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Current Issues in Molecular Biology is published by MDPI from Volume 43 Issue 1 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher in Open Access under a CC-BY (or CC-BY-NC-ND) licence, and they are hosted by MDPI on mdpi.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Caister Press.

Curr. Issues Mol. Biol., Volume 8, Issue 2 (July 2006) – 5 articles

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1326 KiB  
Review
Drug Resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis
by Rabia Johnson, Elizabeth M. Streicher, Gail E. Louw, Robin M. Warren, Paul D. van Helden and Thomas C. Victor
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2006, 8(2), 97-112; https://doi.org/10.21775/cimb.008.097 - 2 Aug 2006
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2440
Abstract
Anti-tuberculosis drugs are a two-edged sword. While they destroy pathogenic M. tuberculosis they also select for drug resistant bacteria against which those drugs are then ineffective. Global surveillance has shown that drug resistant Tuberculosis is widespread and is now a threat to tuberculosis [...] Read more.
Anti-tuberculosis drugs are a two-edged sword. While they destroy pathogenic M. tuberculosis they also select for drug resistant bacteria against which those drugs are then ineffective. Global surveillance has shown that drug resistant Tuberculosis is widespread and is now a threat to tuberculosis control programs in many countries. Application of molecular methods during the last decade has greatly changed our understanding of drug resistance in tuberculosis. Application of molecular epidemiological methods was also central to the description of outbreaks of drug resistance in Tuberculosis. This review describes recommendations for Tuberculosis treatment according to the WHO guidelines, the drug resistance problem in the world, mechanisms of resistance to first line and second line drugs and applications of molecular methods to detect resistance causing gene mutations. It is envisaged that molecular techniques may be important adjuncts to traditional culture based procedures to rapidly screen for drug resistance. Prospective analysis and intervention to prevent transmission may be particularly helpful in areas with ongoing transmission of drug resistant strains as recent mathematical modeling indicate that the burden of MDR-TB cannot be contained in the absence of specific efforts to limit transmission. Full article
763 KiB  
Review
Extracting Haplotypes from Diploid Organisms
by Jianping Xu
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2006, 8(2), 113-122; https://doi.org/10.21775/cimb.008.113 - 1 Aug 2006
Viewed by 424
Abstract
Each diploid organism has two alleles at every gene locus. In sexual organisms such as most plants, animals and fungi, the two alleles in an individual may be genetically very different from each other. DNA sequence data from individual alleles (called a haplotype) [...] Read more.
Each diploid organism has two alleles at every gene locus. In sexual organisms such as most plants, animals and fungi, the two alleles in an individual may be genetically very different from each other. DNA sequence data from individual alleles (called a haplotype) can provide powerful information to address a variety of biological questions and guide many practical applications. The advancement in molecular technology and computational tools in the last decade has made obtaining large-scale haplotypes feasible. This review summarizes the two basic approaches for obtaining haplotypes and discusses the associated techniques and methods. The first approach is to experimentally obtain diploid sequence information and then use computer algorithms to infer haplotypes. The second approach is to obtain haplotype sequences directly through experimentation. The advantages and disadvantages of each approach are discussed. I then discussed a specific example on how the direct approach was used to obtain haplotype information to address several fundamental biological questions of a pathogenic yeast. With increasing sophistication in both bioinformatics tools and high-throughput molecular techniques, haplotype analysis is becoming an integrated component in biomedical research. Full article
788 KiB  
Review
Perspectives in the Coordinate Regulation of Cell Cycle Events in Synechococcus
by Yukio Asato
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2006, 8(2), 91-96; https://doi.org/10.21775/cimb.008.091 - 1 Aug 2006
Viewed by 404
Abstract
The concepts of cell theory and the notions of coordinate regulation of the cell cycle have been known for centuries but the conundrum of coordinate regulation of the cell cycle remains to be resolved. The unique characteristics of the cell division cycle of [...] Read more.
The concepts of cell theory and the notions of coordinate regulation of the cell cycle have been known for centuries but the conundrum of coordinate regulation of the cell cycle remains to be resolved. The unique characteristics of the cell division cycle of Synechococcus, a photosynthetic bacterium, suggest the existence of a complex network of light/dark responsive gene regulatory factors that coordinate its cell cycle events. Evaluation of the highly ordered cell cycle of Synechococcus led to the construction of workable models that coordinate the cell cycle events. Full article
699 KiB  
Review
Fundamentals of Fungal Molecular Population Genetic Analyses
by Jianping Xu
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2006, 8(2), 75-90; https://doi.org/10.21775/cimb.008.075 - 1 Aug 2006
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 727
Abstract
The last two decades have seen tremendous growth in the development and application of molecular methods in the analyses of fungal species and populations. In this paper, I provide an overview of the molecular techniques and the basic analytical tools used to address [...] Read more.
The last two decades have seen tremendous growth in the development and application of molecular methods in the analyses of fungal species and populations. In this paper, I provide an overview of the molecular techniques and the basic analytical tools used to address various fundamental population and evolutionary genetic questions in fungi. With increasing availability and decreasing cost, DNA sequencing is becoming a mainstream data acquisition method in fungal evolutionary genetic studies. However, other methods, especially those based on the polymerase chain reaction, remain powerful in addressing specific questions for certain groups of taxa. These developments are bringing fungal population and evolutionary genetics into mainstream ecology and evolutionary biology. Full article
1181 KiB  
Review
The Dictyostelium Genome
by William F. Loomis
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2006, 8(2), 63-74; https://doi.org/10.21775/cimb.008.063 - 1 Aug 2006
Viewed by 570
Abstract
The 34 Mb genome of Dictyostelium discoideum is carried on 6 chromosomes and has been fully sequenced by an international consortium. The sequence was assembled on the classical and physical maps that had been built up over the years and refined by HAPPY [...] Read more.
The 34 Mb genome of Dictyostelium discoideum is carried on 6 chromosomes and has been fully sequenced by an international consortium. The sequence was assembled on the classical and physical maps that had been built up over the years and refined by HAPPY mapping. Annotation of the sequence predicted about 12,000 genes for proteins of at least 50 amino acids in length. The total number of amino acids encoded (the proteome) is more than double that in yeast and rivals that of metazoans. The genome sequence shows all the proteins available to Dictyostelium as well as definitively showing which domains have been lost since Dictyostelium diverged from the line leading to metazoans. Genomics opens the door to determining the expression patterns of all the genes during growth and development using microarrays. This approach has already uncovered a wealth of new markers for the stages of development and the various cell types. Transcription factors and their cis-regulatory sites that account for the surprising complexity of Dictyostelium development can be analyzed much more easily now that we have the complete sequence. Full article
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