-concept and satisfaction with BPN, as well as with intrinsic, identified, and introjected motivations. Boys outperform girls in physical self-concept, satisfaction with competence and socialization BPNs, and introjected, external, and amotivation motivations. The main conclusion is that BPNs solely forecast the most self-determined motivations (intrinsic and identified), have a restricted influence on introjected motivations, and do not predict external regulation or amotivation. Neither gender nor physical self-concept significantly contributes to predicting any motivation towards PE at these ages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Education: Present and Future)
14 pages, 1636 KiB  
Systematic Review
Assessing Ethnic Minority Representation in Fibromyalgia Clinical Trials: A Systematic Review of Recruitment Demographics
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(24), 7185; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20247185 - 15 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1386
Abstract
The under-representation of non-White participants in Western countries in clinical research has received increased attention, due to recognized physiological differences between ethnic groups, which may affect the efficacy and optimal dosage of some treatments. This review assessed ethnic diversity in pharmaceutical trials for [...] Read more.
The under-representation of non-White participants in Western countries in clinical research has received increased attention, due to recognized physiological differences between ethnic groups, which may affect the efficacy and optimal dosage of some treatments. This review assessed ethnic diversity in pharmaceutical trials for fibromyalgia, a poorly understood chronic pain disorder. We also investigated longitudinal change to non-White participant proportions in trials and non-White participants’ likelihood to discontinue with fibromyalgia research between trial stages (retention). First, we identified relevant trials conducted in the United States and Canada between 2000 and 2022, by searching PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and the Cochrane Library databases. In trials conducted both across the United States and Canada, and exclusively within the United States, approximately 90% of participants were White. A longitudinal analysis also found no change in the proportion of non-White participants in trials conducted across the United States and Canada between 2000 and 2022. Finally, we found no significant differences in trial retention between White and non-White participants. This review highlights the low numbers of ethnic minorities in fibromyalgia trials conducted in the United States and Canada, with no change to these proportions over the past 22 years. Furthermore, non-White participants were not more likely to discontinue with the fibromyalgia research once they were recruited. Full article
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16 pages, 1047 KiB  
Article
Implementation of the Lean Healthcare System in the Emergency Room of the Clinical Hospital of the Federal University of Uberlândia: A Case Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(24), 7184; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20247184 - 15 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1236
Abstract
The objective of this study was to analyze the effectiveness of the implementation of the lean healthcare system at the emergency room of the Clinical Hospital of the Federal University of Uberlândia, based on a comparison of hospital indicators obtained over the three [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to analyze the effectiveness of the implementation of the lean healthcare system at the emergency room of the Clinical Hospital of the Federal University of Uberlândia, based on a comparison of hospital indicators obtained over the three phases corresponding to the period of one year before the implementation (T1), the year during the implementation (T2) and one year after implementation (T3). The methodology applied through this study can be classified as a case study that is exploratory and descriptive and developed in stages. Based herein on the search for hospital indicators, as occurred in the implementation of a lean process at the Clinical Hospital Emergency Department, along with a description of the implemented lean system. During the collection period of data relevant to the National Emergency Department Overcrowding Score and Length of Stay Indicator, the motivation of the teams grew, but with a notable tension between municipal management and hospital management. It was found that, despite the fluctuations, the patient length of stay in the Emergency Room remained high. With the exception of the variable of female deaths before 24 h of hospitalization, all other variables showed percentage increases before and after the intervention. This study reported the difficulties encountered by HC-UFU in implementing the lean project in an emergency room, thus ensuring that other institutions that intend to implement this project do not make the same types of mistakes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Communication and Information Technology in Healthcare Management)
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16 pages, 704 KiB  
Article
Perspectives on Autism Spectrum Disorder Diagnosis, Symptoms, Treatment and Gender Roles: A Qualitative Study of Similarities and Differences between Sexes
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(24), 7183; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20247183 - 15 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1335
Abstract
This study aims to compare the experiences of women and men of different age groups with regard to their first autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnosis, symptoms, treatment, and gender roles to inform our understanding in clinical practice of differences as well as similarities. [...] Read more.
This study aims to compare the experiences of women and men of different age groups with regard to their first autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnosis, symptoms, treatment, and gender roles to inform our understanding in clinical practice of differences as well as similarities. Semi-structured interviews were conducted amongst 22 women (n = 12) and men (n = 10) in three adult age groups regarding their diagnostic process, symptoms, treatment, and gender roles. Participants also filled out questionnaires on gender traits, social support, coping, and quality of life. Framework analysis guidelines were followed to identify subthemes within the three pre-defined key themes of the semi-structured interviews, and quantitative analyses were performed on the questionnaire results. Women often had caregiver roles and were more focused on social and family-oriented life aspects than men. Family and societal expectations may have been different for women from an early age onward and were considered burdensome by some, but not all. Views on ASD diagnosis, symptoms, and treatment were largely individually determined. The questionnaire results mostly showed no significant sex differences. Perceived gender roles differed between participants. In diagnosis and treatment, awareness of general gender differences and gender roles is important, but inter-individual differences and similar experiences in men should not be overlooked. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gender Differences in Mental Health)
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22 pages, 445 KiB  
Article
Individual Differences on Wellbeing Indices during the COVID-19 Quarantine in Greece: A National Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(24), 7182; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20247182 - 15 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1192
Abstract
The impact of COVID-19 and the associated lockdown measures on people’s physical and mental wellbeing, as well as their daily lives and functioning, has been extensively studied. This study takes the approach of investigating the consequences of COVID-19 on a national scale, considering [...] Read more.
The impact of COVID-19 and the associated lockdown measures on people’s physical and mental wellbeing, as well as their daily lives and functioning, has been extensively studied. This study takes the approach of investigating the consequences of COVID-19 on a national scale, considering sociodemographic factors. The main objective is to make a contribution to ongoing research by specifically examining how age, gender, and marital status influence the overall impact of COVID-19 and wellbeing indicators during the second lockdown period that was implemented in response to the COVID-19 pandemic in the Greek population. The study involved a sample of 16,906 individuals of all age groups in Greece who completed an online questionnaire encompassing measurements related to personal wellbeing, the presence and search for meaning in life, positive relationships, as well as symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress. Additionally, to gauge the levels of the perceived COVID-19-related impact, a valid and reliable scale was developed. The results reveal that a higher perception of COVID-19 consequences is positively associated with psychological symptoms and the search for meaning in life, while being negatively correlated with personal wellbeing and the sense of meaning in life. In terms of individual differences, the findings indicate that unmarried individuals, young adults, and females tend to report higher levels of psychological symptoms, a greater search for meaning in life, and a heightened perception of COVID-19-related impact. These findings are analyzed in depth, and suggestions for potential directions for future research are put forth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Mental Health)
9 pages, 324 KiB  
Article
Greatest Risk Factor for Death from COVID-19: Older Age, Chronic Disease Burden, or Place of Residence? Descriptive Analysis of Population-Level Canadian Data
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(24), 7181; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20247181 - 15 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1222
Abstract
During the first wave of COVID-19, three-quarters of Canadian deaths were among those age 80 and older. We examined whether age, chronic disease load, sex, or place was the strongest predictor of such deaths. A cross-sectional analysis of administrative data from 1 January [...] Read more.
During the first wave of COVID-19, three-quarters of Canadian deaths were among those age 80 and older. We examined whether age, chronic disease load, sex, or place was the strongest predictor of such deaths. A cross-sectional analysis of administrative data from 1 January 2020 to 30 October 2020 for the population of Ontario (n = 15,023,174) was performed. Using logistic regression analysis, we determined whether place of residence (community dwelling, community dwelling with formal home care, or long-term care facility), age group, sex, or chronic disease burden was most strongly associated with the outcome of death within 60 days of a positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR test. Overall, there were 2766 deaths attributed to COVID-19. The age-related odds of dying increased from 6.1 (age 65–74) to 13.4 (age 85 or older) relative to those aged <65 years. This age effect was dwarfed by an odds ratio of 117.1 for those living in long-term care versus independently in the community, adjusted for age, sex, and chronic disease burden. The risk of death from COVID-19 aligned much more with social realities than individual risks. The disproportionate mortality arising specifically from institutional residence demands action to identify sources and ameliorate the harms of living in such facilities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nursing Home Care during the COVID-19 Pandemic)
14 pages, 675 KiB  
Article
Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Physical Activity among Mostly Older, Overweight Black Women Living in the Rural Alabama Black Belt
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(24), 7180; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20247180 - 15 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1672
Abstract
Despite well-documented global declines in physical activity (PA) during the COVID-19 pandemic, little is known regarding the specific impact among underserved, rural Alabama counties. This is concerning as this region was already disproportionately burdened by inactivity and related chronic diseases and was among [...] Read more.
Despite well-documented global declines in physical activity (PA) during the COVID-19 pandemic, little is known regarding the specific impact among underserved, rural Alabama counties. This is concerning as this region was already disproportionately burdened by inactivity and related chronic diseases and was among the hardest hit by COVID-19. Thus, the current study examined the effect of COVID-19 on PA in four rural Alabama counties. An ancillary survey was administered between March 2020 and August 2021 to the first cohort (N = 171) of participants enrolled in a larger PA trial. Main outcomes of this survey included the perceived impact of COVID-19 on PA, leisure-time PA, and social cognitive theory (SCT) constructs at 3 months. Almost half of the participants reported being less active during the pandemic (49.7%) and endorsed that COVID-19 made PA more difficult (47.4%), citing concerns such as getting sick from exercising outside of the home (70.4%) and discomfort wearing a face mask while exercising (58%). Perceived COVID-19 impact on PA was significantly associated with education, household dependents, and gender (p’s < 0.05). More women, parents, and college graduates reported that the COVID-19 pandemic made PA more difficult. Overall, there were no significant associations between PA, SCT constructs, or perceived COVID-19 impact on PA scores at 3 months. While the pandemic made PA difficult for many participants, these barriers were not associated with leisure-time PA levels or related theoretical mechanisms of action, which bodes well for the success of our ongoing intervention efforts and the resiliency of these communities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Fitness and Exercise During the COVID-19 Pandemic)
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10 pages, 351 KiB  
Article
Prioritizing Patient Safety: Analysis of the Procurement Process of Infusion Pumps in Spain
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(24), 7179; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20247179 - 14 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1225
Abstract
To understand whether patient safety and human factors are considered in healthcare technology procurement, we analyzed the case of infusion pumps as their use critically affects patient safety. We reviewed infusion pump procurements in the Spanish Public Sector Procurement Database. Sixty-three batches in [...] Read more.
To understand whether patient safety and human factors are considered in healthcare technology procurement, we analyzed the case of infusion pumps as their use critically affects patient safety. We reviewed infusion pump procurements in the Spanish Public Sector Procurement Database. Sixty-three batches in 29 tenders for supplying 12.224 volumetric and syringe infusion pumps and consumables for an overall budget of EUR 30.4 M were identified and reviewed. Concepts related to “ease of use” were identified in the selection requirements of 35 (55.6%) batches, as part of the criteria for the selection of pumps in 23 (36.5%) batches, related to “intuitiveness” in the selection requirements of 35 (55.6%) batches, and in the criteria in 10 (15.9%) batches. No method to evaluate the ease of use, intuitiveness, or usability was mentioned. A review of the procurement teams responsible for the evaluation of the tenders showed no reported human factors or patient safety expertise. We conclude that infusion pump procurement considers usability as a relevant criterion for selection. However, no human factor experts nor specific methods for evaluation of the technology in this field are usually defined. Potential room for refining the selection of healthcare technology to improve patient safety is detected. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improving Healthcare Quality)
14 pages, 685 KiB  
Article
Development of a Pilot Literacy Scale to Assess Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors towards Climate Change and Infectious Disease Dynamics in Suriname
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(24), 7178; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20247178 - 14 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1276
Abstract
Prior research has shown that climate literacy is sparse among low- and middle-income countries. Additionally, no standardized questionnaire exists for researchers to measure climate literacy among general populations, particularly with regards to climate change effects on vector-borne diseases (VBDs). We developed a comprehensive [...] Read more.
Prior research has shown that climate literacy is sparse among low- and middle-income countries. Additionally, no standardized questionnaire exists for researchers to measure climate literacy among general populations, particularly with regards to climate change effects on vector-borne diseases (VBDs). We developed a comprehensive literacy scale to assess current knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors towards climate change and VBD dynamics among women enrolled in the Caribbean Consortium for Research in Environmental and Occupational Health (CCREOH) cohort in Suriname. Items were generated by our research team and reviewed by a group of six external climate and health experts. After the expert review, a total of 31 climate change and 21 infectious disease items were retained. We estimated our sample size at a 10:1 ratio of participants to items for each scale. In total, 301 women were surveyed. We validated our scales through exploratory (n = 180) and confirmatory factor analyses (n = 121). An exploratory factor analysis for our general Climate Change Scale provided a four-construct solution of 11 items. Our chi-squared value (X2 = 74.32; p = 0.136) indicated that four factors were sufficient. A confirmatory factor analysis reinforced our findings, providing a good model fit (X2 = 39.03; p = 0.23; RMSEA = 0.015). Our Infectious Disease Scale gave a four-construct solution of nine items (X2 = 153.86; p = 0.094). A confirmatory factor analysis confirmed these results, with a chi-squared value of 19.16 (p = 0.575) and an RMSEA of 0.00. This research is vitally important for furthering climate and health education, especially with increases in VBDs spread by Aedes mosquitoes in the Caribbean, South America, and parts of the southern United States. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Global Climate Change and Public Health)
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20 pages, 595 KiB  
Article
Housing Insecurity and Other Syndemic Factors Experienced by Black and Latina Cisgender Women in Austin, Texas: A Qualitative Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(24), 7177; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20247177 - 13 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1369
Abstract
Austin, Texas emerged as one of the fastest-growing cities in the U.S. over the past decade. Urban transformation has exacerbated inequities and reduced ethnic/racial diversity among communities. This qualitative study focused on housing insecurity and other syndemic factors among Black and Latina cisgender [...] Read more.
Austin, Texas emerged as one of the fastest-growing cities in the U.S. over the past decade. Urban transformation has exacerbated inequities and reduced ethnic/racial diversity among communities. This qualitative study focused on housing insecurity and other syndemic factors among Black and Latina cisgender women (BLCW). Data collection from 18 BLCW using in-depth interviews guided by syndemic theory was conducted three times over three months between 2018 and 2019. Four housing insecurity categories emerged: (a) very unstable, (b) unstable, (c) stable substandard, and (d) stable costly. Participants who experienced more stable housing, particularly more stable housing across interviews, reported fewer instances of intimate partner violence (IPV), less substance use, and a reduced risk of acquiring HIV. Results identified the importance of exploring housing insecurity with other syndemic factors among BLCW along with determining structural- and multi-level interventions to improve housing circumstances and other syndemic factors. Future research should explore these factors in other geographic locations, among other intersectional communities, and among larger sample sizes and consider using a mixed methods approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Global Housing Crisis, Homelessness and Health)
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10 pages, 651 KiB  
Article
Exploring Rehabilitation Provider Experiences of Providing Health Services for People Living with Long COVID in Alberta
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(24), 7176; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20247176 - 13 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1241
Abstract
Background: COVID-19 infection can result in persistent symptoms, known as long COVID. Understanding the provider experience of service provision for people with long COVID symptoms is crucial for improving care quality and addressing potential challenges. Currently, there is limited knowledge about the provider [...] Read more.
Background: COVID-19 infection can result in persistent symptoms, known as long COVID. Understanding the provider experience of service provision for people with long COVID symptoms is crucial for improving care quality and addressing potential challenges. Currently, there is limited knowledge about the provider experience of long COVID service delivery. Aim: To explore the provider experience of delivering health services to people living with long COVID at select primary, rehabilitation, and specialty care sites. Design and setting: This study employed qualitative description methodology. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with frontline providers at primary care, rehabilitation, and specialty care sites across Alberta. Participants were interviewed between June and September 2022. Method: Interviews were conducted virtually over zoom, audio-recorded, and transcribed with consent. Iterative inductive qualitative content analysis of transcripts was employed. Relationships between emergent themes were examined for causality or reciprocity, then clustered into content areas and further abstracted into a priori categories through their interpretive joint meaning. Participants: A total of 15 participants across Alberta representing diverse health care disciplines were interviewed. Results: Main themes include: the importance of education for long COVID recognition; the role of symptom acknowledgement in patient-centred long COVID service delivery; the need to develop recovery expectations; and opportunities for improvement of navigation and wayfinding to long COVID services. Conclusions: Provider experience of delivering long COVID care can be used to inform patient-centred service delivery for persons with long COVID symptoms. Full article
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3 pages, 267 KiB  
Editorial
COVID-19 Outbreak: A Call to Arms for the World Healthcare Systems
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(24), 7175; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20247175 - 13 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1047
Abstract
Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak has placed a strong pressure on worldwide healthcare systems over the last years, testing their capacity to withstand stress [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preventive and Social Medicine in Outbreak Era)
3 pages, 255 KiB  
Editorial
Stress, Prevention, and Resilience among First Responders
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(24), 7174; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20247174 - 13 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1055
Abstract
This Special Issue [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stress, Prevention, and Resilience among First Responders)
14 pages, 1084 KiB  
Article
Upper Airway-Related Symptoms According to Mental Illness and Sleep Disorders among Workers Employed by a Large Non-Profit Organization in the Mountain West Region of the United States
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(24), 7173; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20247173 - 13 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1105
Abstract
The relationships between selected upper airway-related symptoms (speech disturbances, voice disorders, cough, and breathing abnormalities) and mental illness and sleep disorders have been previously demonstrated. However, these relationships have not been compared in a single study with consideration of potential confounding variables. The [...] Read more.
The relationships between selected upper airway-related symptoms (speech disturbances, voice disorders, cough, and breathing abnormalities) and mental illness and sleep disorders have been previously demonstrated. However, these relationships have not been compared in a single study with consideration of potential confounding variables. The current research incorporates a descriptive study design of medical claims data for employees (~21,362 per year 2017–2021) with corporate insurance to evaluate the strength of these relationships, adjusting for demographic variables and other important confounders. The upper airway-related symptoms are each significantly and positively associated with several mental illnesses and sleep disorders, after adjusting for demographic and other potential confounders. The rate of any mental illness is 138% (95% CI 93–195%) higher for speech disturbances, 55% (95% CI 28–88%) higher for voice disorders, 28% (95% CI 22–34%) higher for cough, and 58% (95% CI 50–66%) higher for breathing abnormalities, after adjustment for the confounding variables. Confounding had significant effects on the rate ratios involving cough and breathing abnormalities. The rate of any sleep disorder is 78% (95% CI 34–136%) higher for speech disturbances, 52% (95% CI 21–89%) higher for voice disorders, 34% (95% CI 27–41%) higher for cough, and 172% (95% CI 161–184%) higher for breathing abnormalities, after adjustment for the confounding variables. Confounding had significant effects on each of the upper airway-related symptoms. Rates of mental illness and sleep disorders are positively associated with the number of claims filed for each of the upper airway-related symptoms. The comorbid nature of these conditions should guide clinicians in providing more effective treatment plans that ultimately yield the best outcome for patients. Full article
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16 pages, 1495 KiB  
Article
Ecotoxicology Evaluation of a Fenton—Type Process Catalyzed with Lamellar Structures Impregnated with Fe or Cu for the Removal of Amoxicillin and Glyphosate
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(24), 7172; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20247172 - 13 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1571
Abstract
Antibiotics and pesticides, as well as various emerging contaminants that are present in surface waters, raise significant environmental concerns. Advanced oxidation processes, which are employed to eliminate these substances, have demonstrated remarkable effectiveness. However, during the degradation process, by-products that are not completely [...] Read more.
Antibiotics and pesticides, as well as various emerging contaminants that are present in surface waters, raise significant environmental concerns. Advanced oxidation processes, which are employed to eliminate these substances, have demonstrated remarkable effectiveness. However, during the degradation process, by-products that are not completely mineralized are generated, posing a substantial risk to aquatic ecosystem organisms; therefore, it is crucial to assess effluent ecotoxicity following treatment. This study aimed to assess the toxicity of effluents produced during the removal of amoxicillin and glyphosate with a Fenton-type process using a laminar structure catalyzed with iron (Fe) and copper (Cu). The evaluation included the use of Daphnia magna, Selenastrum capricornutum, and Lactuca sativa, and mutagenicity testing was performed using strains TA98 and TA100 of Salmonella typhimurium. Both treated and untreated effluents exhibited inhibitory effects on root growth in L. sativa, even at low concentrations ranging from 1% to 10% v/v. Similarly, negative impacts on the growth of algal cells of S. capricornutum were observed at concentrations as low as 0.025% v/v, particularly in cases involving amoxicillin–copper (Cu) and glyphosate with copper (Cu) and iron (Fe). Notably, in the case of D. magna, mortality was noticeable even at concentrations of 10% v/v. Additionally, the treatment of amoxicillin with double-layer hydroxides of Fe and Cu resulted in mutagenicity (IM ≥ 2.0), highlighting the necessity to treat the effluent further from the advanced oxidation process to reduce ecological risks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Pollution and Treatment of Emerging Contaminants)
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36 pages, 3970 KiB  
Review
Addressing the Knowledge Deficit in Hospital Bed Planning and Defining an Optimum Region for the Number of Different Types of Hospital Beds in an Effective Health Care System
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(24), 7171; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20247171 - 12 Dec 2023
Viewed by 2451
Abstract
Based upon 30-years of research by the author, a new approach to hospital bed planning and international benchmarking is proposed. The number of hospital beds per 1000 people is commonly used to compare international bed numbers. This method is flawed because it does [...] Read more.
Based upon 30-years of research by the author, a new approach to hospital bed planning and international benchmarking is proposed. The number of hospital beds per 1000 people is commonly used to compare international bed numbers. This method is flawed because it does not consider population age structure or the effect of nearness-to-death on hospital utilization. Deaths are also serving as a proxy for wider bed demand arising from undetected outbreaks of 3000 species of human pathogens. To remedy this problem, a new approach to bed modeling has been developed that plots beds per 1000 deaths against deaths per 1000 population. Lines of equivalence can be drawn on the plot to delineate countries with a higher or lower bed supply. This method is extended to attempt to define the optimum region for bed supply in an effective health care system. England is used as an example of a health system descending into operational chaos due to too few beds and manpower. The former Soviet bloc countries represent a health system overly dependent on hospital beds. Several countries also show evidence of overutilization of hospital beds. The new method is used to define a potential range for bed supply and manpower where the most effective health systems currently reside. The method is applied to total curative beds, medical beds, psychiatric beds, critical care, geriatric care, etc., and can also be used to compare different types of healthcare staff, i.e., nurses, physicians, and surgeons. Issues surrounding the optimum hospital size and the optimum average occupancy will also be discussed. The role of poor policy in the English NHS is used to show how the NHS has been led into a bed crisis. The method is also extended beyond international benchmarking to illustrate how it can be applied at a local or regional level in the process of long-term bed planning. Issues regarding the volatility in hospital admissions are also addressed to explain the need for surge capacity and why an adequate average bed occupancy margin is required for an optimally functioning hospital. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers Collection: Health Care Sciences & Services)
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20 pages, 605 KiB  
Systematic Review
Early-Life Exposure to Perfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS) and Child Language and Communication Development: A Systematic Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(24), 7170; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20247170 - 12 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1559
Abstract
Language development starts during the fetal period when the brain is sensitive to endocrine disruptions from environmental contaminants. This systematic review aims to systematically summarize the existing literature on early-life exposure to PFAS and children’s language and communication development, which is an indicator [...] Read more.
Language development starts during the fetal period when the brain is sensitive to endocrine disruptions from environmental contaminants. This systematic review aims to systematically summarize the existing literature on early-life exposure to PFAS and children’s language and communication development, which is an indicator of neurocognitive development. A structured literature search was conducted using three databases, PubMed, Scopus, and CINAHL, last updated in April 2023. The population was defined as children and young adults. PFAS exposure was assessed pre- or postnatally. The outcome was defined as a language and communication ability assessed with validated instruments, parental self-reports, or clinical language disorder diagnoses. In total, 15 studies were identified for subsequent analyses. Thirteen were performed in background-exposed populations and two in highly exposed populations. There were some indications of potential adverse effects; however, these were not consistent across child sex, age of assessment, or PFAS exposure levels. No systematic effect of early-life PFAS exposure on language and communication development was found. These inconclusive findings may partly be explained by the use of general test instruments with limited validity as to children’s language and communication development. Further studies over a wider exposure range using specific language test instruments are needed. Full article
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13 pages, 559 KiB  
Article
Effects of a Healthy Diet on Reducing Symptoms of Premenstrual Syndrome and Improving Quality of Life among Omani Adolescents: A Randomized Controlled Open-Label Trial
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(24), 7169; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20247169 - 12 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1269
Abstract
Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) continues to impact the health outcomes and emotional well-being of reproductive-age women, globally. Several studies have provided conflicting evidence concerning the role of dietary approaches in improving PMS symptoms. Accordingly, this study aimed to evaluate the possible influence of a [...] Read more.
Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) continues to impact the health outcomes and emotional well-being of reproductive-age women, globally. Several studies have provided conflicting evidence concerning the role of dietary approaches in improving PMS symptoms. Accordingly, this study aimed to evaluate the possible influence of a healthy diet and motivational strategies on PMS symptoms and health-related quality of life among Omani adolescents. This open-label, randomized, prospective controlled trial was conducted at two randomly selected secondary schools, in Al Seeb Willayah, in Muscat region. Adolescents with PMS symptoms, who were in grade 10 or 11, aged 16 years or above, had regular menstrual cycles, and were not known to have psychiatric disorder were included in this study. Participants in the intervention group received an individual face-to-face dietary consultation and motivational phone consultation. The health outcomes, including the PMS symptoms in both groups, and quality of life, were recorded using the Daily Record of Severity of Problems questionnaire (DRSP) and the 14-item Self-Reporting-Based Perceived Stress Scale tools, respectively. The primary outcome was the difference in the mean premenstrual symptom scores between the two groups. Secondary outcomes included the quality of life and stress levels of participants. The study period was from 1 February and ended 30 June 2021. SPSS was used to analyze the data, and intention-to-treat analysis was utilized. A total of 72 adolescents with PMS were randomized into intervention and control groups (n = 36 each). Both groups were similar at baseline (p-value > 0.05). No significant association was found between a healthy diet and PMS symptoms (p-value > 0.05). In addition, no significant association was found between a healthy diet and quality of life at follow-up (p-value = 0.216). The outcomes of this study refuted any possible relationships between a healthy diet and PMS symptoms. Accordingly, dietary consultations may not facilitate the clinical management of PMS symptoms in adolescent females. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Adolescents)
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0 pages, 296 KiB  
Editorial
Introduction to this Special Issue on New Thinking on Psychological Health: Find Purpose and Meaning in Life
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(24), 7168; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20247168 - 12 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1175
Abstract
As illustrated by the articles in this Special Issue [1,2], research on meaning and purpose in life has grown exponentially in recent years [...] Full article
21 pages, 2363 KiB  
Article
Exploring the Impact of Mining on Community Health and Health Service Delivery: Perceptions of Key Informants Involved in Gold Mining Communities in Burkina Faso
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(24), 7167; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20247167 - 12 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1643
Abstract
Sub-Saharan Africa is rich in natural resources but also faces widespread poverty. The United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals brought increased attention to resource extraction projects, emphasizing their development potential in extraction regions. While mining companies are required to conduct environmental impact assessments, their [...] Read more.
Sub-Saharan Africa is rich in natural resources but also faces widespread poverty. The United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals brought increased attention to resource extraction projects, emphasizing their development potential in extraction regions. While mining companies are required to conduct environmental impact assessments, their effect on the project-affected communities’ health mostly lacks systematic management, and their consideration of community perspectives is insufficient. Between March and May 2019, qualitative research was conducted at three industrial gold mines in Burkina Faso. Thirty-six participants, including community leaders, healthcare providers, and mining officials, were interviewed through key informant interviews about their perceptions on the impacts of mining operations on health, health determinants, and health service delivery. Disparities in perceptions were a key focus of the analysis. Mining officials reported mainly positive effects, while healthcare providers and community leaders described enhancing and adverse health impacts without clear trends observed regarding the extent of the impacts on health determinants. The perception of predominantly positive health impacts by mining officials represents a potential risk for insufficient acknowledgement of stakeholders’ concerns and mining-related effects on community health in affected populations. Overall, this study enhances comprehension of the complex interplay between mining operations and health, emphasizing the need for comprehensive assessments, stakeholder involvement, and sustainable practices to mitigate negative impacts and promote the well-being of mining communities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 2nd Edition of Health and Well-Being in Vulnerable Communities)
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16 pages, 386 KiB  
Article
Identifying Challenges and Solutions to Early Childhood Education and the Perceived Importance of Outdoor Time: A Mixed Methods Approach in a Socioeconomically Diverse Population
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(24), 7166; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20247166 - 12 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1224
Abstract
The current literature supports the positive relationship between time in nature and the improvement in children’s health and identifies early childhood education (ECE) settings as an avenue for intervention. Unfortunately, access to both outdoor time and ECE opportunities is lower in communities facing [...] Read more.
The current literature supports the positive relationship between time in nature and the improvement in children’s health and identifies early childhood education (ECE) settings as an avenue for intervention. Unfortunately, access to both outdoor time and ECE opportunities is lower in communities facing economic adversity. Efforts are needed to identify the best approaches to incorporate outdoor time in ECE settings, especially in communities facing socioeconomic adversity. The objectives of this research were to use a mixed methods approach to identify (1) barriers and solutions to the integration of outdoor time in ECE settings, (2) if outdoor time is a priority in ECE settings compared to other ECE priorities, and (3) how socioeconomic status influences ECE priorities and barriers for outdoor time, and health outcomes. Fourteen focus groups were conducted (n = 50) in the United States (US) with participants from three stakeholder groups: outdoor educators, parents of children attending outdoor preschool, and community members with children. Participants completed a survey (n = 49) to evaluate demographics, views on ECE and outdoor time, and health characteristics. Exploratory analyses of F as an effect modifier were conducted. The survey results showed that parents prioritized social and emotional learning and outdoor time when selecting an ECE setting for their child. The barriers identified include financial challenges and the limited availability of ECE programs. The solutions discussed included increased availability and financial support. Low income was correlated with higher rates of anxiety and increased outdoor time was a potential protective factor. These insights inform interventions to enhance outdoor time in ECE settings, with the goal of reducing disparities and promoting children’s overall health. Full article
1 pages, 239 KiB  
Correction
Correction: Laorpipat et al. Attitude of Thai Dental Practitioners towards the Use of Botulinum Toxin in Dentistry. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19, 1878
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(24), 7165; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20247165 - 12 Dec 2023
Viewed by 977
Abstract
There was an error in the original publication [...] Full article
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