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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, Volume 1, Issue 2 (September 2004) – 8 articles , Pages 74-137

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443 KiB  
Article
Metal Ion Effect on BOD Exertion at Different Temperatures
by Susheel K. Mittal, Siloni Goel and Ajay Sharma
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2004, 1(2), 132-137; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph2004020132 - 30 Sep 2004
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 7429
Abstract
The toxic effect of metal ions like chromium (Cr3+), cobalt (Co2+), nickel (Ni2+), copper (Cu2+), cadmium (Cd2+) and lead (Pb2+) on biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) of synthetic wastewater samples has been [...] Read more.
The toxic effect of metal ions like chromium (Cr3+), cobalt (Co2+), nickel (Ni2+), copper (Cu2+), cadmium (Cd2+) and lead (Pb2+) on biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) of synthetic wastewater samples has been studied at different temperatures i.e., 15°C, 20°C, 25°C and 30°C. Experiments were conducted for BOD exertion in presence (10 ppm of each metal ion) and in the absence of metal ions at different temperatures. Transition metal ions like Cr3+, Co2+, Ni2+ and Cu2+ show an increase in relative percentage inhibition with increasing atomic number. BOD inhibition in presence of Cd2+ and Pb2+ is relatively large. The metal ions under study are found to be highly toxic to microbes. Full article
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238 KiB  
Article
Effects of Long-Term Exposure of the Red Swamp Crawfish Procambarus clarkii to a Mixture of Two Herbicides, 2,4-Dichloro-phenoxyacetic Acid and Monosodium Methanearsonate, and Associated Human Health Risks
by Rosalind M. Green and Assaf A. Abdelghani
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2004, 1(2), 124-131; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph2004020124 - 30 Sep 2004
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 11002
Abstract
2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and monosodium methanearsonate are often sold in commercial mixtures. Bioconcentration studies have been performed for each of these herbicides individually, but little information exists concerning long-term exposure to a mixture of these herbicides. The following study examined the uptake of arsenic [...] Read more.
2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and monosodium methanearsonate are often sold in commercial mixtures. Bioconcentration studies have been performed for each of these herbicides individually, but little information exists concerning long-term exposure to a mixture of these herbicides. The following study examined the uptake of arsenic in crawfish after long-term exposure to this mixture, and the health risks associated with consumption of these crawfish. Bioconcentration and depuration experiments using a 50:50 by concentration mixture of the two herbicides, with and without surfactant, were performed to quantify how much arsenic is concentrated in the edible tissue of the crawfish. Of the three tissues (muscle, gill, and hepatopancreas) sampled hepatopancreas bioconcentrated the highest amount of arsenic. Surfactant significantly reduced this uptake but did not affect bioconcentration of arsenic into other tissues. Surfactant had no effect on depuration of arsenic from any of the tissues. Cooking lowered hepatopancreatic arsenic content, possibly as a result of structural changes in the hepatopancreas. Assessment of the human health risk associated with consuming these crawfish showed an exposure dose at the high end of consumption that was approximately twice the reference dose for arsenic. Cancer risks were averaged at approximately 7 extra tumors in a population of 10,000 and 6 extra tumors in a population of 10,000 resulting from a lifetime consumption of crawfish exposed to the herbicide mixture without and with surfactant, respectively. Full article
369 KiB  
Article
Freshwater Microcosms-Based Assessment of Eco-toxicological Effects of a Chemical Effluent from the Pilcam Industry in Cameroon
by A . Monkiedje, T. Njine, A. L. Meyabeme Elono, S. H. Zebaze, N. Kemka, P. B. Tchounwou and J. E. Djomo
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2004, 1(2), 111-123; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph2004020111 - 30 Sep 2004
Viewed by 10269
Abstract
We studied the acute toxicity of a raw effluent from a battery manufacturing plant (Pilcam) in Douala, Cameroon, to a freshwater fish (Oreochromis niloticus), and subsequently evaluated its sub-acute effects on water quality and the biota in freshwater microscosms. The acute [...] Read more.
We studied the acute toxicity of a raw effluent from a battery manufacturing plant (Pilcam) in Douala, Cameroon, to a freshwater fish (Oreochromis niloticus), and subsequently evaluated its sub-acute effects on water quality and the biota in freshwater microscosms. The acute toxicity test was based on 96 hrs static renewal bioassays that resulted in 96-h LC50 and LC90 values of 16 and 20.7% (v/v), respectively. The sub-acute experiments were conducted by exposing several species of aquatic organisms (plankton, macro-invertebrates and mollusks) to lower effluent concentrations [1.6%, 8.0%, 16% (v/v)] for six weeks, and monitoring their survival rates, as well as the physical and chemical characteristics of water. These concentrations were based on 10%, 50%, and 100% of the 96 h - median lethal concentrations (LC50) of the effluent to the freshwater fish, Oreochromis niloticus. Significant effects on functional parameters, such as, chlorophyll-a and total protein could not be demonstrated. However, the activity of alkaline phosphatase was significantly inhibited at all concentrations tested. Phytoplankton, zooplankton, macro-invertebrate communities and snails were negatively affected by the effluent application at concentrations ≥ 8% (v/v), with chlorophyta, ciliates, ostracoda, annelida, planaria and snails being the most sensitive groups. The snails were eliminated after 24 h exposure from microcosms treated with effluent at concentration ≥ 8% (v/v). Effluent exposure also caused significant effects on water quality parameters (DO, pH, hardness, conductivity, color, turbidity, ammonia) in general at concentrations ≥ 8% (v/v). Temperature and alkalinity were not significantly affected. Overall, data from this research indicate that a dilution of the Pilcam effluent down to 1.6% does not provide protection against chronic toxicity to aquatic organisms. Further studies are needed to determine the no observable adverse effect level (NOAEL), as well as a chronic reference concentration for this effluent. Full article
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541 KiB  
Article
Investigation into the Nephrotoxicity of Nigerian Bonny Light Crude Oil in Albino Rats
by O. E. Orisakwe, A. A. Njan, O. J. Afonne, Akumka D. D, V. N. Orish and O. O. Udemezue
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2004, 1(2), 106-110; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph2004020106 - 30 Sep 2004
Cited by 32 | Viewed by 8802
Abstract
The effect of bonny-light crude oil was assessed in adult albino rats. The rats were administered with 200, 400, and 800mg/kg body weight of the crude oil orally for 7 days. Fluid intake was measured daily, initial and final animal body was recorded. [...] Read more.
The effect of bonny-light crude oil was assessed in adult albino rats. The rats were administered with 200, 400, and 800mg/kg body weight of the crude oil orally for 7 days. Fluid intake was measured daily, initial and final animal body was recorded. The toxic effects on the kidneys were assessed and histological studies carried out. The results revealed that the kidney cells were damaged; crude oil caused a destruction of the renal reserve capacity. There was a significant increase (p ≤ 0.05) in creatinine in the high dose group (800mg/kg), and a significant decrease (p ≤ 0.05) in urea concentration. Histological examination indicates that crude oil induced severe pathologic changes in the forms of necrosis and oedema. Full article
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321 KiB  
Article
Mitogenic and Cytotoxic Effects of Pentachlorophenol to AML 12 Mouse Hepatocytes
by Waneene C. Dorsey, Paul B. Tchounwou and Dwayne Sutton
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2004, 1(2), 100-105; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph2004020100 - 30 Sep 2004
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 11068
Abstract
Pentachlorophenol (PCP), an organochlorine fungicide, is extensively used in the United States for the protection of wood products. Moreover, widespread agricultural, domestic, and industrial applications have caused PCP-contaminants to enter the food chain from the environment. There is accumulating evidence indicating that PCP [...] Read more.
Pentachlorophenol (PCP), an organochlorine fungicide, is extensively used in the United States for the protection of wood products. Moreover, widespread agricultural, domestic, and industrial applications have caused PCP-contaminants to enter the food chain from the environment. There is accumulating evidence indicating that PCP is highly toxic to humans, and causes injury to major organs including the lung, liver, kidneys, heart, and brain. While PCP has been shown to induce systemic toxicity and carcinogenesis in several experimental studies, the literature is scarce regarding its toxic mechanisms of action. Recent investigations in our laboratory have shown that PCP exerts both cytotoxic and mitogenic effects in human liver carcinoma (HepG2) cells [1], and in primary culture of catfish hepatocytes [2]. In the present study, we hypothesized that PCP exposure will trigger similar cytotoxic and mitogenic responses in AML 12 Mouse hepatocytes. To test this hypothesis, we performed the MTT assay for cell viability in PCP-treated and control cells. Data obtained from this experiment indicated a biphasic response with respect to PCP toxicity; showing a hormosis effect characterized by mitogenicity at lower levels of exposure, and cytotoxicity at higher doses. Upon 48 hrs of exposure, PCP chemical doses required to cause 50% reduction in the viability (LC50) of AML 12 mouse hepatocytes was computed to be 16.0 + 2.0 μg/mL. These results indicate that, although the sensitivity to PCP toxicity varies from one cell line to another, its toxic mechanisms are similar across cell lines. Full article
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289 KiB  
Article
Pentachlorophenol-Induced Cytotoxic, Mitogenic, and Endocrine-Disrupting Activities in Channel Catfish, Ictalurus punctatus
by Waneene C. Dorsey and Paul B. Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2004, 1(2), 90-99; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph2004020090 - 30 Sep 2004
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 11635
Abstract
Pentachlorophenol (PCP) is an organochlorine compound that has been widely used as a biocide in several industrial, agricultural, and domestic applications. Although it has been shown to induce systemic toxicity and carcinogenesis in several experimental studies, the literature is scarce regarding its toxic [...] Read more.
Pentachlorophenol (PCP) is an organochlorine compound that has been widely used as a biocide in several industrial, agricultural, and domestic applications. Although it has been shown to induce systemic toxicity and carcinogenesis in several experimental studies, the literature is scarce regarding its toxic mechanisms of action at the cellular and molecular levels. Recent investigations in our laboratory have shown that PCP induces cytotoxicity and transcriptionally activates stress genes in human liver carcinoma (HepG2) cells [1]. In this research, we hypothesize that environmental exposure to PCP may trigger cytotoxic, mitogenic, and endocrine-disrupting activities in aquatic organisms including fish. To test this hypothesis, we carried out in vitro cultures of male channel catfish hepatocytes, and performed the fluorescein diacetate assay (FDA) to assess for cell viability, and the Western Blot analysis to assess for vitellogenin expression following exposure to PCP. Data obtained from FDA experiments indicated a strong dose-response relationship with respect to PCP cytotoxicity. Upon 48 hrs of exposure, the chemical dose required to cause 50% reduction in cell viability (LD50) was computed to be 1,987.0 + 9.6 μg PCP/mL. The NOAEL and LOAEL were 62.5 + 10.3 μg PCP/mL and 125.0+15.2 μg PCP/mL, respectively. At lower levels of exposure, PCP was found to be mitogenic, showing a strong dose- and time-dependent response with regard to cell proliferation. Western Blot analysis demonstrated the potential of PCP to cause endocrine-disrupting activity, as evidenced by the up regulation of the 125-kDa vitellogenin protein the hepatocytes of male channel catfish. Full article
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281 KiB  
Article
Arsenic-Induced Genotoxic and Cytotoxic Effects in Human Keratinocytes, Melanocytes and Dendritic Cells
by Barbara Graham-Evans, Hari H. P. Cohly, Hongtao Yu and Paul B. Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2004, 1(2), 83-89; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph2004020083 - 30 Sep 2004
Cited by 39 | Viewed by 11575
Abstract
Arsenical keratosis and skin cancer are among the most common health effects associated with acute and chronic exposures to arsenic. This study examines the acute and chronic dose-responses of arsenic in established human cell lines using keratinocytes (HaCaT), melanocytes (CRL1675) and dendritic cells [...] Read more.
Arsenical keratosis and skin cancer are among the most common health effects associated with acute and chronic exposures to arsenic. This study examines the acute and chronic dose-responses of arsenic in established human cell lines using keratinocytes (HaCaT), melanocytes (CRL1675) and dendritic cells (THP-1 + A23187). Chronic conditions were established by treating the three cell lines with at least 8 passages in 0.2 μg/mL arsenic trioxide. Cytotoxicity was assessed using the fluorescein diacetate assay after 72 hrs of exposure. Single cell gel electrophoresis (Comet assay) was used to measure DNA damage. Acute exposure to arsenic had LD10 and LD25 values of 0.38 μg/mL and 3.0 μg/mL for keratinocytes; 0.19 μg/mL and 0.38 μg/mL for melanocytes; and 0.38 μg/mL and 0.75 μg/mL for dendritic cells. Cytotoxicity assays for chronically exposed cells resulted in LD10, and LD25 values of 0.4 μg/mL and 0.8 μg/mL for keratinocytes; 0.10 μg/mL and 0.20 μg/mL for melanocytes; and 0.10 μg/mL and 1.0 μg/mL for dendritic cells. The Comet assay showed that arsenic was highly genotoxic to the three cell lines. No significant differences (p > 0.05) in DNA cleavage were observed between acute and chronic exposures. In acute exposure arsenic genotoxicity was more severe with dendritic cells while melanocytes were more sensitive to arsenic cytotoxicity. Similarly, chronically exposed dendritic cells showed the maximum genotoxic damage while melanocytes were more sensitive to arsenic cytotoxicity. In conclusion, this research shows that arsenic is dermatotoxic, showing a high degree of genotoxicity and cytotoxicity to skin cells. Full article
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312 KiB  
Article
Association of Clinical Complications with Nutritional Status and the Prevalence of Leukopenia among Arsenic Patients in Bangladesh
by Laila N. Islam, AHM Nurun Nabi, M Mahfuzur Rahman, Monsur A. Khan and Azizul I. Kazi
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2004, 1(2), 74-82; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph2004020074 - 30 Sep 2004
Cited by 37 | Viewed by 8829
Abstract
This study conducted in Bangladesh reports the relationship of clinical complications with nutritional status and the prevalence of leukopenia among arsenic exposed patients living in the rural villages. A total of 115 exposed individuals diagnosed as arsenicosis patients were randomly selected from four [...] Read more.
This study conducted in Bangladesh reports the relationship of clinical complications with nutritional status and the prevalence of leukopenia among arsenic exposed patients living in the rural villages. A total of 115 exposed individuals diagnosed as arsenicosis patients were randomly selected from four known arsenic endemic villages, and age-matched 120 unexposed subjects were enrolled in the study program. The duration of arsenic exposure in about 37% of the patients was at least 10 yrs, while the population mean and range were 7.6 ± 5.2 yrs, and 1 – 25 yrs, respectively. The mean arsenic concentrations in the drinking water for the exposed and unexposed (control) population were 218.1 μg/L and 11.3 μg/L, respectively. The spot urine sample of the arsenicosis patients contained an average of 234.6 μg/L arsenic. Although very few patients showed elevated WBC count, 16% had leukopenia (below normal count), and the whole population had significantly low WBC count than the control subjects. Prevalences of neutropenia and lymphocytosis were observed in patients with chronic exposure to high levels of arsenic in water. The body mass index was found to be lower than 18.5, the cut-off point for malnutrition (underweight), in about 28% of the arsenicosis cases compared to 15% of the controls. The monthly income and total calorie consumption per day showed the patients were underprivileged than the controls. Arsenical symptoms and complications were more severe in the nutritionally vulnerable (underweight) patients than the overweight ones. Also, the incidences of leukopenia and anaemia were more common in the female patients who were underweight. The findings of this research demonstrate that the poor nutritional status of patients increases the complications of chronic arsenic toxicity; suggest the possibility of other sources of arsenic contamination different from drinking water in the study area; and establish a higher prevalence of leukopenia and lymphocytosis in arsenicosis patients. Full article
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