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Medicina is published by MDPI from Volume 54 Issue 1 (2018). Previous articles were published by another publisher in Open Access under a CC-BY (or CC-BY-NC-ND) licence, and they are hosted by MDPI on mdpi.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Lithuanian Medical Association, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, and Vilnius University.

Medicina, Volume 48, Issue 4 (April 2012) – 8 articles

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256 KiB  
Article
Effect of Single Physical Load of Different Duration and Intensity on Cognitive Function
by Saulė Sipavičienė, Audronė Dumčienė, Irina Ramanauskienė and Albertas Skurvydas
Medicina 2012, 48(4), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina48040031 - 25 May 2012
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1044
Abstract
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a single physical load of different duration and intensity on cognitive function.
Material and Methods
. The study population comprised 90 male soldiers. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups: experimental [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a single physical load of different duration and intensity on cognitive function.
Material and Methods
. The study population comprised 90 male soldiers. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups: experimental (n=60) and control group (n=30). The soldiers in the experimental group undertook 3 specific loads of different types, durations, and intensities. Attention concentration and tapping tests were carried out, and the reaction time was measured.
Results. After the physical load, the soldiers in the experimental group performed the attention concentration test faster, the number of committed mistakes decreased, and the rate of processing information increased as compared to the corresponding values before physical load (all P<0.05). However, the indices of fatigue, such as the tapping test score and reaction time, in the experimental group were found to be worse than before physical loads (P<0.05). No significant changes were observed in the control group of soldiers.
Conclusion
. Despite fatigue, a single physical load of different duration and intensity improved the cognitive function. Full article
249 KiB  
Article
Diet and Dyslipidemias in a Lithuanian Rural Population Aged 25-64: the CINDI Survey
by Janina Petkevičienė, Jūratė Klumbienė, Vitalija Ramažauskienė, Vilma Kriaučionienė, Edita and Vilius Grabauskas
Medicina 2012, 48(4), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina48040030 - 5 May 2012
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 905
Abstract
The aim of the study was to evaluate the dietary intake of a Lithuanian rural population and to assess the relationship between diet and dyslipidemias.
Material and Methods.
A cross-sectional health survey was carried out in 5 municipalities of Lithuania in 2007. The [...] Read more.
The aim of the study was to evaluate the dietary intake of a Lithuanian rural population and to assess the relationship between diet and dyslipidemias.
Material and Methods.
A cross-sectional health survey was carried out in 5 municipalities of Lithuania in 2007. The random sample was obtained from lists of 25- to 64-year-old inhabitants registered at primary health care centers (n=1739). The food frequency questionnaire and 24-hour recall was used for the evaluation of nutrition habits. The levels of serum lipids were determined using enzymatic methods. Factor analysis was employed in order to reduce the number of food items. The scores of food factors were used in linear regression analysis of associations between nutrition and serum lipid levels.
Results
. The diet of the study population was very high in fat, especially in saturated fatty acids. The content of cholesterol in the diet of men was higher than recommended. The main sources of fat and protein were meat, milk, and their products. Cereals were the main source of carbohydrates. The major proportion of monosaccharide and disaccharides was derived from confectionary and fruits. The mean serum total cholesterol level was 5.60 mmol/L in men and 5.51 mmol/L in women.
Conclusions. Healthier food patterns were associated with the lower levels of total, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride. Full article
321 KiB  
Article
Effect of (1→3),(1→6)-β-Glucan on In Vitro Production of Cytokines by Leukocytes of Patients With Periodontitis
by Laimis Akramas, Dalia Akramienė, Jurgina Sakalauskienė, Ričardas Kubilius and Alvydas Gleiznys
Medicina 2012, 48(4), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina48040027 - 5 May 2012
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 949
Abstract
Background. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of (1→3), (1→6)-β-glucan on the production of interleukin 10 (IL-10) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) in vitro by peripheral blood leukocytes of patients with periodontitis.
Material and
[...] Read more.
Background. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of (1→3), (1→6)-β-glucan on the production of interleukin 10 (IL-10) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) in vitro by peripheral blood leukocytes of patients with periodontitis.
Material and Methods
. In total, 20 patients suffering from untreated severe chronic generalized periodontitis were enrolled in this study. Periodontitis was confirmed by clinical and radiologic examination. Besides, 20 periodontally healthy patients served as a control group. Peripheral venous blood was sampled from the patients, and isolated leukocytes were treated with (1→3),(1→6)-β-glucan from yeast at different concentrations. The levels of IL-10 and TNF-α secreted by the leukocytes unstimulated and stimulated with unopsonized E. coli in vitro were determined by the enzyme amplified sensitivity immunoassay method.
Results.
Our data showed that (1→3),(1→6)-β-glucan induced a significant decrease (P<0.05) in the TNF-α level and a significant increase (P<0.001) in the IL-10 level in the media of unstimulated and stimulated leukocytes of the patients with periodontitis in comparison with those of the healthy subjects.
Conclusions
. The present in vitro study showed that (1→3),(1→6)-β-glucan modulated the response of leukocytes of the patients with periodontitis differently in comparison with those of the healthy subjects. It increased the release of IL-10, which is protective of the tooth-supporting tissues in patients with periodontal disease, but decreased the release of TNF-α, which is mainly responsible for the destruction of the tooth-supporting tissues during periodontal disease. Full article
410 KiB  
Article
The Development of Eudragit® NM-Based Controlled-Release Matrix Tablets
by Kateřina Dvočková, Rasa Kalėdaitė, Jan Gajdziok, Miloslava Rabišková, Martina Bajerová, Jan Muselík, Robertas Lažauskas, Rimantas Pečiūra and Jurga Bernatonienė
Medicina 2012, 48(4), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina48040028 - 29 Apr 2012
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1202
Abstract
Eudragit® NM was investigated as a matrix former in combination with microcrystalline cellulose as an insoluble filler for preparing controlled-release tablets containing model drugs with different solubility.
Material and Methods. Three sets of matrix tablets differing in the drug-to-filler ratio (1:1, [...] Read more.
Eudragit® NM was investigated as a matrix former in combination with microcrystalline cellulose as an insoluble filler for preparing controlled-release tablets containing model drugs with different solubility.
Material and Methods. Three sets of matrix tablets differing in the drug-to-filler ratio (1:1, 2:1, and 4:1) and polymer amount with diltiazem hydrochloride (freely soluble) or caffeine (sparingly soluble) were prepared. Samples were evaluated by the dissolution test at pH 6.8 corresponding to the upper part of the small intestine; the selected samples were tested at a changing pH level to better simulate in vivo conditions.
Results. The prepared matrix tablets fulfilled all the requirements of the European Pharmacopoeia. Tablets with Eudragit® NM showed excellent mechanical characteristics. In vitro studies showed that the set 1:1 was the most suitable for the sustained release of a freely soluble drug concerning the burst effect and the total drug amount released within 12 hours. The significant effect of the drug-to-filler ratio and polymer amount on the dissolution profile was confirmed by similarity factor analysis. A faster drug release was observed during the dissolution test within changing pH levels because of the pH-dependent solubility of diltiazem. A prolonged release of the sparingly soluble drug was not achieved, and a trend for fast disintegration was observed.
Conclusions.
The combination of Eudragit®NM with microcrystalline cellulose as an insoluble filler seems to be suitable only for freely soluble drugs, when the amount of the drug and the filler is similar. Full article
249 KiB  
Article
The Role of Mutation Status of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Gene In Advanced Non–Small Cell Lung Cancer
by Neringa Vagulienė, Marius Žemaitis, Valdas Šarauskas, Astra Vitkauskienė and Skaidrius Miliauskas
Medicina 2012, 48(4), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina48040025 - 29 Apr 2012
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 894
Abstract
Objective. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene mutations among patients with advanced nonsquamous non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated in our institution and to evaluate the associations between EGFR mutations and [...] Read more.
Objective. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene mutations among patients with advanced nonsquamous non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated in our institution and to evaluate the associations between EGFR mutations and clinicopathological characteristics.
Materials and Methods
. A total of 103 patients with NSCLC were examined from April 2010 to September 2011. The patients were screened for EGFR mutations in exons 19 and 21 using sequence analysis.
Results
. EGFR mutations were detected in 10 patients (9.71%): 23.1% of women and 5.2% of men (P<0.05), 31.8% of never-smokers and 4.7% of smokers (P<0.05), and 12.3% of patients with adenocarcinomas and 6.25% of patients with large cell carcinomas (P>0.05). Eight mutations (80.0%) were found in exon 21: 7 patients had the L858R mutation and 1 patient had the L861G mutation. Two mutations (20.0%) were found in exon 19: 1 patient had the L747-A748 deletion and 1 patient had the L747-A750insE deletion. The overall response rate was significantly greater in the EGFR mutation-positive group than in the EGFR mutation-negative or control groups (P<0.05). The median progression-free survival in the EGFR mutation-negative group and the control group that received systemic standard chemotherapy was 5.6 months (95% CI, 4.3 to 7.0) and 5.3 months (95% CI, 4.9 to 5.7), respectively, but it was not achieved in the EGFR mutation-positive group that received EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (P<0.05).
Conclusions. The frequency of EGFR mutations in our patients with nonsquamous NSCLC was found to be similar to that reported in Europe. EGFR mutations were more frequent in women and never-smokers Full article
455 KiB  
Article
Application of Multifrequency Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis Method for the Detection of Dehydration Status in Professional Divers
by Sermin Sengun, Atilla Uslu and Salih Aydin
Medicina 2012, 48(4), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina48040029 - 21 Apr 2012
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 948
Abstract
Background and Objective. The level of dehydration has been known to be a predisposing factor for the development of decompression sickness in divers. The aim of this study was to determine the level of dehydration in divers who dove with heliox and [...] Read more.
Background and Objective. The level of dehydration has been known to be a predisposing factor for the development of decompression sickness in divers. The aim of this study was to determine the level of dehydration in divers who dove with heliox and to determine whether the source of this dehydration was intracellular and/or extracellular by means of multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (MF-BIA).
Material and Methods.
Eleven male professional divers were enrolled in the study. In order to determine the level of dehydration, MF-BIA was carried out (at 5, 50, and 100 kHz) and capillary hematocrit (Hct) was measured two times: one before diving and the other after leaving the pressure room.
Results
. When prediving and postdiving parameters were compared, significant increases in the resistance at 5 kHz (P<0.001), 50 kHz, (P<0.001), and 100 kHz (P<0.01) and Hct (P<0.01) were observed after the diving. Similarly, a statistically significant fluid shift was found: total body water, –1.30 L (P<0.001), extracellular water, –0.85 L (P<0.001); and intracellular water, –0.45 L (P=0.011).
Conclusions. Our results showed that mild dehydration occurred both in the intracellular and extracellular compartments in divers after deep diving. This study also indicates that MF-BIA could be a reliable new method for determining the dehydration status in divers. Full article
933 KiB  
Case Report
Uterine Rupture in the Second Trimester of Pregnancy as an Iatrogenic Complication of Laparoscopic Myomectomy
by Andrzej Torbé, Wioletta Mikołajek-Bedner, Wojciech Kałużyński, Danuta Gutowska-Czajka, Sebastian Kwiatkowski, Wojciech Błogowski, Rafał Rzepka and Ryszard Czajka
Medicina 2012, 48(4), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina48040026 - 7 Apr 2012
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 1069
Abstract
Uterine rupture is one of the most dangerous obstetric emergencies carrying a high risk for the mother and the fetus. Reports about uterine rupture in pregnancy following previous laparoscopic surgery have not been frequent; however, an increasing rate of the occurrence of this [...] Read more.
Uterine rupture is one of the most dangerous obstetric emergencies carrying a high risk for the mother and the fetus. Reports about uterine rupture in pregnancy following previous laparoscopic surgery have not been frequent; however, an increasing rate of the occurrence of this complication has been observed and reviewed in contemporary literature. We report a case of a spontaneous uterine rupture at 22 weeks of gestation in a 25-year old primigravida, who had had a laparoscopic removal of a small, peduncular, asymptomatic myoma located in the right uterine horn 20 months earlier. Ultrasound examination and subsequent urgent laparotomy confirmed a spontaneous uterine rupture with a nonviable fetus in the peritoneal cavity. Women planning to become pregnant should be qualified for laparoscopic myomectomy with special carefulness. Special attention must be paid to the potential solutions that limit the risk of postoperative uterine rupture, if the absolute necessity for the enucleation of myomas during the reproductive age occurs and a decision about laparoscopic intervention is made. Full article
297 KiB  
Article
Coats’ Retinitis or Retinoblastoma in a 3-Year-Old Girl: A Case Report
by Alvydas Paunksnis, Daiva Imbrasienė, Rasa Liutkevičienė, Kristina Rilienė, Evaldas Keleras and Rimantas Kėvalas
Medicina 2012, 48(4), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina48040032 - 17 Mar 2012
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 934
Abstract
Coats’ disease is an idiopathic disorder defined by an abnormal development of retinal vessels with a progressive deposition of intraretinal or subretinal exudates, leading to exudative retinal detachment. The most difficult task is to differentiate Coats’ disease from retinoblastoma. We present a rare [...] Read more.
Coats’ disease is an idiopathic disorder defined by an abnormal development of retinal vessels with a progressive deposition of intraretinal or subretinal exudates, leading to exudative retinal detachment. The most difficult task is to differentiate Coats’ disease from retinoblastoma. We present a rare case of Coats’ disease diagnosed in a 3-year-old girl. From the age of 6 months, the girl was followed up 2 times a year at the Department of Ophthalmology, Hospital of Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, due to congenital convergent strabismus and refractive errors. At the age of 3.6 years, a routine examination of the fundus of the right eye revealed hard exudates, telangiectasia and tortuosity, gray color lesion below the optic nerve disc, submacular exudation in the inferior nasal part of the retina, and exudative retinal detachment, which extended from the 7-o’clock position to the 4-o’clock position. Before this examination, no abnormalities were found in the fundus of her both eyes. The girl was not treated with laser photocoagulation, cryocoagulation, or intravitreal injections, as the diagnosis of retinoblastoma could not be excluded; therefore, only eye drops were prescribed. In order to exclude the diagnosis of retinoblastoma, ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging, and computed tomography were carried out, and an appointment to see an ophthalmic oncologist was scheduled. Due to early and appropriate treatment, the progression of Coats’ disease in patients could be arrested. However, in some cases, when the diagnosis is ambiguous, it is better to follow up the patient and to treat only with eye drops. Full article
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