Why Do We Not Follow Lifesaving Rules? Factors Affecting Nonadherence to COVID-19 Prevention Guidelines in Indonesia: Healthcare Professionals’ Perspectives
2.1. Theoretical Framework
2.2. Study Setting
2.3. Study Design
2.4. Data Collection and Analysis
3.1. Barriers to HCP Adherence to COVID-19 Prevention Guidelines
3.1.1. Subjective Norms: Social Influence and Disapproval towards Preventive Behaviours
“Not long ago my aunty passed away, and all our family members went to her house to help. On one occasion, we were working in the kitchen, cooking and preparing food and drinks for guests, and one of my older relatives said ‘we are all family members, you do not have to wear a mask’. I felt a bit uncomfortable because of that and also because all of them did not wear a mask or maintain physical distancing, so finally, I took off mine ….”.(P1, nurse)
“My own experiences show that it is a bit difficult for me to fully adhere to COVID-19 prevention protocols because my neighbours and other people in the community where I live do not comply with the protocols. Whenever I meet my friends or neighbours, I always try to keep a distance, but when the conversation starts, they get closer and closer to me. This is perfectly normal, and is how we interacted with each other prior to the COVID outbreak. Although I’m aware that it is not allowed by COVID guidelines, I cannot say ‘please keep your distance from me’. I think it is unethical to do so. It can make them feel offended and they will think I am arrogant and may then avoid me”.(P4, nurse)
“Just this month I’ve received five invitations for birthday parties and first communion celebrations in the community. As we all live together, if you’re invited by a friend or neighbour then you must attend. These are people who know you, so if you don’t attend, then what they would say about you? There were so many other people who were also invited to these parties, so it was difficult to avoid the crowds and keep physical distance from each other…these parties were not ‘adjusted’ to comply with COVID-19 prevention guidelines. These were the situations I’ve faced so far. I wore facemasks, but could not avoid the crowds or keep my distance from others as they seemed unaware or did not really care about those guidelines”.(P11, nurse)
3.1.2. Perceived Behavioural Control: External Situations
“There have been situations where it was impossible for me to fully comply with the COVID-19 guidelines…. Once one of my nieces got married, all of our family members had to work together and serve the wedding guests. It was impossible to keep physically distant from each other, even though I was fully aware of the prevention guidelines. The situation made it impossible for us to keep distance because we had to work together”.(P19, medical doctor)
“I wore a mask sometimes (during family and social events), but I didn’t feel okay wearing the mask for the whole day…you know, the weather was hot which made it even harder for me and everyone else to wear a mask all the time. ….”.(P20, pharmacist)
3.2. Barriers to Community Member Adherence to COVID-19 Preventive Guidelines
3.2.1. Behavioural Intention and Attitude
“There are many community members who do not believe in the existence of COVID-19 and think that it’s made up by the government. They argue that COVID has been reported everywhere, but many people have not been infected even though they gather with others and don’t keep physical distancing nor wear facemasks at social events or parties. They don’t believe in the information disseminated by the government and do not adhere to COVID-19 guidelines”.(P5, medical doctor)
“They (community members) do not comply with health protocols because they have very limited knowledge about COVID-19. Although the government has recommended guidelines such as wearing facemasks and keeping physical distance, they do not follow these recommendations. Some say: ‘we never use facemasks and often gather with no physical distancing but we still don’t get infected’. I think they do not get infected because they are in rural areas and hardly go out of their communities to other places; so even if they gather together, they aren’t exposed to the infection. However, if one of them were to be infected, then it would easily be transmitted among them. So, I think lack of knowledge does influence their adherence to the guidelines”.(P9, nurse)
“Distrust in healthcare professionals and hospitals about COVID-19 test results has been widespread within communities. They assume that healthcare professionals or hospitals deliberately make their test results COVID-19 positive so that the hospitals receive more funds from the national government. The higher the number of COVID-19 patients a hospital takes care of, the more the funds it will receive from the national government”.(P17, pharmacist)
“It appears that there is an opinion within communities about distrust in healthcare professionals and healthcare facilities in relation to COVID-19 test results. Such distrust seems to influence their compliance with COVID-19 prevention protocols, such as wearing facemasks and avoiding crowded places or social distancing. They do not trust the test result issued by the hospital (COVID-19 test is done only in one hospital), if it is positive, with the reason that they are not sick and feeling healthy”.(P16, nurse)
“It happened during the early period of the COVID-19 outbreak that every patient who died in the hospital is claimed by the hospital as COVID positive. That created big suspicion among patients’ families and community members. I remember, one time there was a person, an old grandpa who accidentally fell in his bathroom and was rushed to hospital. Shortly after they arrived at the hospital he passed away. Suddenly, the family members of the patient were told by a medical doctor that the patient was COVID positive. His family members did not accept and asked for proof of the test result, but the doctor failed to provide it with the reason that the test result has been thrown away. The family members got mad and beat up the doctor ……”.(P3, nurse)
“The traditional rituals to ward off COVID-19 are performed everywhere. I have heard of these practices a long time ago but during the COVID-19 outbreak, the rituals are held in many custom homes. You can just look at Facebook, there are many posts on these rituals. These rituals are performed to protect them from COVID-19. These are cultural practices that have been passed down from their ancestors and they believe in these rituals. The problem is that the ones who have done these rituals perceive that they are resistant to COVID-19 infection, meaning it will not infect them. They feel safe. Such perception and feeling seem to make them careless and influence their adherence to the guidelines, such as wearing facemasks and maintaining physical distance when they go out to public places”.(P2, medical doctor)
“Some said ‘Ah we have done the ritual to ward off COVID-19, so we will not get infected’ even though they do not wear masks when they are in crowded places”.(P12, nurse)
3.2.2. Subjective Norms: Negative Social Pressure and Concerns of Social Rejection
“Our society is communal and has strong family and social ties. If there is an event in a community then all friends, neighbours, and other community members are invited and certainly will attend. You can imagine, ‘how people can maintain physical distancing?’…it is impossible”.(P10, community nurse)
“The practices of our social life within families and communities have a significant influence on our adherence to guidelines. Social and family gatherings for social events, such as weddings, birthday and communion parties, and funeral ceremonies, are very common. These social events involve friends, neighbours, and community members, and many do not wear facemasks or maintain physical distancing. A few people may wear facemasks, but because the majority do not wear them, they eventually take them off and put them in their pockets. Some may try to keep distance but the others do not care, so it is difficult to comply with the guidelines in such situations”.(P6, medical doctor)
“I have often seen there are people who do not want to wear masks or keep social distancing in social events they attend, and even influence their friends or family members not to comply with COVID-19 guidelines. Some said to their neighbours ‘it is not necessary to wear masks. We know each other, so why we should wear masks all the time and keep distance or sit far from each other’….”.(P15, nurse)
3.2.3. Perceived Behavioural Control: External, Systemic Factors
“Sometimes I asked people at the banks, supermarkets, or public health centres about the reason why they don’t wear a facemask, and the most common answers I received were ‘I ran out of masks’ or ‘I bought masks and have used them all and forgot to buy more’. What I can say? I think people are not accustomed to providing masks at home as one of their daily needs in this COVID-19 situation”.(P8, medical doctor)
“Some patients who were sick and came to this hospital admitted that they do not clean up their hands with hand sanitiser. They said that they do not have hand sanitiser at home or in public buildings such as stores and supermarkets they have visited. I should admit that even in many healthcare facilities hand sanitisers are not provided for visitors”.(P21, nurse)
“Poor economic or financial condition is one of the biggest influencers towards community members’ behaviours in relation to COVID-19 guidelines. Most community members rely on the sale of vegetables and fish at the market to support their daily needs. So, they go to the market every day to sell their goods, otherwise they could not buy their necessities or food to eat. They said ‘if we do not sell our goods then who will feed our families, who will provide us food? The market is a very crowded place. Many people come to the market every day, and they do not seem to really care about wearing facemasks or maintaining physical distancing”.(P7, pharmacist)
Limitations and Strengths of the Study
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
- WHO. Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): Situation Report, 52; World Health Organization: Geveva, Switzerland, 2020; Available online: https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/331476 (accessed on 3 January 2022).
- WHO. Water, Sanitation, Hygiene and Waste Management for the COVID-19 Virus: Interim Guidance; World Health Organisation: Geneva, Switzerland, 2020. [Google Scholar]
- WHO. Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): Situation Report, 72; World Health Organization: Geneva, Switzerland, 2020; Available online: https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/331685/nCoVsitrep01Apr2020-eng.pdf (accessed on 3 January 2020).
- Adhikari, S.P.; Meng, S.; Wu, Y.J.; Mao, Y.P.; Ye, R.X.; Wang, Q.Z.; Sun, C.; Sylvia, S.; Rozelle, S.; Raat, H.; et al. Epidemiology, causes, clinical manifestation and diagnosis, prevention and control of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) during the early outbreak period: A scoping review. Infect. Dis. Poverty 2020, 9, 29. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
- Singhal, T. A review of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). Indian J. Pediatr. 2020, 87, 281–286. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
- Go, I. Distribution Map of COVID-19. 2021. Available online: https://covid19.go.id/peta-sebaran (accessed on 15 April 2022).
- Dwipayanti, N.M.U.; Lubis, D.S.; Harjana, N.P.A. Public Perception and Hand Hygiene Behavior During COVID-19 Pandemic in Indonesia. Front. Public Health 2021, 9, 543. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Kementerian Dalam Negeri Republik Indonesia. Instruksi Menteri Dalam Negeri Nomor 27 Tahun 2021 Tentang Pemberlakuan Pembatasan Kegiatan Masyarakat Level 4, Level 3, Dan Level 2 Corona Virus Disease 2019 Di Wilayah Jawa Dan Bali; Kementerian Dalam Negeri Republik Indonesia: Jakarta, Indonesia, 2021. Available online: https://birohukum.baliprov.go.id/wp-content/uploads/2021/08/Inmendagri-No-27-Tahun-2021-tentang-PPKM-Level-4-Level-3-dan-Level-2-Jawa-Bali.pdf (accessed on 31 January 2022).
- Mersha, A.; Shibiru, S.; Girma, M.; Ayele, G.; Bante, A.; Kassa, M.; Abebe, S.; Shewangizaw, M. Perceived barriers to the practice of preventive measures for COVID-19 pandemic among health professionals in public health facilities of the Gamo zone, southern Ethiopia: A phenomenological study. BMC Public Health 2021, 21, 199. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Kumar, J.; Katto, M.S.; Siddiqui, A.A.; Sahito, B.; Jamil, M.; Rasheed, N.; Ali, M. Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices of Healthcare Workers Regarding the Use of Face Mask to Limit the Spread of the New Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19). Cureus 2020, 12, e7737. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Saqlain, M.; Munir, M.M.; Rehman, S.U.; Gulzar, A.; Naz, S.; Ahmed, Z.; Tahir, A.H.; Mashhood, M. Knowledge, attitude and practice among healthcare professionals regarding COVID-19: A cross-sectional survey from Pakistan. J. Hosp. Infect. 2020, 105, 419–423. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Birihane, B.M.; Bayih, W.A.; Alemu, A.Y.; Belay, D.M. Perceived Barriers and Preventive Measures of COVID-19 Among Healthcare Providers in Debretabor, North Central Ethiopia, 2020. Risk Manag. Healthc. Policy 2020, 13, 2699–2706. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Ataiyero, Y.; Dyson, J.; Graham, M. Barriers to hand hygiene practices among health care workers in sub-Saharan African countries: A narrative review. Am. J. Infect. Control 2019, 47, 565–573. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Houghton, C.; Meskell, P.; Delaney, H.; Smalle, M.; Glenton, C.; Booth, A.; Chan, X.H.; Devane, D.; Biesty, L.M. Barriers and facilitators to healthcare workers’ adherence with infection prevention and control (IPC) guidelines for respiratory infectious diseases: A rapid qualitative evidence synthesis. Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. 2020, 4, CD013582. [Google Scholar]
- Abdel, W.W.Y.; Hefzy, E.M.; Ahmed, M.I.; Hamed, N.S. Assessment of knowledge, attitudes, and perception of health care workers regarding COVID-19, a cross-sectional study from Egypt. J. Community Health 2020, 45, 1242–1251. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Wang, J.; Zhou, M.; Liu, F. Reasons for health care workers becoming infected with novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China. J. Hosp. Infect. 2020, 105, 100–101. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
- Asemahagn, M.A. Factors determining the knowledge and prevention practice of health care workers towards COVID-19 in Amhara region, Ethiopia: A cross sectional survey. Trop. Med. Health 2020, 48, 72. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Cooper, S.; Wiyeh, A.; Schmidt, B.M.; Wiysonge, C.S. Cochrane corner: Factors that influence compliance by health care workers with infection prevention and control guidelines for COVID-19 and other respiratory infections. Pan Afr. Med. J. 2020, 35, 23. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Gebremeskel, T.G.; Kiros, K.; Gesesew, H.A.; Ward, P.R. Assessment of Knowledge and Practices Toward COVID-19 Prevention Among Healthcare Workers in Tigray, North Ethiopia. Front. Public Health 2021, 9, 614321. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Razu, S.R.; Yasmin, T.; Arif, T.B.; Islam, M.; Islam, S.M.; Gesesew, H.A.; Ward, P. Challenges Faced by Healthcare Professionals During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Qualitative Inquiry From Bangladesh. Front. Public Health 2021, 9, 647315. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Gebremeskel, T.G.; Kiros, K.; Gesesew, H.A.; Ward, P.R. Awareness, perceptions, and preventive practices of COVID-19 among health workers in Tigray, North Ethiopia. J. Public Health Theory Pract. 2021, 1–8. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Setiawan, H.W.; Pratiwi, I.N.; Nimah, L.; Pawanis, Z.; Bakhtiar, A.; Fauziningtyas, R.; Ramoo, V. Challenges for Healthcare Workers Caring for COVID-19 Patients in Indonesia: A Qualitative Study. J. Health Care Organ. Provis. Financ. 2021, 58, 1–13. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Brooks, S.K.; Greenberg, N.; Wessely, S. Factors affecting healthcare workers’ compliance with social and behavioural infection control measures during emerging infectious disease outbreaks: Rapid evidence review. BMJ Open 2021, 11, e049857. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Ajzen, I. The theory of planned behavior. Organ. Behav. Hum. Decis. Process. 1991, 50, 179–211. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Fauk, N.K.; Sukmawati, A.S.; Wardojo, S.S.; Teli, M.; Bere, Y.K.; Mwanri, L. The Intention of Men Who Have Sex With Men to Participate in Voluntary Counseling and HIV Testing and Access Free Condoms in Indonesia. Am. J. Mens Health 2018, 12, 1175–1184. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Montaño, D.E.; Kasprzyk, D. Theory of reasoned action, theory of planned behaviour, and the integrated behavioural model. In Health Behaviour and Health Education: Theory and Practice; Glanz, K., Rimer, B.K., Viswanath, K., Eds.; Jossey-Bass: Bethesda, MD, USA, 2008. [Google Scholar]
- BPS Propinsi NTT. Sosial dan Kependudukan. In Kupang: Badan Pusat Statistik Propinsi NTT; 2020. Available online: https://ntt.bps.go.id/subject/12/kependudukan.html#subjekViewTab3 (accessed on 31 January 2022).
- Belu, B.K. Kabupaten Belu Dalam Angka (Belu Regency in Figures); Badan Pusat Statistik Kabupaten Belu: Atambua, Indonesia, 2021.
- Malaka, B.K. Sosial dan Kependudukan; Badan Pusat Statistik Kabupaten Malaka: Betun, Indonesia, 2016.
- Fauk, N.K.; Kustanti, C.Y.; Wulandari, R.; Damayani, A.D.; Mwanri, L. Societal determinants of HIV vulnerability among clients of female commercial sex workers in Indonesia. PLoS ONE 2018, 13, e0207647. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
- Kementerian Kesehatan, R.I. Pemantauan Kasus COVID-19 Indonesia: Update Terakhir 20 Mei 2022; Kementerian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia: Jakarta, Indonesia, 2022. Available online: https://pusatkrisis.kemkes.go.id/covid-19-id/ (accessed on 30 May 2022).
- AntaraNews.com. Data Perkembangan COVID di Indonesia; Antara: Jakarta, Indonesia, 2022; Available online: https://www.antaranews.com/covid-19 (accessed on 31 January 2022).
- Fauk, N.K.; Kustanti, C.Y.; Liana, D.S.; Indriyawati, N.; Crutzen, R.; Mwanri, L. Perceptions of Determinants of Condom Use Behaviors Among Male Clients of Female Sex Workers in Indonesia: A Qualitative Inquiry. Am. J. Mens Health 2018, 12, 666–675. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
- Ezzy, D.; Rice, P.L. Theory in Qualitative Research: Traditions and Innovations in Qualitative Research. In Qualitative Research Method: A Health Focus; Oxford University Press: Melbourne, Australia, 2005. [Google Scholar]
- Fauk, N.K.; Ward, P.R.; Hawke, K.; Mwanri, L. Cultural and religious determinants of HIV transmission: A qualitative study with people living with HIV in Belu and Yogyakarta, Indonesia. PLoS ONE 2021, 16, e0257906. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Parker, C.; Scott, S.; Geddes, A. Snowball Sampling; Atkinson, P., Delamont, S., Cernat, A., Sakshaug, J.W., Williams, R.A., Eds.; SAGE Research Methods Foundations: Newcastle upon Tyne, UK, 2019. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Ritchie, J.; Spencer, L. Qualitative Data Analysis for Applied Policy Research. In Analyzing Qualitative Data; Bryman, A., Burgess, R.G., Eds.; Routledge: London, UK, 1994; pp. 173–194. [Google Scholar]
- Fauk, N.K.; Mwakinyali, S.E.; Putra, S.; Mwanri, L. The socio-economic impacts of AIDS on families caring for AIDS-orphaned children in Mbeya rural district, Tanzania. Int. J. Hum. Rights Healthc. 2017, 10, 132–145. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Smith, L.E.; Serfioti, D.; Weston, D.; Greenberg, N.; Rubin, G.J. Adherence to protective measures among healthcare workers in the UK: A cross-sectional study. Emerg. Med. J. 2022, 39, 100. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Coroiu, A.; Moran, C.; Campbell, T.; Geller, A.C. Barriers and facilitators of adherence to social distancing recommendations during COVID-19 among a large international sample of adults. PLoS ONE 2020, 15, e0239795. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Kwok, K.O.; Li, K.K.; Chan, H.H.; Yi, Y.Y.; Tang, A.; Wei, W.I.; Wong, Y.S. Community responses during the early phase of the COVID-19 epidemic in Hong Kong: Risk perception, information exposure and preventive measures. MedRxiv 2020, 26, 1575–1579. [Google Scholar]
- Rosha, B.C.; Suryaputri, I.Y.; Irawan, I.R.; Arfines, P.P.; Triwinarto, A. Factors Affecting Public Non-compliance With Large-scale Social Restrictions to Control COVID-19 Transmission in Greater Jakarta, Indonesia. J. Prev. Med. Public Health 2021, 54, 221–229. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Shewale, S.P.; Sane, S.S.; Ujagare, D.D.; Patel, R.; Roy, S.; Juvekar, S.; Kohli, R.; Bangar, S.; Jadhav, A.; Sahay, S. Social Factors Associated With Adherence to Preventive Behaviors Related to COVID-19 Among Rural and Semi-urban Communities in Western Maharashtra, India. Front. Public Health 2021, 9, 722621. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Urbán, R.; Paksi, B.; Miklósi, Á.; Saunders, J.B.; Demetrovics, Z. Non-adherence to preventive behaviours during the COVID-19 epidemic: Findings from a community study. BMC Public Health 2021, 21, 1462. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Raymond, C.B.; Ward, P.R. Community-Level Experiences, Understandings, and Responses to COVID-19 in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review of Qualitative and Ethnographic Studies. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 12063. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Abeya, S.G.; Barkesa, S.B.; Sadi, C.G.; Gemeda, D.D.; Muleta, F.Y.; Tolera, A.F.; Ayana, D.N.; Mohammed, S.A.; Wako, E.B.; Hurisa, M.B.; et al. Adherence to COVID-19 preventive measures and associated factors in Oromia regional state of Ethiopia. PLoS ONE 2021, 16, e0257373. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Varol, T.; Schneider, F.; Mesters, I.; Crutzen, R.; Ruiter, R.A.; Kok, G.; ten Hoor, G. University Students’ Adherence to the COVID-19-guidelines: A Qualitative Study on Facilitators and Barriers. Health Psychol. Bull. 2021, 5, 114–123. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Razu, S.R.; Nishu, N.A.; Rabbi, M.F.; Talukder, A.; Ward, P.R. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Concerning COVID-19 in Bangladesh: A Qualitative Study of Patients With Chronic Illnesses. Front. Public Health 2021, 9, g628623. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Raymond, C.B. Coronavirus Contingencies: An Ethnographic Case Study of Local Knowledge and Community Responses to COVID-19 in Kupang Kota and Kupang Regency, Flinders University: East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia, 2022; unpublished.
- Farram, S. A Political History of West Timor: 1901–1967; Lambert Academic Publishing: Sunnyvale, CA, USA, 2009. [Google Scholar]
- Ama, K.K. Mencegah COVID-19, Sejumlah Suku di NTT Gelar Ritual Adat Tolak Bala; Kompas: Kupang, Indonesia, 2020; Available online: https://www.kompas.id/baca/nusantara/2020/05/04/mencegah-covid-19-sejumlah-suku-di-ntt-gelar-ritual-adat-tolak-bala (accessed on 30 May 2022).
- Hasbullah, H.; Toyo, T.; Pawi, A.A.A. Ritual tolak bala pada masyarakat Melayu. J. Ushuluddin 2017, 25, 83–100. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Supradewi, R. Tolak Balak Wabah Pandemi Covid-19 dari Sisi Budaya Jawa. Psisula Pros. Berk. Psikol. 2020, 2, 339–348. [Google Scholar]
- Keda, O. Belajar dari Tradisi Tolak Bala di NTT ‘Ta Sena Moras’, Buang dan Lupakan yang Buruk; Liputan: Kupang, Indonesia, 2020; Available online: https://www.liputan6.com/regional/read/4235359/belajar-dari-tradisi-tolak-bala-di-ntt-ta-sena-moras-buang-dan-lupakan-yang-buruk (accessed on 15 May 2022).
- Abd Elhameed Ali, R.; Ahmed Ghaleb, A.; Abokresha, S.A. COVID-19 related knowledge and practice and barriers that hinder adherence to preventive measures among the Egyptian community. An epidemiological study in Upper Egypt. J. Public Health Res. 2021, 10, 176–185. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
|TPB Domains||Definition||Main Interview Guide Questions|
|Behavioural intention||Motivational factors that influence an individual to perform a given behaviour (COVID-19 prevention guidelines)||- What motivate and demotivate you to adhere to COVID-19 prevention guidelines in your social life? Please explain.|
- What do you know about factors that motivate or demotivate community members’ adherence to COVID-19 prevention guidelines? Please explain.
|Attitude||An individual’s belief about the outcome of performing a recommended behaviour (behavioural outcome)||- What are your perspectives on and personal experiences of COVID-19 prevention guidelines?|
- What are your perspectives about the level of COVID-19 knowledge, access to information, and understanding that people in your community have?
- What are the attitudes of other people in your community about how the government and healthcare workers are sharing COVID-19 information? How do their attitudes influence their behaviour regarding COVID-19?
|Subjective norm||An individual’s belief about whether people around them, such as within families or communities, approve or disapprove of their performance of a recommended behaviour||- How does your family or your local community influence the ways that you personally respond to the COVID-19 restrictions? Please explain more about this.|
- When your family and friends are not following COVID-19 restrictions, how does this make you feel? Does it change the way you behave regarding these restrictions? Please explain how this affects you.
- Do you feel personally pressured to act in certain ways regarding COVID-19 restrictions based on how others around you are acting? How can you describe this pressure to act or behave in certain ways?
- What are your perspectives on social pressure and influence on the adherence of community members towards COVID-19 prevention guidelines?
- Are there traditions or local practices which affect how other community members are responding and behaving regarding COVID-19 restrictions? Please explain more on these.
- What are your perspectives about the influence of family and social events on community members’ adherence to COVID-19 prevention guidelines?
|Perceived behavioural control||External factors that may facilitate or hinder people’s ability or intention to perform a recommended behaviour||- What are factors or situations that you think influence your adherence to COVID-19 guidelines? Please explain further.|
- What is your view on availability of supplies, financial constraints, etc and their influence on community members’ adherence to COVID-19 prevention guidelines?
(n = 10)
(n = 13)
|Bachelor of Medicine||2||2|
|Diploma/Bachelor of Nursing||6||8|
|Bachelor of Pharmacy||2||3|
Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
© 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Fauk, N.K.; Seran, A.L.; Raymond, C.; Merry, M.S.; Tahir, R.; Asa, G.A.; Ward, P.R. Why Do We Not Follow Lifesaving Rules? Factors Affecting Nonadherence to COVID-19 Prevention Guidelines in Indonesia: Healthcare Professionals’ Perspectives. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19, 8502. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19148502
Fauk NK, Seran AL, Raymond C, Merry MS, Tahir R, Asa GA, Ward PR. Why Do We Not Follow Lifesaving Rules? Factors Affecting Nonadherence to COVID-19 Prevention Guidelines in Indonesia: Healthcare Professionals’ Perspectives. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2022; 19(14):8502. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19148502Chicago/Turabian Style
Fauk, Nelsensius Klau, Alfonsa Liquory Seran, Christopher Raymond, Maria Silvia Merry, Roheena Tahir, Gregorius Abanit Asa, and Paul Russell Ward. 2022. "Why Do We Not Follow Lifesaving Rules? Factors Affecting Nonadherence to COVID-19 Prevention Guidelines in Indonesia: Healthcare Professionals’ Perspectives" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 19, no. 14: 8502. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19148502