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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, Volume 20, Issue 21 (November-1 2023) – 64 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): This groundbreaking study on Portuguese Young Carers (YCs) screened over 9000 adolescents, with 900+ YCs sharing their experiences caring for ill or disabled relatives. The findings underscore the importance of recognizing and addressing the unique needs of Portuguese YCs. They offer valuable insights into factors affecting YCs' well-being and life satisfaction, such as scholar functioning, social support, and the caregiving burden, which closely relates to family dynamics and the extent of their responsibilities. These findings reinforce the adverse impact of being a YC and stress the urgency of providing support for their well-being, personal growth, and nurturing healthy caregiving relationships. This support would benefit individuals, families, communities, and society as a whole. View this paper
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18 pages, 1549 KiB  
Article
Improving Sleep Quality, Daytime Sleepiness, and Cognitive Function in Patients with Dementia by Therapeutic Exercise and NESA Neuromodulation: A Multicenter Clinical Trial
by Esther Teruel-Hernández, José Antonio López-Pina, Sonia Souto-Camba, Aníbal Báez-Suárez, Raquel Medina-Ramírez and Antonia Gómez-Conesa
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(21), 7027; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20217027 - 06 Nov 2023
Viewed by 3230
Abstract
Dementia is a progressive decline in cognitive functions caused by an alteration in the pattern of neural network connections. There is an inability to create new neuronal connections, producing behavioral disorders. The most evident alteration in patients with neurodegenerative diseases is the alteration [...] Read more.
Dementia is a progressive decline in cognitive functions caused by an alteration in the pattern of neural network connections. There is an inability to create new neuronal connections, producing behavioral disorders. The most evident alteration in patients with neurodegenerative diseases is the alteration of sleep–wake behavior. The aim of this study was to test the effect of two non-pharmacological interventions, therapeutic exercise (TE) and non-invasive neuromodulation through the NESA device (NN) on sleep quality, daytime sleepiness, and cognitive function of 30 patients diagnosed with dementia (non-invasive neuromodulation experimental group (NNG): mean ± SD, age: 71.6 ± 7.43 years; therapeutic exercise experimental group (TEG) 75.2 ± 8.63 years; control group (CG) 80.9 ± 4.53 years). The variables were evaluated by means of the Pittsburg Index (PSQI), the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), and the Mini-Cognitive Exam Test at four different times during the study: at baseline, after 2 months (after completion of the NNG), after 5 months (after completion of the TEG), and after 7 months (after 2 months of follow-up). Participants in the NNG and TEG presented significant improvements with respect to the CG, and in addition, the NNG generated greater relevant changes in the three variables with respect to the TEG (sleep quality (p = 0.972), daytime sleepiness (p = 0.026), and cognitive function (p = 0.127)). In conclusion, with greater effects in the NNG, both treatments were effective to improve daytime sleepiness, sleep quality, and cognitive function in the dementia population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Advances in Health of Older Adults)
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13 pages, 1472 KiB  
Article
Community-Engaged Research (CEnR) to Address Gaps in Chronic Kidney Disease Education among Underserved Latines—The CARE Study
by Janet Diaz-Martinez, Laura Kallus, Harris Michael Levine, Frank Lavernia, Aydevis Jean Pierre, Jessica Mancilla, Ale Barthe, Carlos Duran, Wayne Kotzker, Eric Wagner and Michelle M. Hospital
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(21), 7026; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20217026 - 06 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1489
Abstract
Ensuring equitable chronic kidney disease (CKD) education for Latine patients with low health literacy and low English proficiency stands as a critical challenge, and the “Caridad Awareness and Education” (CARE) initiative represents our ongoing effort to address this imperative issue. In collaboration with [...] Read more.
Ensuring equitable chronic kidney disease (CKD) education for Latine patients with low health literacy and low English proficiency stands as a critical challenge, and the “Caridad Awareness and Education” (CARE) initiative represents our ongoing effort to address this imperative issue. In collaboration with twenty-three patients living with CKD, diabetes and/or hypertension and twelve trained Community Health Workers (CHWs) from diverse Latine subgroups, we conducted a research initiative funded by the National Kidney Foundation. Our primary objective was to co-design and test culturally tailored patient education materials (PEMs) for underserved Latine adults at risk for or diagnosed with CKD. We effectively integrated Community-Engaged Research (CEnR) principles with a Human-Centered Design (HCD) approach to create a range of CKD-PEM prototypes in Spanish. Patient preferences for printed educational materials were clear. They favored printed materials that incorporated visual content with concise text over digital, email, texts, or online resources and personalized phone outreach and the involvement of CHWs. Additionally, patients identified their unwavering commitment to their families as a forceful motivator for caring for their kidney health. Currently, a culturally and linguistically tailored CKD flipchart for one-on-one education, led by CHWs, is undergoing a pilot testing phase involving a sample of one hundred Latine patients at risk for or diagnosed with CKD. This innovative approach signifies a commitment to amplifying the insights and expertise of the Latine community afflicted by kidney health disparities, effectively embracing a CEnR to forge meaningful and impactful CKD-PEMs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Health Communication and Informatics)
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11 pages, 679 KiB  
Article
Postpartum Lifestyle Behaviors among Women with Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy: Data from the HUNT Study
by Ingrid Hafskjold, Vegar Rangul, Hanne Ringvoll, Marit Kolberg, Eirin B. Haug, Rune Blomhoff, Hege Berg Henriksen and Julie Horn
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(21), 7025; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20217025 - 06 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1734
Abstract
Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease later in life. Clinical guidelines for postpartum follow-up after HDP often recommend lifestyle counseling to reduce this risk. However, knowledge about lifestyle behaviors and perceptions among women with a [...] Read more.
Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease later in life. Clinical guidelines for postpartum follow-up after HDP often recommend lifestyle counseling to reduce this risk. However, knowledge about lifestyle behaviors and perceptions among women with a history of HDP is limited. We linked data from the fourth survey of the population-based Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT4) with data from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. The associations between HDP and postpartum lifestyle behaviors and perceptions were examined using multivariable logistic regression. In a secondary analysis, HUNT4 participants with a recent history of pre-eclampsia were compared with women with a recent history of pre-eclampsia participating in a postpartum pilot intervention study. Lifestyle behaviors and perceptions were self-reported and included diet (intake frequency of fruits, vegetables, meat, fish, and sugar-sweetened beverages), alcohol intake, physical activity, sleep, smoking, lifestyle satisfaction, and the importance of a healthy lifestyle. Among 7551 parous HUNT4 participants, 610 had a history of HDP. We found no differences in lifestyle behaviors between women with and without a history of HDP. However, women with HDP had higher odds of being unsatisfied with their lifestyle. Women with pre-eclampsia participating in a postpartum lifestyle intervention study tended to have a healthier lifestyle at baseline than women participating in HUNT4. Future studies should explore how lifestyle intervention programs could be adapted to the needs of women who have experienced HDP or other pregnancy complications that are associated with an increased risk of CVD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epidemiology of Cardiovascular Disease and Health Promotion)
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24 pages, 4490 KiB  
Study Protocol
Effects of Aircraft Noise on Sleep: Federal Aviation Administration National Sleep Study Protocol
by Mathias Basner, Ian Barnett, Michele Carlin, Grace H. Choi, Joseph J. Czech, Adrian J. Ecker, Yoni Gilad, Thomas Godwin, Eric Jodts, Christopher W. Jones, Marc Kaizi-Lutu, Jennifer Kali, Jean D. Opsomer, Sierra Park-Chavar, Michael G. Smith, Victoria Schneller, Nianfu Song and Pamela A. Shaw
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(21), 7024; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20217024 - 06 Nov 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1941
Abstract
Aircraft noise can disrupt sleep and impair recuperation. The last U.S. investigation into the effects of aircraft noise on sleep dates back more than 20 years. Since then, traffic patterns and the noise levels produced by single aircraft have changed substantially. It is [...] Read more.
Aircraft noise can disrupt sleep and impair recuperation. The last U.S. investigation into the effects of aircraft noise on sleep dates back more than 20 years. Since then, traffic patterns and the noise levels produced by single aircraft have changed substantially. It is therefore important to acquire current data on sleep disturbance relative to varying degrees of aircraft noise exposure in the U.S. that can be used to check and potentially update the existing noise policy. This manuscript describes the design, procedures, and analytical approaches of the FAA’s National Sleep Study. Seventy-seven U.S. airports with relevant nighttime air traffic from 39 states are included in the sampling frame. Based on simulation-based power calculations, the field study aims to recruit 400 participants from four noise strata and record an electrocardiogram (ECG), body movement, and sound pressure levels in the bedroom for five consecutive nights. The primary outcome of the study is an exposure–response function between the instantaneous, maximum A-weighted sound pressure levels (dBA) of individual aircraft measured in the bedroom and awakening probability inferred from changes in heart rate and body movement. Self-reported sleep disturbance due to aircraft noise is the secondary outcome that will be associated with long-term average noise exposure metrics such as the Day–Night Average Sound Level (DNL) and the Nighttime Equivalent Sound Level (Lnight). The effect of aircraft noise on several other physiological and self-report outcomes will also be investigated. This study will provide key insights into the effects of aircraft noise on objectively and subjectively assessed sleep disturbance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Noise and Sleep: 2nd Edition)
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36 pages, 2974 KiB  
Article
Female Leadership during COVID-19: The Effectiveness of Diverse Approaches towards Mitigation Management during a Pandemic
by Esra Ozdenerol, Rebecca Michelle Bingham-Byrne and Jacob Seboly
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(21), 7023; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20217023 - 06 Nov 2023
Viewed by 2268
Abstract
This paper tackles the question of how female leaders at national levels of government managed COVID-19 response and recovery from the first COVID-19 case in their respective countries through to 30 September 2021. The aim of this study was to determine which COVID-19 [...] Read more.
This paper tackles the question of how female leaders at national levels of government managed COVID-19 response and recovery from the first COVID-19 case in their respective countries through to 30 September 2021. The aim of this study was to determine which COVID-19 mitigations were effective in lowering the viral reproduction rate and number of new cases (per million) in each of the fourteen female presidents’ countries—Bangladesh, Barbados, Belgium, Bolivia, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Iceland, Lithuania, New Zealand, Norway, Serbia, and Taiwan. We first compared these countries by finding a mean case rate (29,420 per million), mean death rate (294 per million), and mean excess mortality rate (+1640 per million). We then analyzed the following mitigation measures per country: school closing, workplace closing, canceling public events, restrictions on gatherings, closing public transport, stay-at-home requirements, restrictions on internal movement, international travel controls, income support, debt/contract relief, fiscal measures, international support, public information campaigns, testing policy, contact tracing, emergency investment in healthcare, investment in vaccines, facial coverings, vaccination policy, and protection of the elderly. We utilized the random forest approach to examine the predictive significance of these variables, providing more interpretability. Subsequently, we then applied the Wilcoxon rank-sum statistical test to see the differences with and without mitigation in effect for the variables that were found to be significant by the random forest model. We observed that different mitigation strategies varied in their effectiveness. Notably, restrictions on internal movement and the closure of public transportation proved to be highly effective in reducing the spread of COVID-19. Embracing qualities such as community-based, empathetic, and personable leadership can foster greater trust among citizens, ensuring continued adherence to governmental policies like mask mandates and stay-at-home orders, ultimately enhancing long-term crisis management. Full article
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11 pages, 560 KiB  
Article
Effect of Supervised and Unsupervised Exercise Training in Outdoor Gym on the Lifestyle of Elderly People
by Welmo A. Barbosa, Carine Danielle F. C. Leite, Carlos H. O. Reis, Alexandre F. Machado, Valentina Bullo, Stefano Gobbo, Marco Bergamin, Ana Paula Lima-Leopoldo, Rodrigo L. Vancini, Julien S. Baker, Roberta L. Rica and Danilo S. Bocalini
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(21), 7022; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20217022 - 06 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1816
Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of supervised and unsupervised physical training programs using outdoor gym equipment on the lifestyles of elderly people. Methods: physically independent elderly people were randomly distributed into three groups: supervised training (n: 20; ST), [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of supervised and unsupervised physical training programs using outdoor gym equipment on the lifestyles of elderly people. Methods: physically independent elderly people were randomly distributed into three groups: supervised training (n: 20; ST), unsupervised training (n: 20; UT) and control (n: 20; C). The ST and UT groups completed a 12-week program, with exercises performed three times a week. The ST group underwent weekly 30 min sessions consisting of a 5 min warm-up (walking at 60% of HRmax), followed by 20 sets of 30, “monitored by a metronome with 30” of passive recovery between sets and a five-minute cool-down. The following equipment was used: elliptical, rowing, surfing and leg press. The UT group was instructed to freely attend the gym and train spontaneously using the same equipment used by ST. Lifestyle changes were evaluated using a questionnaire containing specific domains. Results: no significant differences were identified in the domains for family, physical activity, nutrition, smoking, sleep, behavior, introspection, work and overall score; however, the values corresponding to the alcohol domain for the ST and UT groups were lower (p < 0.05) than the C group, remaining even lower after the 12 weeks of intervention. Time effect (p < 0.05) was found only in the ST group for the physical domains, sleep, behavior and overall score. Conclusion: elderly people submitted to supervised and unsupervised physical exercise programs using outdoor gym equipment present positive changes in lifestyle parameters compared to physical inactive elderly people. Full article
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11 pages, 339 KiB  
Article
The Association between the Severity of Dysmenorrhea and Psychological Distress of Women Working in Central Tokyo—A Preliminary Study
by Kumi Matsumura, Kanami Tsuno, Masumi Okamoto, Akiko Takahashi, Akio Kurokawa, Yuko Watanabe and Honami Yoshida
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(21), 7021; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20217021 - 05 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2232
Abstract
This study aims to clarify the association between the severity of dysmenorrhea and psychological distress among working women in central Tokyo and examine the effect modification of job stressors. The participants in this cross-sectional study were 312 women who had undergone health check-ups [...] Read more.
This study aims to clarify the association between the severity of dysmenorrhea and psychological distress among working women in central Tokyo and examine the effect modification of job stressors. The participants in this cross-sectional study were 312 women who had undergone health check-ups in the “Marunouchi Hokenshitsu” project. The severity of dysmenorrhea was defined as the degree of daily life disturbance with menstrual pain, and the outcome variable was the K6 scores. To assess the association of psychological distress with the severity of dysmenorrhea, multiple regression analyses were performed. The results revealed that 18.3% of the 289 working women were in the moderate/severe group of dysmenorrhea. In multiple regression analysis, moderate/severe dysmenorrhea was significantly associated with higher levels of psychological distress, but the significance disappeared after adjusting for gynecology such as premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and workplace-related factors. The degree of job control was significantly associated with lower levels of psychological distress and may modify psychological distress caused by dysmenorrhea. Moderate/severe dysmenorrhea may be associated with higher levels of psychological distress in working women, and psychological symptoms of PMS) and the degree of job control were possible effect factors, and there may be effect modification by the degree of job control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Women’s Health Care: Challenges and Opportunities)
13 pages, 373 KiB  
Review
Occupational Etiology of Oropharyngeal Cancer: A Literature Review
by Rayan Nikkilä, Suvi Tolonen, Tuula Salo, Timo Carpén, Eero Pukkala and Antti Mäkitie
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(21), 7020; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20217020 - 03 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1637
Abstract
While abundant evidence exists linking alcohol, tobacco, and HPV infection to a carcinogenic impact on the oropharynx, the contribution of inhalational workplace hazards remains ill-defined. We aim to determine whether the literature reveals occupational environments at a higher-than-average risk of developing oropharyngeal cancer [...] Read more.
While abundant evidence exists linking alcohol, tobacco, and HPV infection to a carcinogenic impact on the oropharynx, the contribution of inhalational workplace hazards remains ill-defined. We aim to determine whether the literature reveals occupational environments at a higher-than-average risk of developing oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) and summarize the available data. To identify studies assessing the relationship between occupational exposure and risk of OPC, a search of the literature through the PubMed-NCBI database was carried out and, ultimately, 15 original articles meeting eligibility criteria were selected. Only original articles in English focusing on the association between occupational exposure and risk or death of specifically OPC were included. The available data are supportive of a potentially increased risk of OPC in waiters, cooks and stewards, artistic workers, poultry and meat workers, mechanics, and World Trade Center responders exposed to dust. However, the available literature on occupation-related OPC is limited. To identify occupational categories at risk, large cohorts with long follow-ups are needed. Identification of causal associations with occupation-related factors would require dose–response analyses adequately adjusted for confounders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Occupational Safety and Health)
22 pages, 856 KiB  
Article
From Threatening Chaos to Temporary Order through a Complex Process of Adaptation: A Grounded Theory Study of the Escalation of Intensive Care during the COVID-19 Pandemic
by Camilla Göras, Malin Lohela-Karlsson, Markus Castegren, Emelie Condén Mellgren, Mirjam Ekstedt and Petronella Bjurling-Sjöberg
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(21), 7019; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20217019 - 03 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1508
Abstract
To ensure high-quality care, operationalize resilience and fill the knowledge gap regarding how to improve the prerequisites for resilient performance, it is necessary to understand how adaptive capacity unfolds in practice. The main aim of this research was to explain the escalation process [...] Read more.
To ensure high-quality care, operationalize resilience and fill the knowledge gap regarding how to improve the prerequisites for resilient performance, it is necessary to understand how adaptive capacity unfolds in practice. The main aim of this research was to explain the escalation process of intensive care during the first wave of the pandemic from a microlevel perspective, including expressions of resilient performance, intervening conditions at the micro-meso-macrolevels and short- and long-term consequences. A secondary aim was to provide recommendations regarding how to optimize the prerequisites for resilient performance in intensive care. A grounded theory methodology was used. First-person stories from different healthcare professionals (n70) in two Swedish regions were analyzed using the constant comparative method. This resulted in a novel conceptual model (including 6 main categories and 24 subcategories), and 41 recommendations. The conclusion of these findings is that the escalation of intensive care can be conceptualized as a transition from threatening chaos to temporary order through a complex process of adaptation. To prepare for the future, the components of space, stuff, staff, system and science, with associated continuity plans, must be implemented, anchored and communicated to actors at all levels of the system. Full article
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16 pages, 714 KiB  
Article
Utilizing User Preferences in Designing the AGILE (Accelerating Access to Gender-Based Violence Information and Services Leveraging on Technology Enhanced) Chatbot
by Anne Ngũnjiri, Peter Memiah, Robert Kimathi, Fernando A. Wagner, Annrita Ikahu, Eunice Omanga, Emmanuel Kweyu, Carol Ngunu and Lilian Otiso
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(21), 7018; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20217018 - 03 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1652
Abstract
Introduction: Technology advancements have enhanced artificial intelligence, leading to a user shift towards virtual assistants, but a human-centered approach is needed to assess for acceptability and effectiveness. The AGILE chatbot is designed in Kenya with features to redefine the response towards gender-based violence [...] Read more.
Introduction: Technology advancements have enhanced artificial intelligence, leading to a user shift towards virtual assistants, but a human-centered approach is needed to assess for acceptability and effectiveness. The AGILE chatbot is designed in Kenya with features to redefine the response towards gender-based violence (GBV) among vulnerable populations, including adolescents, young women and men, and sexual and gender minorities, to offer accurate and reliable information among users. Methods: We conducted an exploratory qualitative study through focus group discussions (FGDs) targeting 150 participants sampled from vulnerable categories; adolescent girls and boys, young women, young men, and sexual and gender minorities. The FGDs included multiple inquiries to assess knowledge and prior interaction with intelligent conversational assistants to inform the user-centric development of a decision-supportive chatbot and a pilot of the chatbot prototype. Each focus group comprised 9–10 members, and the discussions lasted about two hours to gain qualitative user insights and experiences. We used thematic analysis and drew on grounded theory to analyze the data. Results: The analysis resulted in 14 salient themes composed of sexual violence, physical violence, emotional violence, intimate partner violence, female genital mutilation, sexual reproductive health, mental health, help-seeking behaviors/where to seek support, who to talk to, and what information they would like, features of the chatbot, access of chatbot, abuse and HIV, family and community conflicts, and information for self-care. Conclusion: Adopting a human-centered approach in designing an effective chatbot with as many human features as possible is crucial in increasing utilization, addressing the gaps presented by marginalized/vulnerable populations, and reducing the current GBV epidemic by moving prevention and response services closer to people in need. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Digital Health)
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19 pages, 456 KiB  
Article
Being a Young Carer in Portugal: The Impact of Caring on Adolescents’ Life Satisfaction
by Ana Meireles, Sofia Marques, Sara Faria, Joana Correia Lopes, Ana Ribas Teixeira, Bruno Alves and Saul Becker
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(21), 7017; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20217017 - 03 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1384
Abstract
Caring for an ill or disabled relative can present significant challenges that may exceed the personal resources of the caregiver. Young carers (YCs) often take on this role, providing support to family members or friends, which can have far-reaching effects on various aspects [...] Read more.
Caring for an ill or disabled relative can present significant challenges that may exceed the personal resources of the caregiver. Young carers (YCs) often take on this role, providing support to family members or friends, which can have far-reaching effects on various aspects of their lives. This study involved 235 adolescents, 106 YCs, and 129 non-carers (NCs), who completed questionnaires assessing life satisfaction, satisfaction with social support, family functioning, academic functioning, and caregiving activities. Tests of group differences (MANOVA and MANCOVA controlling for age) showed YCs had more caregiving activities than NCs (as expected) and, critically, significantly lower life satisfaction. Hierarchical regressions with the YCS subsample showed academic functioning, social support, and the negative impact of caregiving were associated with life satisfaction, and that the negative influence of caregiving was linked to family functioning and the quantity of caregiving activities. For NCs, academic functioning, satisfaction with social support, and family functioning were associated with life satisfaction. In conclusion, caregiving in adolescents appears to be linked to lower life satisfaction, but this effect is determined by their social support, academic functioning, and negative impact of caring, which in turn depends on their family functioning and amount of caring activities. Full article
18 pages, 1407 KiB  
Article
Utilization of Proximate Healthcare Facilities and Children’s Wait Times in Senegal: An IV-Tobit Analysis
by Abayomi Samuel Oyekale
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(21), 7016; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20217016 - 03 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1107
Abstract
Universal health coverage (UHC) defines individuals’ timely access to healthcare services without suffering any health-related financial constraints. The Senegalese government has shown commitments towards achievement of UHC as a way of improving access by the population to quality healthcare services. This is very [...] Read more.
Universal health coverage (UHC) defines individuals’ timely access to healthcare services without suffering any health-related financial constraints. The Senegalese government has shown commitments towards achievement of UHC as a way of improving access by the population to quality healthcare services. This is very pertinent for promoting some indicators of under-five health in Senegal. Therefore, this study analyzed the factors influencing sick children’s utilization of the nearest healthcare facilities and their wait times in Senegal. The data were from the Service Provision Assessment (SPA) survey, which was conducted in 2018. The instrumental Tobit regression model was used for data analysis. The results showed that 63.50% and 86.01% of the children utilized health posts and publicly owned facilities, respectively. Also, 98.46% of the children utilized urban facilities. The nearest facilities were utilized by 74.55%, and 78.19% spent less than an hour in the facilities. The likelihood of using the nearest healthcare facilities significantly reduced (p < 0.05) with caregivers’ primary education, higher education, residence in some regions (Fatick, Kaokack, Saint Louis, Sediou, and Tambacounda), and use of private/NGO not-for-profit facilities, but increased with not having visited any other providers, residence in the Kaffrie region, vomiting symptoms, use of health centers, and use of health posts. Moreover, treatment wait times significantly increased (p < 0.05) with the use of nearest facilities, residence in some regions (Diourbel, Kaokack, Matam and Saint Louis), use of private for-profit facilities, use of private not-for-profit facilities, and urban residence, but decreased with secondary education, use of health centers, use of health posts, vomiting symptoms, and showing other symptoms. It was concluded that reduction in wait times and utilization of the nearest healthcare facilities are fundamental to achieving UHC in Senegal. Therefore, more efforts should be integrated at promoting regional and sectoral equities through facilitated public and private healthcare investment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Primary Care and Health Behavior Change)
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10 pages, 502 KiB  
Article
A Qualitative Study on Parenting Practices to Sustain Adolescent Health Behaviors in American Indian Families
by Christine Hodgson, Dylan Decker, Teresia M. O’Connor, Melanie Hingle and Francine C. Gachupin
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(21), 7015; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20217015 - 03 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1372
Abstract
American Indian (AI) adolescents who practice healthy behaviors of sleep, nutrition, physical activity, and limited screen time can lower their lifetime risk of diet-sensitive disease. Little is known about how AI parenting practices influence the health behaviors of youth. The objective of this [...] Read more.
American Indian (AI) adolescents who practice healthy behaviors of sleep, nutrition, physical activity, and limited screen time can lower their lifetime risk of diet-sensitive disease. Little is known about how AI parenting practices influence the health behaviors of youth. The objective of this qualitative study was to explore how a group of AI parents of youths at risk of disease influenced their youth’s health behaviors after a family intervention. A secondary objective was to understand the role of AI parents in supporting and sustaining health behavior change in their youths following the intervention. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with AI parents (n = 11) and their young adolescents, 10–15 years old (n = 6). Parents reported facilitators to how they enacted healthy lifestyle behaviors, including family togetherness, routines, youth inclusion in cooking, and motivation due to a health condition in the family. Barriers to enacting healthy behaviors included a lack of time, a lack of access to health resources, negative role modeling, and the pervasiveness of screen media. Three major themes about the role of AI parenting emerged inductively from the interview data: “Parenting in nontraditional families”, “Living in the American grab-and-go culture”, and “Being there and teaching responsibility”. The importance of culture in raising youths was emphasized. These findings inform strategies to promote long-term adherence to behavior changes within the intervention. This study contributes to public health conversations regarding approaches for AI youths and families, who are not well represented in previous health behavior research. Full article
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10 pages, 338 KiB  
Article
Autonomy of Nursing Students: Methodological Study of Validation of the PALOP Scale Portuguese Short Version
by Luís Manuel Cunha Batalha, Josefa Palop-Muñoz, Carlos Alberto Cruz de Oliveira, Carlos Saus-Ortega, Paulo Alexandre Carvalho Ferreira and María-Rosario Gómez-Romero
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(21), 7014; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20217014 - 02 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1054
Abstract
The cultivation of critical thinking and decision-making skills promotes student autonomy. Only a few instruments measure nursing students’ autonomy, and the PALOP® Scale is one of them. This study aimed to semantically and culturally adapt the PALOP® Scale to European Portuguese [...] Read more.
The cultivation of critical thinking and decision-making skills promotes student autonomy. Only a few instruments measure nursing students’ autonomy, and the PALOP® Scale is one of them. This study aimed to semantically and culturally adapt the PALOP® Scale to European Portuguese and assess the psychometric properties of a short version. A methodological study was conducted with 530 second and fourth-year undergraduate nursing students. Content validity was assessed using exploratory and discriminant factor analysis, and reliability was determined through analyses of internal consistency, temporal stability, and floor and ceiling effects. The analysis of the psychometric properties of a short version of the PALOP®—PT Scale revealed complete agreement (100%) among panel members for content validity. The scale also showed discriminative capacity among second- and fourth-year students (t (528) = −7.907, p < 0.001) with a five-factor structure, with a total explained variance of 57.2%. Reliability analysis showed excellent internal consistency (α = 0.935) and moderate temporal stability (95% ICC (3.1) = 0.520 [0.290—0.693], p < 0.01). The short version of the PALOP®–PT Scale is a promising tool to assess nursing students’ perceived autonomy and identify necessary adjustments to their professional identity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nursing Practice and Education)
19 pages, 389 KiB  
Article
What Adolescents Have to Say about Problematic Internet Use: A Qualitative Study Based on Focus Groups
by Simone Rollo, Claudia Venuleo, Lucrezia Ferrante and Raffaele De Luca Picione
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(21), 7013; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20217013 - 02 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1439
Abstract
In this paper, the study presented is designed to gain a deeper insight into how adolescents describe, understand, and suggest dealing with Problematic Internet Use (PIU). Eight focus groups were activated with a total of 70 students from the 9th and 11th grades [...] Read more.
In this paper, the study presented is designed to gain a deeper insight into how adolescents describe, understand, and suggest dealing with Problematic Internet Use (PIU). Eight focus groups were activated with a total of 70 students from the 9th and 11th grades (Mean Age = 15.53 ± 1.202; Female = 44.4%) in four different schools in Southern Italy. A Thematic Analysis was applied to the verbatim transcripts, and seven macro-categories were identified throughout the discourses collected: definition of PIU, symptomatology, impact, determinants, intervention strategy, opportunities and limits of the digital world, and needs that adolescents try to satisfy by surfing the net and which the offline world does not fulfill. Participants converge in seeing PIU in terms of addiction but adopt heterogeneous viewpoints in talking about the reasons for problematic engagement and possible preventive intervention strategies. In the overall picture emerging from the responses, PIU appeared to be the outcome of a psychological dynamic emerging from the interaction of individual, interpersonal, and sociocultural dimensions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends in Virtual World Addictions and Problematic Internet Use)
20 pages, 398 KiB  
Article
Understanding Professional Medical Interpreters’ Perspectives on Advancing Accurate and Culturally Informed Patient–Provider Communication for Filipinos in Hawaiʻi: Qualitative Analysis
by Uliana Kostareva, Carrie A. Soo Hoo, Suzanne M. Zeng, Cheryl L. Albright, Clementina D. Ceria-Ulep and Holly B. Fontenot
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(21), 7012; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20217012 - 02 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1503
Abstract
One in every eight persons in Hawaiʻi, USA, have limited English proficiency (LEP) and are entitled to free language assistance for federally funded services under Title IV of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. They also have the right to culturally and linguistically [...] Read more.
One in every eight persons in Hawaiʻi, USA, have limited English proficiency (LEP) and are entitled to free language assistance for federally funded services under Title IV of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. They also have the right to culturally and linguistically appropriate services (CLAS) provided by professional medical interpreters (PMIs). This study’s goals were to uncover barriers and facilitators of CLAS from the perspective of PMIs. PMIs for Filipino languages (n = 10) participated in an online survey and semi-structured interviews. Quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, and qualitative data were analyzed using conventional content analysis. Six themes emerged in the qualitative analysis: (1) cultural and social factors that can influence patient–provider communication; (2) barriers to effective patient–provider communication: patient, healthcare provider, and PMI levels; (3) facilitators of effective patient–provider communication: patient, healthcare provider, and PMI levels; (4) COVID-19 and remote interpreting barriers and facilitators; (5) strengths and weaknesses of in-person and stand-by interpreting appointments; and, (6) recommendations: system and provider levels. Proposed interventions could include advertising language services among Filipino communities and educating them about their language rights, providing additional resources for language assistance, employing more PMIs, training staff/providers, and supporting the use of PMIs versus untrained individuals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Literacy and Health Equity)
1 pages, 250 KiB  
Correction
Correction: Rheu et al. Effect of Fermented Sarco Oyster (Crassostrea gigas) Extract on Muscle Strength Enhancement in Postmenopausal Females: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19, 16450
by Kyoung-Min Rheu, Bae-Jin Lee, Woo-Hyeon Son, Dong-Seok Kim, Hyun-Tae Park, Min-Seong Ha, Byong-Hak Gong and Byeong-Hwan Jeon
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(21), 7011; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20217011 - 02 Nov 2023
Viewed by 990
Abstract
There was an error in the original publication [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Conditioning Strategies for Human High Performance and Health)
19 pages, 6271 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Indoor Radon Activity Concentrations and Controls in Dwellings Surrounding the Gold Mine Tailings in Gauteng Province of South Africa
by Paballo M. Moshupya, Seeke C. Mohuba, Tamiru A. Abiye and Ian Korir
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(21), 7010; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20217010 - 02 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1113
Abstract
Radon in dwellings is recognized as the primary source of natural radiation exposure to members of the public. In the West Rand District and Soweto in the Gauteng Province (South Africa), indoor radon (222Rn) mapping was carried out to assess the [...] Read more.
Radon in dwellings is recognized as the primary source of natural radiation exposure to members of the public. In the West Rand District and Soweto in the Gauteng Province (South Africa), indoor radon (222Rn) mapping was carried out to assess the exposure levels of radon in dwellings around gold and uranium mining tailings dams. This study was conducted predominately during warm and cold seasons, using the solid-state nuclear track detectors. In summer months, the indoor radon levels measured in all areas ranged from below the lower limit of detection to 71 Bq/m3, with a mean value of 29 Bq/m3, whereas in winter, the levels ranged between 11 and 124 Bq/m3, with a mean value of 46 Bq/m3. Higher indoor radon levels are found in colder months (winter season) than warmer months (summer season). However, no dwellings with indoor radon levels that exceed the WHO (2009) recommended reference level of 100 Bq/m3 were found, except for one that was constructed directly on soil mixed with tailings material. It is recommended that residents should keep their indoor radon levels low through continuous ventilation so as to minimize the buildup of radon and the likelihood of increased health hazards associated with radon exposure. Full article
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10 pages, 326 KiB  
Article
Experiences of Impacted Foetal Head: Findings from a Pragmatic Focus Group Study of Mothers and Midwives
by Annette L. Briley, Sergio A. Silverio, Andrew H. Shennan and Graham Tydeman
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(21), 7009; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20217009 - 02 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1242
Abstract
Introduction: We aimed to explore the lived experiences of caesarean birth complicated by impaction of the foetal head, for mothers and midwives. Methods: A pragmatic, qualitative, focus group study of mixed-participants was conducted, face-to-face. They were postpartum women (n = 4), midwives (n [...] Read more.
Introduction: We aimed to explore the lived experiences of caesarean birth complicated by impaction of the foetal head, for mothers and midwives. Methods: A pragmatic, qualitative, focus group study of mixed-participants was conducted, face-to-face. They were postpartum women (n = 4), midwives (n = 4), and a postpartum midwife (n = 1) who had experience of either providing care for impacted foetal head, and/or had experienced it during their own labour, in Fife, United Kingdom. Data were transcribed and were analysed using template analysis. Results: Three main themes emerged through analysis: (i) current knowledge of impacted foetal head; (ii) current management of impacted foetal head; and (iii) experiences and outcomes of impacted foetal head. Each theme was made up of various initial codes when data were analysed inductively. Finally, each theme could be overlaid onto the three core principles of the Tydeman Tube: (1) to improve outcomes for mother and baby in the second stage of labour; (2) to reduce the risk of trauma to mother and baby in complicated births; and (3) to increase respectful care for women in labour; thus allowing for a neat analytic template. Conclusion: A lack of consensus regarding definition, management, and training were highlighted by the midwives. Women anticipated caesarean birth in late labour as straightforward and were therefore unaware of this potential complication. Women and midwives would welcome any new device to facilitate delivery of the impacted foetal head (IFH) as long as it is fully evaluated prior to widespread introduction. Women were not averse to being part of this evaluation process. Full article
16 pages, 947 KiB  
Article
Beyond Information Provision: Analysis of the Roles of Structure and Agency in COVID-19 Vaccine Confidence in Ethnic Minority Communities
by Shoba Poduval, Atiya Kamal, Sam Martin, Amin Islam, Chandrika Kaviraj and Paramjit Gill
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(21), 7008; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20217008 - 01 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1725
Abstract
People from Black and Asian backgrounds are more likely to die from COVID-19 but less likely to be vaccinated, threatening to exacerbate health inequalities already experienced by ethnic minority groups. The literature suggests that mistrust rooted in structural inequality (including socioeconomic position and [...] Read more.
People from Black and Asian backgrounds are more likely to die from COVID-19 but less likely to be vaccinated, threatening to exacerbate health inequalities already experienced by ethnic minority groups. The literature suggests that mistrust rooted in structural inequality (including socioeconomic position and experience of racism) may be a key barrier to COVID-19 vaccine uptake. Understanding and addressing structural inequality is likely to lead to longer-term impacts than information alone. The aim of this study is to draw on health and sociological theories of structure and agency to inform our understanding of how structural factors influence vaccine confidence. We conducted qualitative interviews and focus groups with 22 people from London and the surrounding areas from December 2021 to March 2022. Fourteen participants were members of the public from ethnic minority backgrounds, and seven were professionals working with the public to address concerns and encourage vaccine uptake. Our findings suggest that people from ethnic minority backgrounds make decisions regarding COVID-19 vaccination based on a combination of how they experience external social structures (including lack of credibility and clarity from political authority, neglect by health services, and structural racism) and internal processes (weighing up COVID-19 vaccine harms and benefits and concerns about vaccine development and deployment). We may be able to support knowledge accumulation through the provision of reliable and accessible information, particularly through primary and community care, but we recommend a number of changes to research, policy and practice that address structural inequalities. These include working with communities to improve ethnicity data collection, increasing funding allocation to health conditions where ethnic minority communities experience poorer outcomes, greater transparency and public engagement in the vaccine development process, and culturally adapted research recruitment processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ethnic Minority Health and Primary Care)
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10 pages, 676 KiB  
Review
Public Mixed Funding for Residential Aged Care Facilities Residents’ Needs in the Asia–Pacific Region: A Scoping Review
by David Lim, Ashley Grady and Karen P. Y. Liu
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(21), 7007; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20217007 - 01 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1536
Abstract
Due to population aging and sociodemographic change, there is an increasing reliance on residential aged care facilities in the Asia–Pacific region. Most countries have adopted taxation as the primary means to levy capital for funding universal health services and means-testing of benefits may [...] Read more.
Due to population aging and sociodemographic change, there is an increasing reliance on residential aged care facilities in the Asia–Pacific region. Most countries have adopted taxation as the primary means to levy capital for funding universal health services and means-testing of benefits may be further incorporated as a policy balance between horizontal equity and fiscal sustainability. It was hypothesized that residential care needs are evaluated by assessments relating to funding; this scoping review seeks to synthesize how such assessments relate to the care needs of residents. Searches were conducted in concordance with a priori protocol for English-language literature published since 2008 in Embase, CINAHL, PubMed, Scopus, JBI, TROVE, and four peak international organizations for studies and reports that describe the assessment of residents’ needs in Asia–Pacific countries that used a mixture of taxation and means-testing to publicly fund residential aged care. One paper and 47 reports were included. Australia, New Zealand, and Singapore utilize a taxation and means-tested user charge approach to fund residential aged care needs. The common care needs assessed include health conditions, daily activities, cognition, psychiatric, and behavioral needs. While essential care needs are publicly funded, other holistic care needs, such as spirituality and autonomy-based needs, still need to be covered for meaningful occupation by the residents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social Medicine and Healthcare Management)
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18 pages, 674 KiB  
Review
A Scoping Review of the Serious Game-Based Rehabilitation of People with Cerebral Palsy
by Si Nae Ahn
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(21), 7006; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20217006 - 01 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1672
Abstract
In a serious context, individuals with Cerebral Palsy (CP) have limited opportunities to engage in social interaction experiences. Through a review, this study provides an explanation and improved evidence of the methods for rehabilitation in games used in serious contexts for people with [...] Read more.
In a serious context, individuals with Cerebral Palsy (CP) have limited opportunities to engage in social interaction experiences. Through a review, this study provides an explanation and improved evidence of the methods for rehabilitation in games used in serious contexts for people with CP. Articles published from 2010 to 2022 focusing on serious game-based rehabilitation for people with CP are extracted from MEDILINE, Academic Search Ultimate, CINAHL, and the Web of Science. The articles were assessed based on the McMaster critical review form. This study analyzes the frequencies of goal and assessment tools according to the components using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). The evidence of all the studies is presented according to the principles of Population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome (PICO) to organize the evidence. A total of 19 articles were selected. Five articles involved Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs), six articles involved non-randomized one-group designs, three articles involved single experimental study designs, and five articles were case report designs. In the selected articles, the average score on the McMaster critical review form was 11.8 points. In the game-based rehabilitation for CP, more articles reported goals and assessment tools focusing on body function than goals and assessment tools focusing on activity and participation, according to the ICF. These findings provide a record of past work and identify the evidence to support the application of game-based rehabilitation for people with CP. Full article
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12 pages, 309 KiB  
Article
The Sociocultural Influences on Breast Cancer Screening among Rural African Women in South Africa
by Nelisha Sarmah, Maureen Nokuthula Sibiya and Thandokuhle Emmanuel Khoza
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(21), 7005; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20217005 - 01 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1562
Abstract
The incidence of breast cancer in South Africa is increasing, with rural South African women presenting with advanced stages of the disease. A woman’s breasts are a symbol of her womanhood; they also constitute a social definition of her femininity. Women with breast [...] Read more.
The incidence of breast cancer in South Africa is increasing, with rural South African women presenting with advanced stages of the disease. A woman’s breasts are a symbol of her womanhood; they also constitute a social definition of her femininity. Women with breast cancer in rural South Africa are heavily stigmatized and suffer from various sociocultural interpretations of the disease. Breast cancer is frequently interpreted in rural South Africa as a symbol of witchcraft, sin, and punishment, and traditionally, it is treated by offering animal sacrifices, consumption of herbs, and prayer to ancestors. Using care-seeking behaviour theory as the theoretical framework, we intend to explore the sociocultural factors influencing breast cancer screening practices among rural South African women. A qualitative exploratory study was conducted using semi-structured interviews with 22 rural South African women selected by purposive sampling. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. The study identified four sociocultural factors influencing women’s practices of breast cancer screening in rural South Africa, including psychological factors, habits, beliefs, and perceptions of healthcare. Women in rural South African communities have deep-rooted traditional beliefs and practices regarding breast cancer. Consequently, this influences women’s preventative health behaviours regarding breast cancer screening. The development of culturally appropriate health education programs involving traditional healers and influential community leaders is essential to increasing the number of women being screened for breast cancer in rural South Africa. Full article
35 pages, 1392 KiB  
Review
Impacts of Climate Change on Work Health and Safety in Australia: A Scoping Literature Review
by Lucia Wuersch, Alain Neher, Frank E. Marino, Larissa Bamberry and Rodney Pope
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(21), 7004; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20217004 - 31 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1636
Abstract
This scoping review explores the extant literature on climate change impacts on Workplace Health and Safety (WHS) in Australia. It maps the coverage of climate hazards, occupations at risk, and health and socio-economic impacts with the aim of identifying climate change impacts on [...] Read more.
This scoping review explores the extant literature on climate change impacts on Workplace Health and Safety (WHS) in Australia. It maps the coverage of climate hazards, occupations at risk, and health and socio-economic impacts with the aim of identifying climate change impacts on WHS in Australia and associated knowledge gaps. We used a scoping review approach to identify and investigate 41 scholarly works at the nexus between climate change and WHS in Australia. Thematic template analysis and the NVivo software helped us identify and structure the main themes and systematically document the analysis process. The review highlighted a research focus on the impacts on WHS of heat and extreme weather events resulting from climate change. Agriculture and construction emerged as the most examined occupations, emphasising climate-related diseases and productivity loss. Other climate-related hazards, occupations, and health and socio-economic impacts were largely overlooked in the included research literature. The analysis revealed there is scope for further research relating to climate change impacts on occupational hazards (e.g., air pollution), occupations (e.g., indoor settings at risk), worker health (e.g., injuries), and socio-economic impacts (e.g., change in social practice). Furthermore, the results highlight that the main themes (hazards, occupations, health, and productivity) are interconnected, and the impacts of climate change can be ‘cascading’, adding complexity and severity. Hence, it is important to look at WHS as a multifaceted phenomenon in a holistic way to understand the risks and support required. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Health, Performance and Climate Change)
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2 pages, 465 KiB  
Correction
Correction: Radman et al. Prevalence of Key Modifiable Cardiovascular Risk Factors among Urban Adolescents: The CRO-PALS Study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 3162
by Ivan Radman, Maroje Sorić and Marjeta Mišigoj-Duraković
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(21), 7003; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20217003 - 31 Oct 2023
Viewed by 936
Abstract
The authors regret to acknowledge that a mistake has been made in the original article [...] Full article
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21 pages, 403 KiB  
Article
Risky Sexual Behaviour and Sexual Victimization among Young People with Risky Substance Use in Europe—Perspectives from Belgium, Sweden, the Czech Republic, and Germany
by Christiane Baldus, Tobias H. Elgán, Veerle Soyez, Hanne Tønnesen, Nicolas Arnaud, Ladislav Csemy and Rainer Thomasius
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(21), 7002; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20217002 - 31 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1359
Abstract
Background: Research indicates that among the risks associated with young people’s alcohol and illicit drug use are sexual risks. However, insights into co-occurrence of substance use and sexual risks in adolescent samples and possible differences across countries are limited. Methods: A sample of [...] Read more.
Background: Research indicates that among the risks associated with young people’s alcohol and illicit drug use are sexual risks. However, insights into co-occurrence of substance use and sexual risks in adolescent samples and possible differences across countries are limited. Methods: A sample of 1449 adolescents from Belgium, Sweden, the Czech Republic, and Germany screened positive for risky alcohol/illicit drug use in a web-based intervention against alcohol and illicit drug use. They also reported incidents of sex while being drunk and/or high on drugs, condomless sex on these occasions, and sexualized touching and sexual victimization while being drunk or high on drugs. Results: In the sample, 21.5% of the participants reported sexualized touching, 9.9% being victim to sexual assault, and 49.8% having had sex while being drunk and/or high on drugs; of the latter, 48.3% had condomless sex. Reports on having had sex while being drunk and/or high on drugs were associated with higher levels of past 30-day binge drinking. Being a victim of sexual assault was associated with past 30-day binge drinking only in young men. Conclusion: When devising preventive interventions against risky substance use in adolescents, an additional focus should be set on integrating steps against sexual risks. Full article
29 pages, 12601 KiB  
Article
How Much Did Urban Park Use Change under the COVID-19 Pandemic? A Comparative Study of Summertime Park Use in 2019 and 2020 in Edinburgh, Scotland
by Leyla Deniz Kiraz and Catharine Ward Thompson
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(21), 7001; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20217001 - 31 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1473
Abstract
The importance of urban parks was highlighted during the COVID-19 pandemic, when a number of restrictions on social gatherings were in place and people’s movements were often restricted to their local neighbourhood. This study examined the changes in patterns of park use before [...] Read more.
The importance of urban parks was highlighted during the COVID-19 pandemic, when a number of restrictions on social gatherings were in place and people’s movements were often restricted to their local neighbourhood. This study examined the changes in patterns of park use before and during COVID-19 to understand how the pandemic influenced such use. The methods involved behaviour observation and mapping, to offer a comparison of the use of parks in Edinburgh, Scotland, before and in the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic. The findings show an overall increase in use of urban parks during COVID-19, as expected, with significantly higher use in social areas, sports and fitness areas, and playground areas. However, while there was an overall increase in people visiting parks with others during COVID, in woodland areas there was an increase in lone visitors. This study shows the importance of parks for socialisation, exercise and children’s play, but also for spending time alone in natural areas during COVID-19. The value of urban parks at a time of social disruption, such as the pandemic, is highlighted, and their role in supporting a variety of urban dwellers’ needs points to priorities for future park planning, design and management. Full article
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15 pages, 1565 KiB  
Article
Geospatial Overlap of Undernutrition and Tuberculosis in Ethiopia
by Fasil Wagnew, Kefyalew Addis Alene, Matthew Kelly and Darren Gray
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(21), 7000; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20217000 - 31 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1230
Abstract
Undernutrition is a key driver of the global tuberculosis (TB) epidemic, yet there is limited understanding regarding the spatial overlap of both diseases. This study aimed to determine the geographical co-distribution and socio-climatic factors of undernutrition and TB in Ethiopia. Data on undernutrition [...] Read more.
Undernutrition is a key driver of the global tuberculosis (TB) epidemic, yet there is limited understanding regarding the spatial overlap of both diseases. This study aimed to determine the geographical co-distribution and socio-climatic factors of undernutrition and TB in Ethiopia. Data on undernutrition were found from the Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS). Data on TB were obtained from the Ethiopia national TB prevalence survey. We applied a geostatistical model using a Bayesian framework to predict the prevalence of undernutrition and TB. Spatial overlap of undernutrition and TB prevalence was detected in the Afar and Somali regions. Population density was associated with the spatial distribution of TB [β: 0.008; 95% CrI: 0.001, 0.014], wasting [β: −0.017; 95% CrI: −0.032, −0.004], underweight [β: −0.02; 95% CrI: −0.031, −0.011], stunting [β: −0.012; 95% CrI: −0.017, −0.006], and adult undernutrition [β: −0.007; 95% CrI: −0.01, −0.005]. Distance to a health facility was associated with the spatial distribution of stunting [β: 0.269; 95% CrI: 0.08, 0.46] and adult undernutrition [β: 0.176; 95% CrI: 0.044, 0.308]. Healthcare access and demographic factors were associated with the spatial distribution of TB and undernutrition. Therefore, geographically targeted service integration may be more effective than nationwide service integration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Spatial Epidemiology and GeoInformatics)
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15 pages, 398 KiB  
Article
Nothing in Excess: Physical Activity, Health, and Life World in Senegalese Fulani Male Pastoralists, a Mixed Method Approach
by Dominique Chevé, Enguerran Macia, Moussa Diallo, Loic Lalys, Amadou Hamath Diallo, Sidaty Sow, Audrey Bergouignan and Priscilla Duboz
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(21), 6999; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20216999 - 30 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1356
Abstract
Objectives: The goal of this study was to evaluate the application of the short form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire Survey (IPAQ-SF) in the rural Senegalese Fulani pastoralist population by combining quantitative and qualitative methods. Design and participants: For the quantitative method, [...] Read more.
Objectives: The goal of this study was to evaluate the application of the short form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire Survey (IPAQ-SF) in the rural Senegalese Fulani pastoralist population by combining quantitative and qualitative methods. Design and participants: For the quantitative method, 101 men completed the IPAQ-SF questionnaire measuring moderate, vigorous, and walking physical activity. Self-rated health, BMI, and sociodemographic variables were also collected. With regard to the qualitative methods, a total of 22 participants were recruited and interviewed. Four themes were addressed, including (i) physical activity (PA) and its definition, description, related experiences, and representations of social actors; (ii) PA and health; (iii) PA and sport; and (iv) the body and Fulani world of life (i.e., Pulaagu/Ndimaagu). Results: Sahelian herders have a high level of self-reported PA and a low amount of daily sitting time. The measure of PA as proposed by the IPAQ-SF is not adapted to the Senegalese Ferlo pastoralists, mainly because this scale gives too much importance to leisure-time PA, perceived as unproductive energy expenditure, which is factually and symbolically antinomic to the Fulani lifeworld. Thus, neither intense nor moderate PA is related to self-rated health. However, sedentary lifestyles are linked to self-rated health and, therefore, to mortality and morbidity in Fulani pastoralists. Finally, walking, which is the dominant PA during transhumance and herd surveillance, is related to BMI. It therefore represents a protective factor against the occurrence of overweight and associated chronic non-communicable diseases. Conclusion: The mixed method approach developed in this study has shown that the IPAQ-SF is not a valid measure of PA in the population of Fulani male herders from the Ferlo region, given that unproductive energy expenditure is incompatible with the Fulani way of life, which condemns excess and immoderation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Exercise and Health)
14 pages, 973 KiB  
Article
Understanding HPV Vaccination Policymaking in Rwanda: A Case of Health Prioritization and Public-Private-Partnership in a Low-Resource Setting
by Eric Asempah and Mary E. Wiktorowicz
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(21), 6998; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20216998 - 30 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1532
Abstract
Rwanda is the first African country to implement a national HPV vaccination program in 2011. This study sought to clarify the HPV vaccination policymaking process in Rwanda through the lens of Kingdon’s multiple stream framework and Foucault’s concept of governmentality. Perspectives of policymakers [...] Read more.
Rwanda is the first African country to implement a national HPV vaccination program in 2011. This study sought to clarify the HPV vaccination policymaking process in Rwanda through the lens of Kingdon’s multiple stream framework and Foucault’s concept of governmentality. Perspectives of policymakers engaged in HPV vaccination policy were gathered from published sources, along with key informant interviews. Rwanda’s track record of successful vaccination programs enabled by a culture of local accountability created public and private sector incentives. Effective stakeholder engagement, health priority setting, and resource mobilization garnered locally and through international development aid, reflect indicators of policy success. The national HPV policymaking process in Rwanda unfolded in a relatively cohesive and stable policy network. Although peripheral stakeholder resistance and a constrained national budget can present a threat to policy survival, the study shows that such factors as the engagement of policy entrepreneurs within a policy network, private sector incentives, and international aid were effective in ensuring policy resolution. Full article
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