Relationship between Socioeconomic Inequalities and Oral Hygiene Indicators in Private and Public Schools in Karachi: An Observational Study
2. Material and Methods
2.1. Statistical Analysis
2.2. Ethics Approval and Consent to Participate
- Our study only examined two schools. Therefore, the results cannot be considered national representative figures.
- As the sample size was moderate, hence our results cannot be generalized. A larger national study might also make the differences in DMFT levels between private and public-school students statistically significant. Future studies are required with a larger sample size.
- Some important aspects were not examined in this study that might have an impact on oral health. These include nutritional habits, knowledge and opinions about dental health and parent’s attitude towards oral health.
- The study could serve as a model for a future larger-scale assessment of the oral health of schoolchildren in Pakistan.
- Preventive community programs in schools could significantly reduce caries burden in the most vulnerable children.
- School-based caries interventions such as application of fluoride and sealants could be used as cost-effective interventions in schools to reduce caries burden .
Conflicts of Interest
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|Independent Samples Test|
|Levene’s Test for Equality of Variances||T-Test for Equality of Means|
|F||Sig.||t||df||Sig. (2-Tailed)||Mean Difference||Std. Error Difference||95% Confidence Interval of the Difference|
|Age||Equal variances assumed||56.428||0.000||−14.203||298||0.000||−4.9667||0.3497||−5.6548||−4.2785|
|Equal variances not assumed||−14.203||263.189||0.000||−4.9667||0.3497||−5.6552||−4.2781|
|Carious Teeth||Equal variances assumed||19.359||0.000||1.283||298||0.201||0.3467||0.2702||−0.1851||0.8784|
|Equal variances not assumed||1.283||229.928||0.201||0.3467||0.2702||−0.1857||0.8791|
|Missing||Equal variances assumed||8.231||0.004||−1.567||298||0.118||−0.0733||0.0468||−0.1654||0.0188|
|Equal variances not assumed||−1.567||295.416||0.118||−0.0733||0.0468||−0.1655||0.0188|
|Filled||Equal variances assumed||1.395||0.238||0.584||298||0.560||0.0133||0.0228||−0.0316||0.0583|
|Equal variances not assumed||0.584||268.445||0.560||0.0133||0.0228||−0.0316||0.0583|
|DMFT||Equal variances assumed||16.623||0.000||1.136||298||0.257||0.313||0.276||−0.230||0.856|
|Equal variances not assumed||1.136||236.664||0.257||0.313||0.276||−0.230||0.857|
|t||Sig. (2-Tailed)||Mean Difference||95% Confidence Interval of the Difference|
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Khalid, T.; Mahdi, S.S.; Khawaja, M.; Allana, R.; Amenta, F. Relationship between Socioeconomic Inequalities and Oral Hygiene Indicators in Private and Public Schools in Karachi: An Observational Study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 8893. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17238893
Khalid T, Mahdi SS, Khawaja M, Allana R, Amenta F. Relationship between Socioeconomic Inequalities and Oral Hygiene Indicators in Private and Public Schools in Karachi: An Observational Study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(23):8893. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17238893Chicago/Turabian Style
Khalid, Tamsal, Syed Sarosh Mahdi, Mariam Khawaja, Raheel Allana, and Francesco Amenta. 2020. "Relationship between Socioeconomic Inequalities and Oral Hygiene Indicators in Private and Public Schools in Karachi: An Observational Study" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 23: 8893. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17238893